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VOLUME  XXXIII,    1922 

PHILIP  P.  CALVERT,  PH.D.,  Editor 
E.  T.  CRESSON,   JR.,  Associate  Edito 

HENRY  SKINNER,  M.D.,  Sc.D.,   Editor  Emeritus 






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'•     3 — March  March  9 

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JANUARY,  1922 


Vol.  XXXIII  No.  1 


PHILIP  P.  CALVERT,   Ph.   D.,   Editor. 

E.  T.   CRESSON,  JR.,  Associate  Editor. 

HENRY   SKINNER,   M.D.,   Sc.D.,   Editor   Emeritus. 


EZRA  T.  CRESSON,  J.  A.  G.  REHN, 



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Plate  I. 








JANUARY,  1922 

No.   1 


Tillyard — New  Researches  upon  the 
Problem  of  the  Wing- Venation  of 
Odonata I 

Leathers— Chironomus  braseniae,  new 
Species  (Dip,,  Chironomidae) 8 

Barnes  and  Lindsey — New  Synonyms 
in  the  Noctuidae  (  Lep. )  .  9 

Alexander — An  Undescribed  Species  of 
Net- Winged  Midge  from  Argentina 
(  Blepharoceridae,  Diptera) 10 

Gaige — University  of  Michigan-Will- 
iamson Expedition  to  Brazil n 

Jones— A  new  North  American  Psy- 
chid(Lep.,  Psychidae) 12 

Lice  and  a  Horse  Fly  transmitting  Dis- 
ease ( Dip.,  Tabanidae) 12 

Williamson — Libellulas  Collected  in 
Florida  by  Jesse  H.  Williamson, 
with  Description  of  a  new  Species 
(Odonata ) 13 

Brimley — List  of  the  Tachinidae  (Dip- 
tera) of  North  Carolina 20 

Buthn — Some  Cases  of  Aberrant  Ovipo- 
sition  in  Butterflies  (  Lep  ) 26 

Editorial— The  Boundless  Field  of  En- 
tomology   29 

Entomological  Literature 30 

New  Researches  upon  the  Problem  of  the  Wing- 
Venation  of  Odonata. 

I.  A  Study  of  the  Tracheation  of  the  Larval  Wings  in  the   Genus 
Uropetala   from   New   Zealand 

By  R.  J.  TILLYARD,  M.A.,  Sc.D.  (Cantab.),  D.Sc.  (Sydney), 
F.L.S.,  F.E.S.,  Entomologist  and  Chief  of  the  Biological 
Department,  Cawthron  Institute,  Nelson,  New  Zealand. 

(With  Plate  I  and  three  text   figures) 

In  the  Suborder  Anisoptera  the  most  archaic  family  still 
existing  is  probably  the  Pctalnrldac,  containing  only  five  genera, 
having  a  discontinuous  palaeogenic  distribution.  These  are : 
Tachoptcry.\-  in  North  America,  Tan\ptcr\.\-  in  North  America 
and  Japan,  Plictics  in  South  America,  Uropetala  in  New  Zea- 
land, and  Pctalura  in  Australia.  They  are  all  dragonflies  ,of 
large  size;  the  greatest  number  of  species  in  any  one  genus  i- 
three  in  Pctalura;  Tan\ptcr\.\-  and  Uropetala  have  two  spear- 
each,  while  Tachoptcr\.\-  and  Phcncs  are  monotypic. 

The  family  is  characterized,  amongst  other  things,  by  the 
presence  of  two  oblique  -reins  lying  distad  from  the  nodus, 
between  .1/2  and  the  next  longitudinal  vein  bclmv  it.  This 


latter  vein  is  called  by  Needham  and  others  Rs.1  While 
accepting,  in  the  past,  this  terminology,  as  far  as  the  Anisoptera 
are  concerned,  I  have  pointed  out  that,  in  the  Suborder  Zygop- 
tera,  the  trachea  supplying  this  vein  is  a  branch  of  M,  and 
never  has  any  connection  with  R  at  all.  Hence  I  have  claimed 
that  the  corresponding  vein  in  the  Zygoptera  cannot  rightly  be 
called  Rs,  and  I  have  suggested  the  name  "Zygopterid  Sector" 
for  it,  with  the  notation  Ms.z 

The  full  account  of  Needham's  Theory  of  the  crossing  of 
Rs  over  two  branches  of  M,  viz.  Ml  and  M2,  is  by  now  so 
well  known  to  all  Odonatologists  that  I  shall  save  space  by  not 
recapitulating  it  here,  and  shall  only  refer  my  readers  to  Need- 
ham's  very  clear  account  of  it  (1).  The  chief  point  of  im- 
portance to  be  noted  is  the  claim  that  the  oblique  vein,  of  which 
there  is  only  one  present  in  most  Anisoptera,  represents  the 
original  position  of  crossing  of  Rs  below  M2,  while  all  that 
part  of  the  main  vein  lying  below  it  basad  from  the  oblique 
vein  is  a  new  formation,  not  represented  in  the  original  Odonate 
type,  and  designed  to  strengthen  the  wing  for  flight.  This  part 
is  called  by  Needham  the  bridge-vein.  In  the  larval  wing  the 
bridge-vein  is  formed  by  a  pigment-band  only,  without  any 
precedent  tracheation,  and  it  is  this  fact,  more  than  any  other, 
which  has  influenced  Needham  in  forming  his  conclusions. 

No  satisfactory  explanation  has  ever  been  offered  of  the 
condition  of  things  in  the  Petaluridac.  where  two  oblique  veins 
are  always  present.  For  many  years  I  have  endeavored  to  find 
suitable  stages  of  the  larvae  of  Petalura.  from  which  to  solve 
this  problem ;  but  the  search  has  been  unsuccessful,  owing  to 
the  draining  and  cutting  up  of  the  swamps  on  the  Blue  Moun- 
tains in  which  I  originally  found  this  larva. 

In  November,  1919,  I  visited  New  Zealand,  where  I  stayed 
five  months.  While  at  Wellington  at  the  beginning  of  De- 

1  Needham,  J.  G.  "A  genealogic  study  of  Dragonfly  Wing  Venation." 
Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  Washington,  No.  1331,  1903,  xxvi,  pp.  703-761, 
24  pi.  (See  especially  Figs.  1-2,  pp.  706-7,  and  710-714.) 

2Tillyard,  R.  J.  "On  the  Development  of  the  Wing- Venation  in 
Zygopterous  Dragonflies,  with  special  reference  to  the  Cahfterycfidae." 
Proc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S.  W.,  1915,  xl,  pt.  2,  pp.  212-230.  (See  p.  224  and 

xxxiii,  '22}  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  3 

cember,  Mr.  H.  Hamilton,  Zoologist,  Dominion  Museum, 
showed  me  a  live  specimen  of  the  larva  of  Uropctala  carovei 
White,  sent  in  by  Mr.  Wilson  of  Bull's.  This  larva  was  handed 
over  to  me  for  study,  and  I  dissected  it  and  studied  its  wing- 
tracheation  while  staying  at  Mr.  Hamilton's  home  at  Karori. 
For  his  kindness  and  assistance  in  this  matter  I  desire  to  thank- 
Mr.  Hamilton  very  much. 

In  January,  1920,  I  was  the  guest  of  Professor  and  Mrs. 
Chilton  at  Christchurch,  and  spent  three  days  visiting  the  Cass 
Biological  Station,  in  company  with  Professor  Chilton  and  Mr. 
Chas.  Lindsay,  of  the  Canterbury  Museum.  During  the  first 
day's  collecting,  we  located  a  large  number  of  larval  burrows 
of  Uropetala  in  a  small  mountain  swamp  about  two  miles  from 
the  Station.  The  species  to  which  these  larvae  belonged 
proved,  on  careful  study,  to  be  new,  and  has  been  described  by 
me  as  U.  chiltoni.  The  larva  is  not  so  fierce  as  that  of  U. 
carovei,  and  more  resembles  the  larva  of  Pctalura.  It  can  be 
easily  obtained  by  inserting  one's  fingers  into  the  burrows,  and 
working  down  to  a  depth  of  from  ten  to  eighteen  inches,  when 
the  larva  will  be  felt  as  a  hard  object  against  the  soft  walls  of 
the  tunnel,  and  can  easily  be  seized  and  drawn  out.  More  than 
fifty  of  the  larvae  of  U.  cJtiltoni  were  thus  obtained,  and  were 
brought  back  to  the  Station  alive  for  study. 

T  wish  here  to  thank  Professor  Chilton  for  his  great  kind- 
ness in  allowing  me  the  use  of  the  Cass  Biological  Station,  and 
in  placing  himself  at  my  disposal  during  my  short  but  fruitful 
visit  there,  and  Mr.  Lindsay  for  his  help  in  the  field. 

The  larvae,  when  examined,  proved  to  belong  to  the  last 
three  instars.  A  number  of  dissections,  of  both  fore  and  hind 
wings  were  made.  It  was  found  that  there  was  very  little 
difference  in  the  arrangement  of  the  tracheae  in  the  variou- 
instars,  and  the  results  also  agreed  entirely  with  those  obtained 
from  the  study  of  the  larva  of  U.  carovci,  from  Bull's,  which 
was  in  the  last  instar. 

Tn  Plate  I,  fig.  1,  I  have  shown  the  general  scheme  of 
tracheation  for  the  hind  wing  in  the.  penultimate  instar.  Points 
of  interest  to  be  noted  are  the  following:— 


(1)  The   presence   of   a  strong  basal   branch   of  Sc,   which    I   have 
labeled   Sc'.      This    would   seem    to   be    the   homologue   of    the    similar 
branch  found  in  Plectoptera,  from  which  the  strong  humeral  vein  oi  that 
Order  is  developed.     Probably  also  a  similar  trachea  originally  under- 
lay the  anterior  branch  of  Sc  in  the  fossil  Orders  Paratrichoptera  and 
Protomecoptera,  both  of  Triassic  age. 

(2)  The   anal   trachea,   which    is   clearly   the   homologue   of    \A    in 
those  insects  in  which  more  than  one  such  vein  is  present,  arises  well 
below  Cu,  converges  towards  it,  and  finally  touches  it.     It  then  bends 
away  at  the  anal  crossing,  reaching  again   the  level  of   the   anal  vein 
of   the   imago    (A'),    of   which   the   basal    portion   is    formed,   like    the 
bridge-vein,    by    a    pigment-band    only,    without    precedent   tracheation. 
The  main   stem  of  trachea  A   passes  on  distad  to   a  point  just  below 
the  downward  bend  of  Cul,  where  it  meets  for  a  short  distance  with 
a    very    weakly    formed    trachea    from    Cid,    and    then    bends    sharply 
away    from   it   again   towards  the   base   of   the   wing   posteriorly.     We 
have  been  in   the   habit   of   calling  this   weak  trachea   Cu2.     The    for- 
mation seen  in  Uropetala  strongly  suggests,  to  my  mind,  that  this  sup- 
posed trachea  Cn2  is  in  reality  not  the  original  Cu2  at  all,  but  a  new 
tracheal   formation,    which    has    succeeded    in    cutting    off    the    distal 
portion  of   \A,  leaving  only  the  turned  back  portions  still  attached  to 
the  anal  trachea      If  this   is  the  true  interpretation  of  these  parts,   it 
would    follow   that   Cu    in   the   Odonata    must   have   been    originally   a 
simple  trachea  and  vein.      I   shall   show,   in   a   later   part   of  these   re- 
searches,  that   Cu  was   such   a   vein   in   the    Protodonata,   and   that   all 
stages  in  the   capture  of  the  distal   portion   of    \A   by  a  new  branch 
descending  from  Cu  are  to  be  seen  in  the  record  of  the  Liassic  Odonata. 

Plate  I,  fig.  2,  shows  the  base  of  the  hind  wing   enlarged,  to  illus- 
trate the  characters  described  under   (1)   and   (2)   more  forcibly. 

(3)  Turning  next  to  the  very  important  problem  of  the  Radial  and 
Zygopterid  Sectors,  Plate  I,  fig.  3,  shows,  greatly  enlarged,  the  con-' 
dition  of  the  tracheation  of  Uropetala  in  the  region  of  the  two  oblique 
veins  for  the  antepenultimate  instar,  which  was  the  earliest  stage 
obtainable  at  Cass  in  January.  The  oblique  vein  O,  it  will  be  seen, 
is  preceded  by  a  very  weak  tracheal  formation  arising  from  R  below 
the  nodus,  crossing  Ml  and  J\12  just  distad  of  their  origin  from 
Ml +2,  and  continuing  beyond  O,  for  only  a  moderate  distance,  alona' 
the  line  of  the  imaginal  vein  called  by  Needham  Rs.  It  is  clearly  this 
formation  which  corresponds  with  the  single  oblique  vein  of  other 
Anisoptera.  Basad  from  O,  the  line  of  Rs  is  continued  backwards  by  a 
pigment  band  only,  without  any  tracheation.  This  band  is  connected 
more  strongly  with  M3  than  with  Ml +2,  its  connection  with  the  latter 
appearing  to  be  more  in  the  nature  of  a  cross-vein  at  this  stage.  It  is 
this  band  which  forms  the  bridge-vein  of  the  Anisoptera  in  the  imag- 
inal stage. 

Well  beyond  O,  there  is  a  second  oblique  O'.    From  Plate  I,  fig.  3,  it 
will  be  seen  that  this  is  preceded,  in  the  larval  tracheation,  by  a  very 

•  •  •     joo  n 

xxxin,  22] 


strong  branch  descending  from  .1/2,  and  then  continuing  the  line  of  Rs 
distad.  If  we  compare  this  formation  with  that  found  in  the  larvae  of 
the  Zygopterid  family  Lcstidae,  we  shall  see  plainly  enough  that  O'  is 
the  homologue  of  the  oblique  trachea  in  that  family,  and  that  the  lonti 
bridge  of  the  Lcstidae  is  not  the  homologue  of  the  bridge  of  Anisoptera, 
but  comprises  all  that  part  lying  basad  from  O',  along  the  line  of  the 
so-called  Rs.  To  the  trachea  which  arises  from  M  to  form  O'  I  have 
already  given  the  notation  Ms,  as  well  as  to  the  vein  that  forms  along 
it  in  the  imago,  so  that  we  may  now  continue  to  apply  this  notation  in 
the  case  of  Uropctala. 

Text  fig.  i.—Uropelala  chiltoni  Till.,  antepenultimate  instar,  forewing,  region  of 
distal  oblique  vein,  more  highly  magnified,     (x  104.) 

In  text-fig.  1  I  have  shown,  very  greatly  enlarged,  the  condition  of 
the  tracheation  at  the  antepenultimate  instar  in  the  region  of  the  origin 
of  Ms.  The  difference  in  calibre  between  Ms  and  Rs  is  exceedingly 
marked.  In  the  penultimate  instar  the  calibre  of  Rs  increases,  while  in  the 
last  instar  the  calibres  of  Rs  and  Ms  are  approximately  the  same, 
though  Ms  is  usually  still  slightly  the  larger.  In  no  case  does  Rs  pro- 
ceed beyond  the  position  of  the  first  descending  cross-vein  after  O'  ; 
all  the  rest  of  the  so-called  Rs  of  Needham,  together  with  the  descend- 
ing cross-veins  and  that  portion  of  the  radial  supplement  which  carries 
tracheae  is  supplied  entirely  from  trachea 

We  thus  see  that  in  Uropctala  larvae,  the  single  longitudinal 
imaginal  vein  Rs  of  Xeedham  is  formed  from  three  distinct 
parts  as  follows  :— 

(a)  A   basal   portion,   arising   from   M3   near   its   origin,   having  no 
precedent  tracheation,  and  representing  the  bridge-rein  of  Needham  in 
the  Anisoptera. 

(b)  A  middle  portion,  lying  between   O  and  O',  which  is   preceded 
by  a  trachea  arising  from  R  below  the  nodus,  crossing  Ml   and  M2, 
running  along  O,  underlying  Rs  between  O  and  O',  then  touching  .U.v 
and  finally  turning  off  to  supply  the  first  cross-vein  beyond  O'.     This 
portion  plus    (a)    represents  the  Ion;/  bridyc  in  the  Lcstidae. 

6  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Jan.,  '22 

(c)  A  distal  portion,  from  O'  onward,  supplied  by  a  true  branch 
of  M,  viz.,  Ms,  whose  basal  piece  underlies  O'.  This  portion  is  about 
as  long,  in  Uropetala,  as  the  other  two  portions  combined. 

Having  completed  this  somewhat  complicated  analysis  of  the 
tracheation  of  this  region,  we  may  now  proceed  to  solve  the 
vexed  question  of  the  true  homologies  of  the  parts  in  question. 
Are  we  dealing  with  a  single  longitudinal  vein  of  complex 
origin,  whose  evolution  is  to  be  traced  out  by  reference  to  the 
courses  of  the  larval  tracheae  underlying  it ;  or  are  we  not 
rather  dealing  with  a  single  primitive  longitudinal  vein,  whose 
larval  tracheal  supply  has  become  more  and  more  specialized 
during  the  evolution  of  the  Odonata?  If  the  former,  then  we 
cannot  hope  to  find  any  simple  notation  which  would  correctly 
express  the  true  structure  of  this  vein.  If  the  latter,  we  can 
ignore  the  tracheal  specializations,  and  name  the  vein  accord- 
ing to  its  true  position  as  a  simple  longitudinal  vein. 

This  problem  is  really  quite  easy  of  solution.  For,  if  the 
\eia  called  by  Needham  R s  is  really  complex,  then  we  may  ex- 
pect to  find,  in  the  fossil  record,  some  types  at  least  in  which  the 
formation  of  the  bridge-vein  is  not  completed.  But  a  careful 
study  of  the  fossils  shows  that,  both  in  the  Protodonata  and  in 
all  the  Liassic  Odonata,  this  supposed  Rs  is  a  single  complete 
vein,  which  arises  from  'M3  near  its  origin,  and  runs  parallel 
to  and  below  M2,  without  any  connection  whatever  with  R. 
In  Typus  and  some  Liassic  fossils,  such  as  Hctcrophlcbia,  an 
oblique  vein  is  present  in  the  position  of  0' ,  thus  showing  a 
tracheational  connection  with  M2.  But,  in  all  the  rest  of  the 
Protodonata,  and  in  most  of  the  Liassic  Odonata,  even  this  is 
absent,  and  we  find  the  same  simple  condition  that  is  still  to  be 
seen  in  all  the  Zygoptera  except  the  Lestidae,  viz.,  that  the 
supposed  Rs  of  Needham  is  in  reality  a  true  branch  of  M, 
with  no  oblique  veins  above,  and  with  absolutely  no  connec- 
tion with  R.  This  is,  then,  surely  the  primitive  condition  of 
this  vein  in  the  Odonata;  and  the  specializations  which  have 
set  in  during  the  evolution  of  the  Order  are  surely  trache- 
ational specializations  only,  which  do  not  demonstrate  to  us 
the  course  of  evolution  of  the  vein,  but  rather  serve  to  mask 
its  simple  origin,  by  the  complexity  of  the  changes  that  have 
taken  place  in  the  tracheal  supply. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  7 

While   admitting   that,   in   most   cases,   the  precedent  larval 
tracheation  may  be  profitably  studied  for  the  purpose  of  deter- 
mining the  homologies  of  the  imaginal  veins,  it  should  be  evi- 
dent to  everybody  that  larval  wing-tracheation  may  be  just  as 
much  subject  to  change,  along  its  own  evolutionary  line,  as  is 
the  imaginal   wing-venation,   or  any   other  structure.      In   his 
work  on  the  Odonata,  Needham  seems  to  have  worked  along 
the  lines  of  assuming  that,  in  all  cases,  the  tracheation  was  to 
be  relied  upon  to  show  absolutely  the  line  of  evolution  of  the 
venation.     It  is  another  instance  of  an  attempt,  of  which  there 
have  been  many,  to  apply  Haeckel's  Biogenetic    Law    in    its 
entirety,  without  taking  into  account  the  possibility  of  larval 
structures,  such  as  the  wing-tracheation,  undergoing  lines  of 
evolution  of  their  own,  so  that  they,  in  certain  cases,  may  be- 
come   far    more    highly    specialized    than    the    corresponding 
imaginal  structures.    It  is  certainly  possible  to  prove,  from  the 
fossil  record,  that  Needham's  supposed  bridge-vein  was  never 
formed    backwards    as  a    bridge-vein,    but    was    always    the 
basal     portion     of     a     strongly     formed     main     longitudinal 
vein    arising    from    M3    (or    sometimes   Ml +2,     as    in    most 
recent    forms)    close    to    the    point    of    separation    of    these 
veins.      This     proof     I     propose     to     give     in    another    part 
of    these    researches,    which    will    deal    entirely    with    fossil 
forms.      Meanwhile,     for     the     further     elucidation     of     the 
problem,  I  now  propose  to  denote  this  entire  vein  by  the  nota- 
tion Ms,  as  I  have  previously  done  for  the  Zygoptera.     Logi- 
cally, if  we  admit  five  branches  of  M,  they  should  be  called 
Ml,  M2,  M3,  M4  and  M5,  respectively,  instead  of  Ml,  M2, 
Ms,  M3  and  M4,  as  at  present ;  this  I  have  already  pointed  out 
in    a   previous   paper.3      But,   as   a   matter   of    fact,    we   have 
not  come  down  to  the  true  solution  of  the  whole  problem  yet, 
and  so  I  propose  to  let  the  notation  Ms  stand,  seeing  that  it 
is  at  any  rate  now  proved  that  this  vein  was  originally  a  true 

branch    of   M.  (To  be  continued) 

Fig.   1.     Uropctala  chiltoni  Till.,   penultimate  larval   instar,  tracheation 

of  hindwing.     (x  13.) 
Fig.  2.     Uropctala  chiltoni  Till.,   penultimate  larval   instar,  basal   third 

of  hindwing  more  highly  magnified,  to  show  tracheation.     (x  45.) 
Fig.    3.       Uropctala    chiltoni    Till.,    antepenultimate    instar,     forewing, 

region  of  nodus  and  oblique  veins,     (x  38.) 

3Tillyard,  R.  J.  "The  Panorpoid  Complex.  Part  3:  The  \Vin«- 
Venation."  Proc.  I.inn.  Soc.  N.  S.  W.,  1919,  xliv,  pt.  3.  pp.  533-718. 
(See  pp.  555-9  and  text-fig.  41.) 


Chironomus  braseniae,  New  Species  (Dip., 

By  ADELBERT  L.   LEATHERS,  Agricultural  College, 
North  Dakota. 

Chironomus  braseniae  h.  sp. 

$'.  Head,  proboscis,  palpi  and  basal  joint  of  antennae  yellow,  eyes 
black,  antennal  shaft  and  verticils  brown.  Antennae  with  14  joints, 
the  terminal  joint  two-thirds  as  long  as  the  rest  of  the  antenna. 

Pronotum  projecting  laterally  but  not  reaching  the  level  of  the  meso- 
notum  dorsally.  Mesonotum  greenish  yellow,  translucent  and  some- 
what pruinose;  vittae  of  a  light  buff  color.  Scutellum  and  halteres 
yellow ;  metanotum  and  sternopleura  buff  color.  Wings  white,  longi- 
tudinal veins  and  cross  veins  not  infuscated.  Cubitus  forking  distinctly 
beyond  the  cross  vein  ;  the  third  and  fourth  longitudinal  veins  ending 
about  equally  distant  from  the  apex  of  the  wing.  Legs  whitish,  fore 
tarsus  not  bearded,  middle  and  hind  tarsi  densly  bearded  for  their  entire 
length.  Tibial  comb  darkened  on  all  legs ;  basal  segment  of  fore  tarsi 
more  than  one-half  longer  than  the  tibia,  proportions  as  47  :30.  Pulvilli 
well  developed,  empodium  narrow. 

Abdomen  light  green  densely  clothed  with  long  yellow  hairs.  Seg- 
ments without  distinct  fasciae. 

9  .  Antennae  yellow,  apical  joint  slightly  infuscated.  Posterior 
margins  of  the  abdominal  segments  with  a  narrow  whitish  fascia. 
Otherwise  like  the  male.  Length  3.5  to  4  mm. 

The  type  specimen  is  a  male  which  was  bred  from  a  larva 
inhabiting  the  leaves  of  Brasenia  pcltata.  The  specimen  was 
obtained  from  Spencer  Lake  near  the  village  of  North  Spencer, 
New  York,  in  July,  1915,  and  may  be  found  in  the  collection 
of  the  NewT  York  State  College  of  Agriculture,  Ithaca,  New- 
York.  The  publication  of  this  species  at  this  time  is  due  to  the 
recommendation  of  Prof.  O.  A.  Johannsen,  under  whom  I  did 
my  minor  work  while  at  Cornell,  1915-1916. 

The  larva  has  the  unique  habit  of  cutting  grooves  in  the 
foliage  of  a  variety  of  aquatic  plants,  which  have  floating 
leaves.  The  specific  name  is  the  same  as  the  generic  name  of 
the  plant  which  the  female  seemed  to  favor.  A  more  complete 
discussion  of  the  ecology  of  this  species  will  be  found  in  a 
paper  now  in  the  hands  of  the  Bureau  of  Fisheries,  which 
should  soon  be  available  to  the  public,  under  the  title  of  "An 
Ecological  Study  of  the  Chironomidae  with  Special  Reference 
to  Their  Feeding  Habit s." 

xxxiii,  '22]  K.vrnMni.ocic.u.  .\ic\vs  9 

New  Synonyms  in  the  Noctuidae  (Lep.). 

By  W.M.  BARNES,  M.D.,  and  A.  W.  LINDSEV,  PH.D., 
Decatur,  Illinois. 

The  recent  appearance  in  the  Insccutor  Inscitiac  Mcnstruns 
of  two  articles  by  Dr.  H.  G.  Dyar,  describing  new  species  of 
Lepidoptera,  has  led  us  to  make  a  careful  examination  of  our 
series  standing  as  Calophasia  strigata  Smith  and  Ccrapoda 
oblita  Grote.  We  find  that  strigata  has  the  front  tarsi  armed 
with  curved,  claw-like  spines,  though  they  are  relatively  a  little 
smaller  than  those  found  in  oblita.  The  species  should  there- 
fore be  removed  to  Ccrapoda.  We  believe  that  Calophasia 
will  drop  from  the  North  American  fauna. 

We  regret  to  say  that  we  must  disagree  with  the  synonymy 
proposed  by  Dr.  Dyar  for  these  species  (Ins.  Ins.  Menst.  ix, 
63).  The  type  of  oblita  is  in  the  British  Museum,  and  was 
figured  by  Sir  George  F.  Hampson  (Cat.  Lep.  Phal.  B.  M. 
vi,  181).  Dr.  McDunnough  examined  the  type  in  person  some 
years  ago,  and  we  have  in  our  possession  a  specimen  compared 
by  him.  This  specimen  was  figured  in  the  Contributions  vol.  ii, 
no.  1,  pi.  v,  fig.  4.  Our  identification  of  strigata  is  also  based 
on  a  specimen  compared  with  the  type,  which  is  in  the  National 

While  the  marks  of  strigata  and  oblita  are  similar,  the  for- 
mer species  is  smaller,  its  primaries  darker  and  more  evenly 
gray,  and  the  reniform  entirely  lacks  the  heavy  white  mark 
which  characterizes  oblita.  The  fact  that  Dr.  Dyar  has  access 
to  the  type  of  strigata  leads  us  to  believe  that  it  is  this  grav 
species  which  he  treats  as  oblita-strigata.  His  description  of 
arrosta  bears  this  out,  for  this  description,  as  well  as  fig.  17, 
pi.  xx  of  Holland's  Moth  Book,  comes  well  within  the  range 
of  variation  exhibited  by  our  series  of  oblita.  It  seems  that 
these  species  should  stand  as  follows : 

Genus  CERAPODA  Smith. 

1.  OBLITA  Grote.     1877,  Bull.  Geog.  Surv.  Terr.  Hi.   117.     Oncoaianis. 

1906,  Hampson,  Cat.  Lep.  Phal.  B.  M.  vi,  I  SI.     Ccrapoda. 

1913,  Barnes  &  McDunnough,  Cont.  Nat.  Hist.  I.q  .  X.  A.  ii  (i),  12. 
pi.  v,  figs.  3,  4.  Ccrapoda  (Oncocncinis} . 

*stritjata  Holland  (not  Smith).  1903,  Moth  Book  170,  pi.  xx,  fig.  17. 

10  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Jan.,  '22 

dcscrta  Grinnell.     1912,  Bull.   S.  Cal.  Acad.  Sci.  xi,  79.     Autographa. 

arrosta  Dyar.     1921,  Ins.  Ins.  Menst.  ix,  63.     Cerapoda. 

2.  STRIGATA    Smith.      1891,    Trans.    Am.    Ent.    Soc.    xviii,    107.      Calo- 

1906,  Hampson,  Cat.  Lep.  Phal.  B.  M.  vi,  125.  JCalufhasia. 

1917,  Barnes  &  McDunnough,  Check  List  No.  2012,  p.  56.    Calophasia. 

^oblita  Dyar   (not  Grote).     1921,  Ins.  Ins.   Menst.  ix,  63.     Ccrapoda. 

Another  synonym  appears  in  Dr.  Dyar's  Schinia  mclliftua, 
This  name  applies  to  Schinia  nivcicosta  Smith.  Niveicosta  was 
described  from  a  single  female,  rather  duller  than  most  exam- 
ples, which  is  in  our  possession.  We  have  also  a  small  series 
from  Palm  Springs,  California,  the  type  locality  of  melliftua. 
The  species  is  very  variable,  but  is  unlike  any  other  known  to 
us  and  is  very  well  characterized  by  Dyar's  description  of 

An  Undescribed  Species  of  Net-winged  Midge  from 
Argentina  (Blepharoceridae,  Diptera.) 

By  CHARLES  P.  ALEXANDER,  Urbana,  Illinois. 
In  1920  (Arkiv  for  Zoologi,  Band  13,  No.  7,  pp.  1-4),  the 
writer  described  a  new  genus  and  species  of  net- winged  midge, 
Edwardsina  chilcnsis,  from  southern  Chile.  As  indicated  in 
the  original  description,  the  fly  exhibits  some  very  unusual 
venational  features.  The  discovery  of  a  second  species  of  this 
primitive  genus  of  Blepharoceridae  is  of  more  than  visual  inter- 
est. The  two  specimens  upon  which  the  following  description 
is  based  were  collected  by  Dr.  Carette  along  the  Rio  Diamante 
in  southern  Mendoza,  Argentina,  and  kindly  sent  to  me  for 
determination  by  my  friend,  Dr.  Charles  Bruch,  to  whom  1 
am  indebted  for  many  kind  favors.  The  type  is  in  the  Museum 
of  La  Plata,  the  allotype  in  the  writer's  collection.  Both  of 
these  types  appear  somewhat  teneral  and  the  wings  are  badly 

Edwardsina  argentinensis,  new  species. 

$.  Length  about  8  mm.;  wing  11  mm.  $  .  Length  about  8.5  mm.; 
wing  14  mm.  The  bodies  of  both  specimens  are  rather  shrunken,  so  a 
better  idea  of  the  size  is  conveyed  by  the  wing  measurements. 

Mouth  parts  and  palpi  light  yellowish  brown.  Antennae  with  the 
scapal  segments  and  the  base  of  the  first  flagellar  segment  obscure 
brownish  orange ;  remainder  of  the  flagellum  dark  brown ;  flagellar 
segments  nearly  globular.  Front  cream-colored ;  vertex  dark  brown. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  11 

Mesonotal  praescutum  silvery  gray  with  three  conspicuous  black 
stripes,  the  broad  median  stripe  divided  by  a  slight  carina;  scutal  lobes 
black,  the  median  area  pminose ;  scutellum  black,  more  pruinose 
basally.  Pleura  light  gray.  Halteres  dark  brown,  the  base  of  the  stem 
obscure  orange.  Legs  with  the  coxae  and  trochanters  obscure  yellow  ; 
remainder  of  the  legs  brownish  testaceous,  the  terminal  tarsal  segments 

Wings  grayish  subhyaline;  veins  dark  brown;  wings  very  large  and 
ample  for  the  size  of  the  insect ;  anal  angle  very  conspicuous.  Vena- 
tion:  Rl  thick  with  numerous  short  macrotrichiae ;  the  section  of  Rs 
interpreted  as  being  a  spur  in  E.  chilcnsis  is  here  so  long  and  of  such 
a  course  that  it  appears  to  be  the  true  base  of  the  sector,  although  the 
extreme  basal  connection  is  atrophied ;  the  vein  that  was  interpreted 
as  the  base  of  the  sector  in  E.  chilcnsis  would  thus  appear  to  be  a 
crossvein,  presumably  r;  R2+3  short,  about  as  long  as  r-tn  ; 
R4+5  parallel  with  R3  basally  but  soon  diverging,  ending  immedi- 
ately behind  the  wing-apex  which  is  very  obtuse ;  r-r,i  opposite  the  fork 
of  M  ;  no  decided  curvature  on  Ml  to  indicate  the  position  occupied  by 
the  atrophied  M2. 

Abdomen   dark  brown,  the   pleural  membrane  more  grayish. 

Habitat. — Argentina.  Holotype,  $  ,  Rio  Diamante,  south- 
ern Mendoza,  January,  1921  (Dr.  Carette).  Allotopotype,  $. 

Edwardsina  argcntincnsis  differs  from  the  genotype,  E. 
chilcnsis,  in  its  larger  size,  dark  coloration  of  the  body,  the 
slightly  different  wing-venation  and  the  more  conspicuous  anal 
angle  of  the  wing. 

University  of  Michigan- Williamson  Expedition  to  Brazil 

A  zoological  expedition  to  the  interior  of  Brazil  has  been  organized 
at  the  Museum  of  Zoology,  University  of  Michigan,  through  the  inter- 
est and  support  of  Mr.  E.  B.  Williamson,  Honorary  Curator  of  Odo- 
nata.  It  is  to  be  known  as  the  University  of  Michigan-Will  amson 
Expedition.  The  members  of  the  expedition  are  Mr.  Jesse  H.  William- 
son and  Capt.  John  Strohm,  U.  S.  A.  Both  men  have  had  .wide  experi- 
ence in  the  tropics,  and  are  outfitted  in  a  most  excellent  manner  for  the 
prosecution  of  their  work.  They  will  leave  New  York  on  December 
15,  1921,  and  will  be  in  the  field  for  about  eight  months  according  to 
their  present  plans.  If  particularly  favorable  conditions  are  encoun- 
tered, a  longer  time  may  be  spent  in  their  explorations. 

The  region  to  be  investigated  is  that  of  the  Sierra  de  Parecis  and  the 
country  westward  toward  the  Bolivian  frontier.  The  party  will  pro- 
ceed directly  to  Manaos  and  then  to  Pt.  Velho,  which  town  will  prob- 
ably be  their  general  headquarters  for  their  explorations  to  the  south 
and  west. 

The  Odonata  will  receive  the  most  detailed  study,  other  groups  to  lie 
collected  are  the  Formicidae,  Orthoptcra,  I.epidoptera,  Diptera  and 
Arachnida,  and  in  addition  to  the  Arthropoda  mentioned  much  atten- 
tion will  be  given  to  the  reptiles,  amphibians  and  shells. — FREDERICK 
M.  GAIGE,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan. 

12  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Jan.,  '22 

A  New  North  American  Psychid  (Lep.,  Psychidae.) 

By  FRANK  MORTON  JONES,  Wilmington,  Delaware. 

Oiketicus  toumeyi  n.  sp. 

$ . — Head,  thorax  and  abdomen  including  the  legs,  tawny  yellowish 
brown,  hairy,  the  eyes  black.  The  antenna  with  about  36  joints,  brown, 
basally  broadly  bipectinate,  the  branches  narrowing  abruptly  about 
three-fifths  the  length  of  the  shaft  from  the  base.  The  anterior  tibia 
bears  a  slender,  flattened,  strap-like  appendage,  one-half  as  long  as  the 
tibia.  The  abdomen  is  long  and  slender,  exceeding  the  wings  by  the 
width  of  the  secondaries. 

The  wing  veins  are  yellowish  brown ;  the  wings  are  glassy,  as  in 
ephemerae formis,  and  are  only  very  sparsely  speckled  with  a  few  dark 
scales,  which  are  more  dense  along  the  costa  of  the  secondaries;  the 
anal  area  of  the  secondaries  is  semi-opaque  with  brown  hairs.  The 
primaries  are  narrow  and  moderately  acute,  the  costa  almost  straight, 
the  outer  margin  oblique;  the  costa  of  secondaries  is  arched,  the  apical 
angle  acute,  the  outer  margin  almost  straight  to  the  second  cubital  vein, 
below  which  the  anal  area  is  somewhat  produced  and  the  margin 
rounded.  The  primaries  usually  have  12  veins,  the  secondaries  8,  with 
M2  and  M3  (5  and  4)  of  both  wings  stalked  to  the  cell;  but  M2  (5) 
is  occasionally  obsolete  or  partially  so.  The  anal  veins  of  primaries 
are  as  in  abboti  Grt.  Wing  expanse,  28  to  52  mm. 

Type  locality,  Tucson,  Arizona.  Described  from  numerous 
bred  specimens ;  the  type  is  in  the  collection  of  the  author, 
and  paratype  material  will  be  distributed. 

This  is  almost  certainly  the  insect  mentioned  by  Dr.  J.  W. 
Tourney  (Bull.  9,  Ariz.  Ag.  Exp.  Sta.,  1893)  as  "Thyridop- 
tery.v  sp.,"  abundant  on  locust  trees  in  the  vicinity  of  Tucson ; 
the  general  resemblance  of  its  larval  case  to  that  of  townsendi 
Ckll.  has  probably  prevented  its  earlier  recognition  as  distinct, 
though  the  moths  of  toumeyi  and  tozvnsendi  are  very  unlike. 

Lice  and  a   Horsefly  Transmitting   Disease    (Dip.,  Tabanidae). 

The  United  States  Public  Health  Service  announces  that  the  re- 
searches of  Doctors  Edward  Francis,  Bruce  Mayne  and  G.  C.  Lake 
show  that  the  rodent  disease,  tularaemia,  due  to  Bacterium  tularensc 
in  the  blood,  which  is  very  fatal  to  jack  rabbits  in  Utah,  is  transmitted 
from  rabbit  to  rabbit  by  their  lice  and  from  rabbits  to  man  by  the 
blood-sucking  horsefly,  Chrysops  discalis. 

Tularaemia  is  seldom  fatal  to  man,  only  one  death  due  to  it  being 
known.  It  is  a  septic  fever,  occurring  in  Utah,  lasting  3-6  weeks, 
with  slow  convalescence.  Its  economic  consequences,  therefore,  may 
be  serious  when  it  attacks  farmers  and  lays  them  up  in  midsummer 
and  in  harvest  seasons. 

xxxiii.  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  XK\VS  13 

Libellulas  Collected  in  Florida  by  Jesse  H.  William- 
son, with  Description  of  a  new 
Species  (Odonata). 

By  E.  B.  WILLIAMSON,  Bluffton,  Indiana. 
Mr.  Jesse  H.  Williamson  collected  dragonflies  in  Florida 
from  March  1  to  April  26,  1921.  Localities  visited  and  dates 
are  as  follows :  Sebring,  March  1 ;  Fort  Myers,  March  3-/ 
and  10-19;  Taxambas,  Marco  Island,  March  8;  Labelle,  March 
21-27;  Moore  Haven,  March  29-30  and  April  2;  Palmdale, 
March  31  and  April  3-8;  enroute  Moore  Haven  to  West 
Palm  Beach,  across  Lake  Okeechobee,  April  9;  Miami,  April 
12;  Enterprise,  April  15-26.  From  April  29  to  May  9  he 
collected  at  Kathwood,  Aikcn  County,  South  Carolina,  but  on 
these  dates  most  of  the  species  observed  were  just  emerging. 
Among  the  4547  specimens  collected,  representing  65  species, 
are  several  new  and  many  interesting  things,  the  most  remark- 
able and  surprising  of  which  is  the  fine  Libellnla  described 
below.  This  Florida  collection  has  been  studied  and  arranged 
by  J.  H.  W.  and  duplicates  are  being  distributed  to  students 
and  institutions. 

Libellula  jesseana  new  species. 

Abdomen:  $,  38-40;  $,35;  hind  wing,  ^  ,  41-43;  9 ,  43 ;  stigma, 
front  wing,  6-6.8  mm. 

$  . — Labium  brown  with  a  slight  greenish  cast ;  genae  and  mandibles 
similar,  the  latter  more  yellowish;  labrum  black;  anteclypeus  greenish 
brown;  postclypeus,  frons,  antennae  and  frontal  vesicle  black,  the  latter 
nearly  squarely  truncate,  the  externoapical  points  shining ;  occiput 
black;  rear  of  head  brown  with  greenish  or  yellowish  tinges  and  witli 
a  more  or  less  distinct  paler  spot  against  the  eye  at  midheight  and 
another  larger  one  below  this. 

Dorsum  of  prothorax  and  thorax  black  pruinose ;  mesepimeron  and 
metepisternum  similar  but  paler,  more  or  less  shaded,  especially  about 
the  humeral  and  second  lateral  sutures,  with  greenish  or  yellowish 
brown ;  the  metepimeron  and  thorax  beneath  this  paler  color. 

Abdomen  slender;  above  the  lateral  carina  black ,  below  the  lateral 
carina  brown  to  black  with  a  greenish  or  yellowish  cast  and  a  more  or 
less  distinct  yellowish  area  on  either  side  posterior  to  the  posterior 
transverse  carina  on  each  of  segments  2-8;  sterna  brown  to  black; 
appendages  brown  to  black. 

Vc-ntro-external    fact-    of    the    genital    liamulc    roughly    triangular    in 

14  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Jan.,  '22 

shape,  the  posterior  edge  nearly  at  right  angles  to  the  abdomen,  the  antero- 
dorsal  edge  relatively  long,  longer  than  in  awipennis,  so  that  the  face 
of  the  hamule  is  relatively  broader  in  icsseana.  In  inccsta  the  anterior 
angle  is  obliterated  in  a  curve  joining  the  antero-ventral  and  the  antero- 
dorsal  edges,  and  the  face  is  relatively  slender  as  in  iiuripennis. 

In  a  younger  male  the  labium,  genae  and  mandibles  are  pale  dull 
yellow,  the  postclypeus  shades  out  to  dark  greenish  adjacent  to  the 
eyes,  and  there  is  a  green  spot  on  the  frons,  against  the  eye,  just  above 
this.  The  dorsum  of  the  thorax  is  brown  with  a  purplish  cast ;  the 
sides  of  the  thorax  are  largely  pale  yellow  with  the  posterior  two- 
thirds  of  the  mesepimeron  and  the  upper  part  of  the  metepisternum 
darker,  thus  defining  two  more  or  less  distinct  pale  stripes,  one  just 
posterior  to  the  humeral  and  the  other  just  posterior  to  the  second 
lateral  suture.  Dorsum  of  abdomen  similarly  paler,  3-6  slightly  lighter 
in  color  and  yellowish  adjacent  to  the  lateral  carina :  7-9  with  a  longi- 
tudinal dorsal  black  stripe  occupying  about  one-third  the  area  on  each 
side  between  the  middorsal  line  and  the  lateral  carina  (probably  in 
younger  individuals  this  dorsal  black  stripe  is  defined  on  more  basal  seg- 
ments) ;  10  and  appendages  yellowish  brown;  abdomen  beneath,  between 
the  lateral  and  ventral  carinae,  pale  greenish  or  yellowish  on  2  and  3, 
shading  darker  to  greenish  or  yellowish  brown  on  the  segments  poste- 
rior to  3,  a  more  or  less  distinctly  darker  subapical  area  on  either  side 
of  each  segment;  sterna  at  base  of  3  and  on  9  and  10  yellowish,  other- 
wise dark  to  black. 

Coxae  pale  yellowish  to  pruinose  brown  ;  legs  brown  to  nearly  black ; 
femora  paler  at  base  and  with  the  dorso-posterior  surface  pale  yellowish 
to  brown,  darker  apically. 

Wings  basally,  posterior  to  A  and  proximal  to  the  distal  angle  of  the 
triangles,  hyaline ;  remainder  of  wing  reddish  yellow,  sometimes  slightly 
more  intense  in  the  area  between  nodus  and  stigma,  the  extreme  apex 
very  narrowly  and  inconspicuously  dusky  tipped ,  the  basal  spaces 
anterior  to  A  are  not  as  deeply  tinged  as  the  apical  portion  of  the  wing. 
Venation  basal  to  about  the  level  of  the  triangles  dark  to  black;  distal 
to  this  point  all  the  veins  are  reddish  yellow  excepting  the  veins  on  the 
anterior  and  posterior  sides  of  the  stigma  and  the  posterior  wing  margin, 
which  are  black;  stigma  dragon's  blood  red  (Ridgway).  For  venational 
characters  see  following  the  description  of  the  female  wings. 

9  . — Labium  pale  dull  yellowish  brown ;  genae  and  mandibles  green- 
ish ;  labrum  yellow  with  a  large  median  basal  rounded  black  spot  which 
is  joined  basally  on  either  side  with  a  more  or  less  extensive  lateral 
spot  which  reaches  and  extends  more  or  less  along  the  anterior  margin 
but  does  not  attain  the  lateral  margin  above;  anteclypeus  greenish 
brown ;  postclypeus  and  frons  brown  to  nearly  black,  each  on  either 
side  in  front,-  against  the  eye,  with  a  greenish  or  bluish  spot;  occiput 
brown;  rear  of  head  brown,  similar  to  that  of  the  male. 

Thorax  as  in  the  younger  males,  the  sides  more  uniformly  yellowish, 

xxxiii.  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  15 

the  darker  posterior  areas  on  the  mesepimeron  and  on  the  metepimeron 
and  on  the  upper  part  of  the  metepisternum  only  slightly  or  not  at  all 
evident,  so  the  pale  stripe  posterior  to  the  humeral  and  to  the  second 
lateral  suture  are  not  as  well  marked  as  in  the  male  or  are  wanting 
altogether,  disappearing  in  the  prevailing  pale  color  of  the  sides. 

Abdomen  similar  to  younger  males ;  the  dorsal  longitudinal  black 
stripe  described  on  7-9  is  faintly  discernible  as  a  daiker  stripe  on  2-9 
in  the  female;  8  perfoliate. 

Wings  hyaline,  more  or  less  yellowish  tinged  in  the  basal  spaces 
anterior  to  A,  and  along  the  costal  border,  especially  distal  to  the  nodus 
and  anterior  to  R;  apex  to  level  of  stigma  dusky,  the  inner  edge  dif- 
fuse; costa  yellow  except  at  base,  clearest  and  brightest  between  nodus 
and  proximal  end  of  stigma,  distal  to  which  point  it  is  black;  nodus 
and  subnodus  more  or  less  yellow ;  the  other  veins  dark  to  black ; 
stigma  burnt  sienna  (Ridgway),  apical  fourth  or  third  black;  the  dark 
color  produced  basally  along  the  anterior  and  posterior  borders,  espe- 
cially the  former;  enclosing  veins  black.  Venational  characters  below. 
Legs  as  in  the  male. 

Venational  characters  of  both  sexes. — Antenodals.  front  wing  17  to 
19,  usually  19;  hind  wing  13  to  15,  usually  14;  postnodals,  front  wing 
11  to  14,  usually  12  or  13;  hind  wing  12  to  16,  usually  13  or  14:  triangle 
front  wing  with  2  or  3  crossveins,  usually  2 ;  hind  wing  1  ;  crossveins  in 
supertriangle  front  wing  0  to  2,  usually  1  ;  hind  wing  0  or  1,  usually  0; 
cells  in  subtriangle  front  wing  5  or  6,  usually  5  ;  cells  in  loop  posterior 
to  subtriangle,  front  wing,  2  or  3,  usually  2 ;  cubito-anal  crossveins  front 
and  hind  wings,  1 ;  bridge  crossveins  front  and  hind  wings  3  to  5,  usu- 
ally 4  or  5  ;  triangle  front  wing  followed  by  4  or  5  cells,  usually  4,  then 
3  or  4  followed  by  4  increasing;  2  rows  of  cells  between  M4  and  Mspl 
in  front  and  hind  wings  ;  crossveins  against  the  distal  transverse  side 
of  the  anal  loop  on  its  proximal  side  4  or  5 ;  crossveins  against  the 
proximal  side  of  the  anal  loop  on  its  distal  side  9  to  11,  usually  9. 

Enterprise,  Florida,  April  22  and  26,  1921,  44  males,  2 
females,  collected  by  Jesse  H.  Williamson,  for  whom  this 
handsome  species  is  named.  Type  male  and  allotypc  female, 
taken  in  copulation,  April  26,  1921,  in  coll.  E.  B.  \Y. 

Both  sexes  of  jcsseana  are  separated  at  once  from  those  of 
aunpcnnis  by  the  darker  face  and  frons,  and  dorsum  of  thorax 
and  abdomen.  In  wing  coloration  the  male  differs  from 
auripcnnis  in  the  more  intense  reddish  yellow  of  the  wings 
posterior  to  R,  the  color  in  auripcnnis  being  more  intense 
along  the  costal  border.  In  the  females  of  the  two  species 
there  is  little  or  no  difference  in  the  wings  except  that  the 
costa  basally  is  darker  in  both  sexes  of  jcsseana  than  in  the 

16  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Jan.,  '22 

sexes  of  aiiripcnnis.  From  the  related  species  with  dark  col- 
ored bodies  jcsscana  is  separated  at  once  by  the  reddish  yellow 
unspotted  wings  of  the  male  and  the  red  stigma  of  fhe  male 
and  the  burnt  sienna  stigma  of  the  female.  From  flavida, 
jcsscana  is  separated,  among  other  characters,  by  the  absence 
of  dark  colored  basal  wing  markings. 

About  Enterprise  are  many  small  lakes,  locally  called  ponds. 
Collections  were  made  at  eight  of  these,  four  north  of  the 
town  and  four  east.  All  ponds  are  of  the  same  general  char- 
acter, though  some  are  more  marshy  than  others.  They  lie 
about  twenty  feet  below  the  general  land  surface  among  tur- 
pentine pine  hammocks.  The  soil  is  sand  and  there  are  no 
inlets  or  outlets  to  the  ponds.  The  water  is  clear  and  cold  and 
fit  to  drink.  Seven  of  the  ponds  were  without  any  Libcllula 
inhabitants.  At  the  eighth  pond  Libcllula  jesseana,  and  no 
other  Libcllula,  was  taken.  In  J.  H.  W.'s  notes  this  eighth 
pond,  in  the  absence  of  any  local  name,  is  designated  as  Figure- 
8  Pond.  It  lies  two  and  one-half  miles  (estimated)  north  of 
the  town,  going  out  the  hard  shell  road  past  the  cemetery. 
It  is  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  east  of  the  road  and  about  half 
a  mile  due  north  of  Buckeye  Homestead  Pond.  The  latter 
pond  can  be  seen  from  the  road.  Gleason's  Pond  lies  about 
three  quarters  of  a  mile  east  of  Buckeye  Homestead  Pond. 
North  of  Gleason's  Pond  lies  Wiley  Pond. 

Figure-8  Pond  is  about  one-quarter  of  a  mile  long  and  one- 
eighth  wide,  shaped  roughly  like  the  figure  8.  It  has  a  solid 
sand  bottom,  deepening  more  rapidly  than  other  ponds  visited, 
being  waist  deep  four  or  five  feet  from  shore.  Grassy  sedges, 
shoulder  high,  grow  from  the  water's  edge  out  into  the  water 
for  a  distance  of  five  or  six  feet.  Then,  within  this  zone,  is  a 
clear  water  zone  eight  to  twelve  feet  wide,  within  which  is 
another  belt  of  vegetation  several  feet  wide  and  rising  above 
the  water  one  or  two  feet.  There  are  no  bushes  in  the  water 
and  no  marsh.  The  banks  from  the  water's  edge  are  steep 
sand  with  sparse  dead  grass  and  scattered  young  pines  two 
to  ten  feet  high.  All  around  the  pond  the  higher  ground  had 
been  recently  burned  over  but  fire  had  reached  the  pond  only 
at  a  few  points,  leaving  some  green  pines  near  the  water's 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  17 

Jesseana  was  usually  over  the  shore-bordering  zone  of 
sedges,  alighting  on  stems  and  leaves,  and,  when  back  from 
the  water,  on  the  bare  twigs  of  the  burned  pines.  It  is  very- 
wary  and  difficult  to  approach,  and  is  a  good  dodger  either 
when  at  rest  or  on  the  wing.  In  general  habits  it  mostly 
resembles  L.  auripennis.  Other  species  associated  with  jess- 
eona  were  Tramca  Carolina,  Coryphaeschna  ingens,  Ana.r 
longipcs,  a  Progoinpluts,  and  Enallagma  doubledayi. 

The  question  whether  jesscana  might  not  be  a  hybrid  of 
auripennis  and  some  other  species  naturally  suggested  itself. 
Libellulas  generally  are  of  wide  distribution  and  their  habits' 
as  imagoes  render  them  conspicuous.  No  new  species  has 
been  added  to  the  eastern  North  American  fauna  in  over  fifty 
years,  and  the  discovery  of  an  undescribed  species  in  Florida 
was  a  great  surprise.  At  first  I  was  inclined  to  regard  it  as  a 
hybrid,  but  on  farther  study  I  have  abandoned  this  opinion. 
Its  general  appearance,  due  to  wing  coloration,  at  once  sug- 
gests auripennis.  Dr.  Calvert  and  Dr.  Ris,  writing  indepen- 
dently, see  something  of  flavlda  in  it.  but  neither  attributes  this 
to  hybridization  and  Dr.  Ris  especially  is  convinced  it  is  not  a 
hybrid.  Dr.  Kennedy  also  considers  it  specifically  distinct 
and  not  a  hybrid.  In  its  restricted  distribution  and  its  sug- 
gestive synthesis  of  characters  jesscana  resembles  another  drag- 
onfly in  another  subfamily  which  I  know  well.  Macrouiia 
ivabasJicnsis  is  known  only  along  two  or  three  miles  of  the 
Wabash  River  near  Bluffton,  Indiana,  where  it  has  been 
found  continuously  from  1902  to  1921.  In  characters  it  is 
just  what  one  might  expect  from  the  crossing  of  M.  tacniolata 
and  M.  pacifica,  both  of  which  species,  as  well  as  M.  illinoicn- 
sis,  occur  on  the  same  stretch  of  river.  If  wdbashensis  is  a 
hybrid  it  has  certainly  held  its  own  for  at  least  twenty  years. 
It  is  possible  that  failure  to  record  it  elsewhere  may  be  due 
to  lack  of  collecting.  This  last  factor  can  hardly  be  used  to 
explain  the  limited  known  distribution  of  L.  jesscana.  It 
remains  to  be  seen  if  jesscana  maintains  itself  and  is  able  to 
extend  its  range  from  the  single  small  lake  where  it  is  now 
known  to  occur. 

18  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Jan.,  '22 

Other  species  of  Libellula  collected  by  J.  H.  W.  are  listed 
below.  Species  of  Ladona  are  not  included  in  this  paper.  A 
few  specimens  collected  in  1904,  1906  and  1908,  by  Mrs.  Stella 
Beam,  and  in  1911  and  1913  by  L.  A.  Williamson  are  also 
recorded.  All  notes  on  habits  and  captures  are  from  J.  H. 
W.'s  field  notes. 

Libellula  auripennis  Burmeister,  West  Palm  Beach,  February 
24,  1904,  teneral  female  (Deam)  ;  Salt  Lake,  near  St.  Petersburg,  April 
21,  1908,  female  (Deam)  ;  March  26,  1913,  three  teneral  males  (L.  A. 
W.)  ;  Sarasota,  April  4,  1911,  two  males,  two  females  (L.  A.  W.)  ; 
Taxambas,  Ft.  Myers,  Labelle,  Moore  Haven,  Palmdale,  Miami  and 
Enterprise,  forty  males  and  thirty-nine  females,  tenerals  and  adults  at 
each  location.  Kathwood,  South  Carolina,  a  single  teneral  male. 

Auripennis  is  found  scattered  over  fields  and  pastures,  often 
far  from  water.  Adult  males  with  red  abdomens  flew  swiftly 
over  or  near  open  streams  in  fields.  Adults  difficult  to  catch. 
Some,  but  not  all,  of  the  males  from  Enterprise  have  the  wings 
more  extensively  reddish  yellow  than  any  other  specimens  in 
the  collection.  In  this  character  they  approach  but  do  not 
reach  the  intensity  of  L.  jesseana.  Otherwise  they  are  typical 

Libellula  incesta  Hagen.  Labelle,  fifteen  males,  one  female; 
Palmdale,  thirty-six  males,  fifteen  females;  Enterprise,  one  male,  one 
female.  Found  on  wooded  part  of  Pollywog  Creek  at  Labelle  and  of 
Fisheating  Creek  at  Palmdale,  and  seen  nowhere  else  about  these  two 

Of  the  seventeen  females  in  the  collection  all  but  two  have  a  distinct 
dark  postnodal  streak  between  C  and  R.  Tt  is  also  present  in  about 
one-half  of  the  males.  In  both  sexes  it  varies  from  entirely  absent, 
through  faintly  present  to  clearly  present  and.  finally,  in  the  most 
extreme  cases,  it  becomes  a  continuous  brown  streak  from  nodus  to 
stigma.  The  streak  is  darkest  in  tenerals  of  both  sexes,  but  all  tenerals 
do  not  have  it ;  the  darkest  specimens  seen  are  teneral  females.  This 
wing  marking  is  not  therefore  entirely  sexual  or  ontogenetic,  though  it 
tends  to  be  both,  being  darker  in  females  ami  in  tenerals. 

Libellula  axilena  Westwood.  Daytona  Beach,  March  20,  1906, 
one  female  (Deam)  ;  St.  Petersburg,  March  13  and  22,  1913,  one  male 
and  three  females,  all  very  teneral  (L.  A.  W.)  ;  Fort  Alyers,  Labelle, 
Palmdale  and  Enterprise,  fourteen  males  and  nine  females. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  19 

All  the  specimens  of  axilena  are  young  with  the  teneral  body  color 
pattern  distinct,  and  the  postnodal  wing  streak  between  C  and  R  and 
nodal  spots  are  present  in  every  specimen.  In  every  specimen  but  one 
the  brown  area  about  the  metastigma  is  continuous  with  the  brown  area 
anterior  to  it.  In  every  case  the  brown  stripe  on  the  second  lateral 
suture  is  wider  than  in  znbrans,  and  between  this  stripe  and  the  dorsal 
thoracic  dark  area,  on  the  side  of  the  thorax  above,  is  a  triangular 
brown  area  which  is  entirely  wanting  in  ribraus.  In  ribrans  the  post- 
nodal  wing  streak  is  present  in  one  female,  faintly  present  in  two 
males  and  two  females,  and  absent  in  nineteen  males  and  fourteen 
females.  In  every  case  the  brown  area  surrounding  the  metastigma  is 
separated  from  the  dark  area  anterior  to  it,  and  the  sides  of  the  thorax 
above,  between  the  humeral  and  second  lateral  sutures,  are  entirely  pale. 

The  color  pattern  of  the  thorax  as  well  as  the  pale  face  and 
frons  thus  separate  vibrans  certainly  from  axilena. 

At  Fort  Myers,  flying  about  and  alighting  on  dried  vege- 
tation in  the  sun  along  a  fence  separating  a  cemetery  and 
orange  grove.  This  species  and  vibrans  were  not  recognized 
as  distinct  when  captured  and  it  is  impossible  now  to  state 
definitely  any  difference  in  habitats.  In  L.  A.  W.'s  material 
collected  at  St.  Petersburg,  March  22,  a  male  of  vibrans  and 
a  female  of  incesta  are  papered  in  the  same  envelope.  His 
other  specimens  of  axilena  were  taken  on  March  13,  three  and 
one-half  miles  southwest  of  St.  Petersburg,  while  his  twelve 
specimens  of  vibrans  were  taken  on  March  22,  four  miles 
southwest  of  town.  J.  H.  W.  collected  axilena  on  thirteen 
days  and  vibrans  on  ten  days  in  Florida.  On  four  different 
days  he  took  both  species,  on  nine  days  he  caught  axilena  and 
not  vibrans.  and  on  six  days  vibrans  but  not  axilena.  Both 
species  certainly  occurred  in  the  same  creek-enclosing  wood- 
lands at  Palmdale  and  Enterprise,  but  were  not  found  on  the 
creeks  themselves.  Apparently  axilena  frequented  more  open 
spots  and  the  edges  of  forests,  while  vibrans  preferred  denser 

Libellula  vibrans  Fabricius.  St.  Petersburg,  March  22.  1913,  five 
males  and  seven  females,  all  teneral  (L.  A.  W.)  ;  Port  Orange,  March 
16,  1906,  one  male,  one  female  (Deam)  ;  New  Smyrna,  April  24.  1'MK,. 
one  male  (Deam)  ;  Fort  Myers,  Labellc,  Palmdale  and  Knterpri^e. 
fourteen  males  and  eight  females;  Kathwood,  South  Carolina,  two 
males.  For  notes  see  above  under  axilena. 

20  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Jan.,  '22 

List  of  the  Tachinidae  (Diptera)  of  North  Carolina. 

By  C.  S.  BRIMLEY,  Div.  of  Entomology,  N.  C.  Dept.  of 


The  following  list  includes  all  those  species  of  Tachinidae 
which  are  known  to  us  to  have  been  recorded  from  North 

Most  of  them  have  been  collected  by  members  of  the  Ento- 
mological Division  of  the  State  Department  of  Agriculture, 
and  the  collector's  initials  follow  the  records  attributed  to 
each.  The  names  of  those  contributing  to  the  list  are  Frank- 
lin Sherman,  Chief  in  Entomology  for  the  last  twenty  years ; 
G.  M.  Bentley,  C.  S.  Brimley,  J.  E.  Eckert,  C.  O.  Houghton, 
R.  W.  Leiby,  C.  L.  Metcalf,  Z.  P.  Metcalf,  T.  B.  Mitchell,  and 
R.  S.  Woglum,  his  assistants  at  various  periods.  Other  rec- 
ords have  been  contributed  by  Mr.  C.  W.  Johnson,  of  the  Bos- 
ton Society  of  Natural  History,  and  some  by  Mr.  Max  Kisliuk, 
Jr.,  now  with  the  Federal  Horticultural  Board. 

The  flies  of  this  family  have  been  identified  for  us  in  the 
past  by  the  late  Mr.  D.  W.  Coquillett,  and  by  Professor  O.  A. 
Johannsen,  and  more  recently  by  Prof.  J.  M.  Aldrich,  to  all 
of  whom  our  thanks  are  due.  These  gentlemen  are  respon- 
sible for  over  three-fourths  of  the  names  on  the  list,  while  I 
am  accountable  for  the  remainder,  mostly  conspicuous,  well 
defined  forms. 

Several  names  in  the  list  are  given  with  the  generic  name 
only  or  as  near  such  a  species.  These  were  all  given  by  Prof. 
Aldrich  as  being  probably  new  species. 

Undoubtedly  the  list  is  far  from  complete,  and  it  is  quite 
likely  that  it  is  not  wholly  free  from  error,  still  we  believe  it 
to  be  a  creditable  beginning. 

ACEMYIA  DENTATA  Coq.  Raleigh,  late  March,  1913,  CLM ;  Linvillo 
Falls,  early  June,  1920,  FS ;  Onslow  Co.,  late  March,  1920,  MRS. 

ADMONTIA  DEGEERIOIDES  Coq.  Raleigh,  mid  September;  Swannanoa 
Oct.  5,  1915;  mid  July,  1919,  RWL. 

ALOPHORA  FENESTRATA   Bigot.     Raleigh,   early   April,   one,   CSB. 

ALOPHORA  FUMOSA  Coq.     Hot  Springs,  Mrs.  A.  T.   Slosson. 

ALOPHORA  GRANDIS  Coq.  Raleigh,  late  March,  mid  and  late  October, 
four  males;  early  May,  1920,  one  female,  CSB;  Laurinburg,  Sept.  11, 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  21 

1920,   male,   TBM ;   EHzabethtown,   early   November,    1920,   three  males, 

ALOPHORA  SPLENDIDA  Coq.     Blowing  Rock,  September  4,  1915,  RWL. 
ARCHYTAS  ANALIS  Fab.     Whole  state,  May  to  early  November ;  has 
been   bred    from   army   worm   in    Haywood    and    Beaufort    Counties    in 
August  and  September  by  Mr.  Sherman  and  Mr.  Leihy. 

ARCHYTAS  ATERRIMA  Desv.  Whole  state,  mid  April  to  early  No- 
vember. Has  been  bred  from  fall  webworm  at  Raleigh,  July  25,  1907, 

ARCHYTAS  HYSTRIX  Fab.  Raleigh,  Lumberton,  Southern  Pines, 
Thomasville,  late  June  to  early  September.  Has  been  bred  from 
Datana  perspicua  at  Raleigh,  June  24,  July  5,  1918,  CSB. 

ARCHYTAS  LATERALIS  Macq.  North  Carolina,  Coquillett,  Rev.  Tachi- 
nidae,  p.  143. 

ATACTA  BRASILIENSIS  Schiner.     Raleigh,  July  25,  1906,  CSB. 
ARGYROPHYLAX   (sp.).     Raleigh,  Sept.,  one,  CSB. 

BELVOSIA  BIFASCIATA  Fabr.  Lumberton,  Southern  Pines,  Raleigh, 
Hendersonville,  and  Lake  Toxoway,  mid  May  to  late  October.  Has 
been  bred  from  Cithcronia  rci/alis.  Basilona  inipcrialis,  Anisota  scna- 
tnria,  and  Ceratomia  undnlosa. 

BELVOSIA  UNIFASCIATA  Desv.  Lake  Ellis,  Terra  Ceia,  Raleigh,  Crab- 
tree,  and  Spruce,  mid  May  to  late  October.  Bred  from  army  worm  in 
Haywood  (mid  August,  1914,  FS),  and  Beaufort  (late  August  and  early 
September,  1919,  RWL)  Counties. 

BESKIA  AELOPS  Walker.  Raleigh,  June  15,  1906,  CSB;  Sept.  26,  1917, 
RWL;  Stem,  early  October,  1908,  ZPM. 

BLEPHARIPEZA  ADUSTA  Loew.  Raleigh,  late  Marcli  and  mid  April, 

BLEPHARIPEZA  LEUCOPHRYS  Wied.     Blowing  Rock,  Sept.  15,  1915,  FS. 
BOMBYLIOMYIA  ABRUPTA   Wied.     Blowing   Rock,   Grandfather   Moun- 
tain  and   Highlands,   all    in    September,   and   Grandfather    Mt.,   also   in 
late  July.     Ranges  to  over  5,000  ft.  elevation. 

CHAETOGAEDIA  ANALIS  V.  d.  W.  Grandfather  Mt.,  August,  1906, 

CHAETOGAEDIA  CREBRA  V.  d.  W.     Raleigh,  mid  November,  1911,  CSB. 
CHAETOPHLEPS  SETOSA  Coq.     Raleigh,  late  June,  1912,  CLM. 
CHAETOPLAGIA  ATRIPENNIS  Coq.     Raleigh,  late  July,  one,  CSB. 
CISTOGASTER  iMMACULATA  Macq.     Raleigh,  late  April  to  early  August, 
common,  CSB;  Charlotte,  early  June,  1902,  FS  ;  Fayetteville,  late   May, 
1920,  CSB;   Jefferson,   mid   September,   1912,   FS. 
CLAUSICELLA  USITATA  Coq.     Wilmington,  mid  May,  1905,  FS. 
CUPHOCERA  FUCATA  V.  d.  W.     Raleigh,  late  Juno,   1920,  CSB. 
CRYPTOMEIGENIA  THEUTIS  Walker.     Raleigh,  April  5,  1901,  FS ;  April 
13,  1906,  CSB;  Black  Mts.,  late  May,  1911,  FS. 

DIXKKA  FUTILIS  Smith.     Highlands,  Sept.,   1906,  FS. 

22  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Jan.,  '22 


DISTICHONA  AURICEPS  Coq.  Raleigh,  mid  Sept.,  CSB  ;  Blowing  Rock, 
Sept.  9,  1909,  ZPM. 

DISTICHONA  VARIA  V.  d.  W.  Raleigh,  late  June  to  mid  Sept.,  CSB; 
Charlotte,  late  June,  1902,  FS. 

DORYPHOROPHAGA  ABERRANs  Twnd.  Swannanoa,  mid  July,  1919, 

DORYPHOROPHAGA  DORYPHORAE  Riley.  Terra  Ceia,  Aug.  24,  1919, 

ECHINOMYIA  DAKOTENSIS  Twnd.  Raleigh,  late  Sept.,  1915,  early 
Oct.,  1919,  CSB;  Highlands,  early  and  mid  Sept.,  1906,  RSW;  Yonah- 
losse  Road,  Sept.  10,  1908,  ZPM. 

ECHINOMYIA  FLORUM  Walker.  Raleigh,  late  April,  early  Alay,  Sept., 
CSB;  Southern  Pines,  April,  1901,  FS ;  Gibson,  Oct.  12,  1920,  and 
Elizabethtown,  Nov.  5,  1920,  TBM. 

EPALPUS  SIGNIFERUS  Walker.  Raleigh,  early  Aug ,  CSB ;  Norlina, 
late  April,  1905,  FS  ;  Craggy  Mt.,  June  8,  1916,  RWL ;  Linville  Falls, 
early  June,  1920,  FS. 

EPIGRYMIA  FLORIDENSIS  Twnd.     Raleigh,  mid  July.  1912,  CLM. 

ERVIA  TRIQUETRA  Oliv.  Raleigh,  early  Sept.,  1916,  FS ;  Southern 
Pines,  June  6,  1906,  RSW. 

EULASIONA    (sp.).     Linville  Falls,  late  May,   1920,  FS. 

EUPHOROCERA  FLORIDENSIS  Twnd.  Terra  Ceia,  bred  from  pupae  green 
clover  worm,  August  and  September,  1919,  RWL. 

EUTHERA  TENTATRIX  Loew.     Swannanoa,  Oct.  5,  1915,  RWL. 

EXORISTA  BOARMIAE  Coq.  Plymouth,  bred  from  Acrobasis  nubilclla, 
RWL;  bred  from  green  clover  worm  pupae  at  Terra  Ceia  (Aug.-Sept., 
1919,  RWL),  and  at  Elizabeth  City  (Aug.-Sept.,  1919,  FS). 

EXORISTA  EUDRYAE  Twnd.  Raleigh,  bred  from  larvae  Euthisanotia 
i/nita,  June  14,  1907;  from  cocoon  Estigmcne  acrea,  May  8,  1918,  and 
from  larvae  Euthisanotia  unio,  May  8,  1918,  CSB:  taken  late  June, 
1915,  CSB. 

EXORISTA  FLAVIROSTRIS  V.  d.  W.  Raleigh,  bred  from  cocoon  Lagoa 
crispata,  June  6,  1906,  CSB. 

EXORISTA  FUTILIS  O.  S.     Raleigh,  late  April,  mid  June,  CSB. 

EXORISTA  GRISEOMICANS  V.  d.  W.  Raleigh,  early  June,  1904,  bred 
from  cocoon  Lagoa  crispata,  FS ;  early  Sept.,  1912,  bred  from  fall 
army  worm,  CLM. 

EXORISTA  LOBELIAE  Coq.    Raleigh,  early  July,  1907. 

EXORISTA  PYSTE  Walker.  Raleigh,  late  Oct.,  CSB;  Milbrook,  bred 
from  Acrobasis  caryac,  June,  1917,  RWL;  Roper,  June  5,  1917,  bred 
from  A.  caryac  and  A.  ncbnlclla,  RWL;  Burgaw,  June,  1917,  and  Plym- 
outh, June,  1916,  bred  from  A.  ncbnlclla  at  both  places,  R\VL. 

EXORISTA   SETINERVIS   Coq.     Raleigh,  late  July,   FS. 

EXORISTA  SLOSSONAE  Coq.     Raleigh,  mid  July,   1914,  CLM. 

EXORISTOIDES  JOHNSONI  Coq.  Raleigh,  May,  Sept.  23,  1920,  CSB; 
Hertford  County,  Coquillett,  Rev.  Tachinidac,  p.  91. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  23 

FRONTINA  ALETIAK  Riley.  Raleigh,  July,  Sept.,  bred  from  fall  web- 
worm,  CSB:  Terra  Ceia,  Aug.-Sept.,  1919,  bred  from  pupae  green 
clover  worm,  RWL;  Elizabeth  City,  mid  Aug.,  1919,  FS. 

FRONTINA  near  ALETIAE,  but  palpi  black.  Raleigh,  June,  CSB. 
FRONTINA  FRENCHII  Will.  Raleigh,  common  parasite  of  the  over- 
wintering cocoons  of  the  Polyphemus  moth,  adults  emerging  from 
late  April  to  early  August,  the  maggots  overwintering  within  the 
cocoon  and  boring  their  way  out  at  various  times  during  spring  and 
summer  to  pupate;  occasionally  they  pupate  within  the  cocoons  of 
their  host  and  perish,  CSB ;  bred  from  tent  caterpillar  at  Milbrook, 
May,  1915,  RWL;  Blowing  Rock,  Sept.,  1915,  FS. 

FRONTINA  VIOLENTA  Walker.     Raleigh,   bred   from  larvae  of   Pholus 
achcmon,  in  late  Sept.,  1914,  and  early  Oct.,  1915,  CSB. 

GAEDIOPSIS  OCELLARIS  Coq.     Early  May  and  late  Oct.,  1920,  CSB. 
GONIA  CAPITATA   DeG.'    Raleigh,   late   March   to  early   May,   not  un- 
common, CSB;  Southern  Pines,  March  20,   1905,  FS;  Southport,  April 
6,  1914,  CLM;  Lake  Waccamaw,  April  1,  1914,  CLM. 

GONIA  SENILIS  Will.  Raleigh,  June,  Oct.,  FS  and  CSB ;  Kingsboro, 
early  Oct.,  1919,  MRS. 

GVMNOCHAETA  ALCEoo  Loew.  Black  Mt.,  late  May,  1910,  FS ;  Hen- 
dersonville,  June,  1907,  FS. 

GYMNOSOMA  FULIGINOSA  Desv.  Raleigh,  Hillsboro,  Blowing  Rock, 
Swannanoa  and  Linville  Falls,  early  May  to  mid  November,  not  un- 

HEMYDA  AURATA  Desv.  Raleigh,  late  Sept.,  late  Oct.,  CSB ;  Linville 
Falls,  early  June,  1920,  FS. 

HILARELLA  FULVicORNis  Coq.     Murf reesboro,  June  9,  1895,  CWJ. 
HYALOMYODES    TRIANGULIFER    Loew.      Raleigh,    Nov.    9,    1920,    CSB ; 
Highlands,  Sept.  9,  1920,  TBM. 

HYPOCHAETA    LONGICORNIS    Schiner.      Raleigh,    Sept.    17,    1906,    bred 
from  Melittia  satyrimformis,  CSB;  Sept.  29,   1920,  CSB. 
HYPOSTENA  DUNNINGI  Coq.     Revision  Tachinidae,  p.  60. 
HYPOSTENA  FLAVEOLA  Coq.     L.  c.,  p.  61. 
HYPOSTENA  FLORIDENSIS  Twnd.     L.  c.,  p.  62. 

JURINIA  ADUSTA  V.  d.  W.  Blowing  Rock,  Aug.  24,  1902,  FS ;  Waynes- 
Aille,  Sept.  9,  1919,  JEE. 

LESKIOMIMA  TENERA  Wied.     Raleigh,  June  14,  1906;  late  July,  CSB. 
LEUCOSTOMA  SENILIS  Twnd.     Murf  reesboro,  early  June,   1895,  CWJ. 
LEUCOSTOMA  ATRA  Twnd.     Lake  Waccamaw,   Sept.  20,   1915,   RWL; 
Highlands,  Sept.  5,  1920,  TBM. 

LINNAEMVIA  COMTA  Fallen.  Raleigh,  early  June  to  late  Nov.,  not 
uncommon;  also  taken  at  Murfreesboro,  Hendersonville,  Blowing  Rock, 
Swannanoa  and  Wilmington. 

M  \CQUARTIA   PRISTIS  Walker.     Spruce,  Jun<>,   1911,  several,  FS. 
M. \SICKRA    ALBIFACIES    Twnd.      Raleigh,    Aug.    15,    1901,    bred     from 
l,t>.\'(>stc<ic  mancalis,  CSB. 

24  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Jan.,  '22 

MASICERA  EUFITCHIAE  Twnd.  Linville  Falls,  late  May  and  early  June, 
1920,  several,  FS. 

MASICERA  EXILIS  Coq.  Elizabeth  City,  bred  from  tortoise  beetle 
larva  (Coptocycla  clarata),  Aug.  22,  1919,  FS. 

MASIPHYA  BRASILIANA  B.  &  B.  Raleigh,  June  li,  1906,  late  June, 
1920,  CSB. 

METAPLAGIA  OCCIDENTALIS  Coq.  Raleigh,  July  26,  Aug.  4,  1906,  bred 
from  boll  worm  (Heliothis  obscurus),  CSB. 

METOPIA  LEUCOCEPHALA  Rossi.  Raleigh,  mid  Oct.,  1904,  GMB; 
Southern  Pines,  late  April,  1905,  GMB;  Pendleton,  early  June,  1895, 

MICROPHTHALMA  DisjUNCTA  Wied.  Murfreesboro,  June  9,  1895, 
CWJ ;  Greensboro,  Aug.  25,  1902,  FS ;  Blowing  Rock,  Aug.,  1906,  FS ; 
Black  Mts.,  July  18,  1919,  RWL;  Grandfather  Mt.,  early  Sept.,  1915, 
FS ;  ranges  up  to  5,000  ft. 

MYIOPHASIA  AENEA  Wied.  Raleigh,  Gibson,  Elrod,  Boardman,  Aug- 
ust, September  and  October ;  Charlotte,  early  June,  1902,  FS ;  not 

NEOPHYTO  SETOSA  Coq.  Raleigh,  mid  April,  CSB ;  Spruce,  late 
May,  FS. 

OCYPTERA  ARGENTATA   Twnd.     Beaufort,  mid  June,   1903,   FS. 

OCYPTERA  CAROLINAE  Desv.  Raleigh,  Spruce,  Swannanoa,  Murfrees- 
boro and  Elizabeth  City,  early  June  to  early  September ;  not  uncommon. 

OESTROPHASIA  CALVA  Coq.     Raleigh,  May  25,   1905.  FS  ;  June,  CSB. 

PACHYOPHTHALMUS  SIGNATUS  Meigen.  Raleigh,  mid  July,  1912, 
CLM ;  March  29,  1920,  bred  from  mud  cell  of  Eumenid  wasp,  MRS ; 
Jefferson,  mid  Sept.,  1913,  CLM. 

PANZERIA  AMPELUS  Walker.  Raleigh,  early  and  mid  April,  CSB; 
Southport,  April  6,  1914,  CLM;  Spruce,  late  May,  1912,  and  June, 
1911,  FS;  Blowing  Rock,  Sept.  4,  1915,  RWL;  Highlands,  Sept.,  1906, 
RSW;  Blantyre,  Sept.,  1906,  RSW. 

PARACHAETA  EICOLOR  Macq.     Spruce,  June,   1911,  FS. 

PARADEXODES    (sp.).     Swannanoa,  mid  July,   1919,  RWL. 

PARADIDYMA  SINGULARIS  Twnd.  Raleigh,  Oct.  9,  1920,  CSB;  Wil- 
mington, April  15,  1919,  MK. 

PELETERIA  ROBUSTA  Wied.  Raleigh,  June  13,  1907,  CSB;  Blowing 
Rock,  late  July,  1904,  FS  ;  Sept.  4,  1915,  RWL;  Sept.,  1918,  FS;  Eliza- 
hethtown,  Nov.  5,  1920,  three,  TBM. 

PELETERIA  TESSELLATA  Fabr.    Blowing  Rock,  late  August,  1902,  COH. 

PHORANTHA  PURPURASCENS  Twnd.  Elizabethtown,  Nov.  5,  1920, 

PHOROCERA    CLARIPENNIS    Macq.      Has    been    bred    at    Raleigh    from 

.pupae  of  Ceratomia  undulosa   (Aug.   14,  15,   1911,  CSB);  Datana  intc- 

iicn-ima  (Aug.  2,  1916,  RWL;  Aug.  16,  1920,  CSB)  ;  Mclalopha  inclnsa 

(Aug.  11.  1915,  CSB)  ;  sawfly,  Lophyrus  (April,  1912,  CSB)  ;  cutworm, 

Fcllia  subgothica    (June  11,  1920,  CSB)  ;  at  Milbrook,  from  apple  tree 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  25 

tent  caterpillar,  late  May,  1915,  RWL ;  at  Crabtree  from  army  \vorm 
(Aug.  15,  1914,  FS)  ;  at  Wilmington,  from  fall  army  worm  (July 
26-28,  1920,  CSB)  ;  at  Terra  Ceia  from  army  worm  and  green  clover 
worm  (Ang.-Sept.,  1919,  R\YL).  and  from  army  worm  at  Xeuse  (mid 
Aug.,  1914,  FS).  Also  taken  at  Beaufort  and  Swannanoa  in  July  and 

PHOROCERA  COMSTOCKI  Will.     Raleigh,  bred   from  Cossula  nui</nifn'(i, 
June  19,  1916,  RWL. 

PHOROCERA  EINARIS   Smith.     Elizabeth   City,  late   August,    1919,   FS ; 
Spruce,  late  May,  1912,  CSB. 

PHOROCERA    LEUCANIAE    Coq.      Raleigh,    mid    Aug.,    1903,    FS ;    mid 
June,  1914,  CLM. 

PHOROCERA  TORTRICIS   Coq.     Raleigh,   mid  June,    1914. 
PLAGIA  AMERICANA  V.  d.  W.    Raleigh,  Nov.  6,  1920,  CSB. 
PSEUDOCHAETA    ARGENTiFRONS    Coq.      Raleigh,    bred    from    Lo.rostcgc 
mancalis.  Aug.  14,  1906,  CSB. 

PSEUDOTACHINOMYIA  WEBKERi  Smith.  Linville  Falls,  late  July,  1920, 
several,  FS. 

SCHIZOCEROPHAGA  LEJBYi  Twnd.  Aydlett,  Currituck  Co.,  bred  from 
sawfly  larvae  (Schisocerus  priratus),  July  31,  1915,  RWI.. 

SENOTAINIA  RUBRIVENTRIS  Macq.  Pendleton,  June  7,  1895,  CWJ; 
Charlotte,  early  June,  1902,  FS. 

SENOTAINIA  TRILINEATA  V.  d.  W.  Raleigh,  May,  1910,  CSB;  early 
and  mid  July,  1914,  CLM;  Elizabeth  City,  mid  Aug.,  1919,  FS  ;  Fayette- 
ville,  late  May,  1920,  CSB. 

SIPHONA   GENICULATA   DeG.     Hendersonville,   July.    1907,   FS. 
SIPHOPI.AGIA   ANOMALA   Twnd.     Raleigh,  early   Oct.,   1912;   mid   Oct., 
mid  Sept.,  1920,  CSB;  Elrod,  Sept.  24,  1915,  RWL. 

SIPHOSTURMIA  ROSTRATA  Coq.     Raleigh,  Oct.   14,   1902,  GMB. 
SPALLANZANIA  IIEBES   Fallen.     Raleigh,  late  Sept.,  CSB ;  early  Oct., 
FS;  Swannanoa,  July  10,   1913,  CLM. 

SPALLANZANIA  HESPERIDARUM  Will.  Highlands.  July  5,  1906,  FS ; 
Jefferson,  mid  Aug.,  1907,  mid  Sept.,  1912,  FS. 

STURMIA  ALBIFRONS  Walker.    Raleigh,  late  June,  1907,  ZPM. 
STURMIA   DISTINCTA   Wied.      Raleigh,    July    11,    1913,   bred    from    full 
grown    larva   Phlcycthontius    quinquemaculatus,    mid    July;    bred    from 
larva  Phlegethontius  sexta,  Oct.  26,  1920,  two  males,  CSB. 

SfritMiA  iRAunuLENTA  V.  d.  W.     Raleigh,  June  4,  1907,  CSB. 
STURMIA  INQUIXATA  V.  d.  W.     Raleigh,  bred  from  larvae  of  Phlege- 
thontius citnjulatus,  July  20,  1906,  mid  Aug.,  1910  (42  from  one  larva), 
late  July,  1910  (about  30  from  one  larva),  and  from  pupa  of  Ccrutomia 
(sp.),  probably  inuiulosa.  May  8,   1918,  CSB. 
STURMIA  PHYCIODIS  Coq.     Raleigh,  mid  July,   1912,  CLM. 
STURMIA  PILATEI  Coq.     Lake  Waccamaw,  Sept.  20,  1915,  RWI.. 
STURMIA  s  TRIG  AT  A  V.  d.  W.     Raleigh.  July.  August,  bred  from  I.oxo- 
mancalis,  CSB. 

26  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Jan.,  '22 

TACHINA  MEI.LA  Walker.  Raleigh,  April  8,  1908,  CSB;  Milbrook, 
late  May,  1915,  bred  from  apple  tree  tent  caterpillar,  RWL;  Murfrees- 
boro,  June  9,  1895,  CWJ. 

TACHINA  ROBCSTA  Twnd.  Hendersonville,  June,  1907,  FS;  Spruce, 
late  May,  1912,  FS  ;  Linville  Falls,  early  June,  1920,  FS. 

TACHINA  RUSTICA  Fallen.     Blowing  Rock,  Sept.  °,  1909,  ZPM. 

TACHINAPHYTO  VARIABILIS  Twnd.     Swannanoa,  July  10,  1913,  CLM. 

TACHINAPHYTO  (sp.).     Raleigh,  Sept.  29,  1920,  five,  CSB. 

TRICHOPHORA  RUFICAUDA  V.  d.  W.  Raleigh,  Hendersonville,  Hot 
Springs,  Lake  Waccamaw,  Elizabeth  City,  late  April  to  late  October, 
rather  common. 

TRICHOPODA  FORMOSA  Wied.  Hendersonville,  June,  1907;  Aquone, 
mid  May,  1901,  FS. 

TRICHOPODA  LANIPES  Fab.     Raleigh,  mid  June  to  early  August,  CSB. 

TRICHOPODA  PENNIPES  Fab.  Raleigh,  Cranberry,  Linville,  Southern 
Pines,  Lake  Waccamaw,  late  May  to  September,  common. 

TRICHOPODA  PLUMIPES  Fabr.  Raleigh,  late  June,  early  Aug.,  CSB ; 
late  July,  1912,  CLM;  Kittrell,  July  15,  1919,  TBM. 

TRICHOPODA  RADIATA  Loew.  Raleigh,  mid  July  and  early  August, 
CLAI  and  CSB. 

WINTHEMIA  QUADRIPUSTULATA  Fab.  Has  been  bred  from  army  worm 
at  Durham,  Crabtree,  Neuse,  Terra  Ceia,  from  fall  army  worm  at  Eden- 
ton,  and  from  larva  of  Perigaea  sutor  at  Raleigh.  Other  localities : 
Elizabeth  City,  Blowing  Rock,  Swannanoa,  Black  Mt.,  with  a  seasonal 
range  of  May  to  October. 

WINTHEMIA   (sp.).     Linville  Falls,  late  May.  1920,  FS. 

XANTHOMELAENA  ARCUATA  Say.     Hot   Springs,   Mrs.   Slosson. 

XANTHOMELAENA  ATRIPENNIS  Say.  Raleigh,  early  August,  FS;  late 
June,  1920,  CSB;  Blowing  Rock,  Sept.,  1915,  FS  ;  Aug.  29,  1902,  FS ; 
Elizabethtown,  Nov.  5,  1920,  TBM. 

YPOPHAEMYIA  MALACOSOMAE  Twnd.  Millbrook,  bred  from  tent  cater- 
pillar, May,  1915-6,  RWL. 

Some  Cases  of  Aberrant  Oviposition  in 

Butterflies  (Lep.)- 
By  W.  BUTIIN,  St.  Clair  Experiment  Station,  Port  of  Spain, 

Trinidad,  B.  W.  I. 

When  in  Ecuador  in  1920,  I  was  the  puzzled  observer  of 
strangely  perverted  ovipositing  habits  on  the  part  of  three 
widely  differing  species  of  Butterflies ;  the  abnormality  of  which 
I  speak  I  had  never  noticed  previously  nor  have  I  ever  heard 
it  remarked  upon.  In  collecting  wood-boring  larvae  I  was 
examining  some  newly  felled  forest  trees,  locally  called 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  27 

"karuni" ;  although  recently  felled,  the  hark  of  these  trees 
came  off  easily  in  large  slabs,  exposing  the  inner  surface, 
which  was  covered  with  stagnated  sap  which  had  attained  a 
condition  of  slimy  fermentation,  emitting  a  strong,  acrid  odor ; 
attracted  by  this  a  Perodromia,  the  pattern  of  whose  wings 
resembled  tesselae  of  malachite  and  turquoise  irregularly 
veined  with  black,  settled  on  the  trunk  and  began  to  imbibe 
of  the  liquid  sap  ;  a  few  moments  later  there  also  arrived  to 
the  feast  a  stately  Prepona,  also  of  a  species  which  I  have 
been  quite  unable  to  find  described ;  this  butterfly,  in  contra- 
distinction to  the  former,  sat  with  its  wings  folded,  displaying 
the  undersides  of  rich  and  deep,  yet  delicate  shadings  of  dres- 
den  brown,  cinnamon,  russet  and  olive-gray,  pencilled  with 
blue-black  and  smoky  maroon  ;  very  soon  these  two  first  com- 
ers were  joined  by  a  butterfly  which  quickly  flew  away  again 
and  which  I  took  to  be  a  CaUithca,  one  or  two  Hesperidae, 
a  large  Callidryas  resplendent  in  orange  red  and  orange  yellow, 
and  strangely  enough  a  Heliconiits  cyrbia  which,  after  taking 
a  few  sips,  sailed  around  the  spot  a  few  moments  displaying 
its  lovely  wings  of  azurite  blue,  shading  to  black  with  crimson 
bands  and  white  edged  hind  margins  and  then,  to  my  great 
surprise,  again  alighted  on  the  wet  trunk  and  deposited  eight 
eggs  on  the  viscous  timber.  Unfortunately  a  heavy  shower 
of  rain  now  came  on  and  the  butterflies  were  driven  away  by 
the  downpour. 

The  next  day,  being  still  in  the  same  locality,  I  stripped 
off  some  more  pieces  of  the  bark  and  again  a  rather  diversified 
congregation  of  insects  resulted — a  Zconia,  with  tails  as  long 
as  its  own  iridescent,  transparent,  scarlet  blotched  wings ;  a 
few  Gynaecia  dirce,  one  or  two  Catagrammas  in  golden  brown, 
garnet  and  carmine,  a  large  Adelpha,  which,  like  the  Callithca. 
however,  did  not  remain  long;  an  Evcnus  (rcgalis?)  displayed 
its  glorious  scintillating,  golden-green,  peacock-blue  and  pur- 
ple banded  under  surfaces;  one  of  the  locally  numerous  and 
varied  Morphos  for  a  short  while  settled,  slowly  opening 
and  closing  its  great  wings  of  profound,  yet  radiant  blue 
changing  with  position  to  purples,  and  silvery-green ;  and 
again  two  unlikely  butterflies  that  strangely  enough,  oviposited 

28  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Jan.,  '22 

on  the  tree  trunk  itself  in  spite  of  its  utter  unsuitability  for 
larval  existence ;  these  were  Papilio  epenetus  and  what  I  took 
to  be  an  Agrias,  like  the  Prepona,  the  only  one  of  its  species 
I  ever  saw.  In  all  instances  the  ova  were  deposited  in  a  close 
group.  I  have  seen  the  Hcliconiits  and  the  Papilio  ovipositing 
under  natural  conditions  on  Passiliora  sp.  and  Citrus  decum-ani 
respectively;  the  former  deposits  a  single  egg  on  the  tip  of  a 
separate  leaf ;  I  never  found  more  than  one  egg  to  a  leaf. 
The  Papilio,  on  the  other  hand,  places  its  score  or  so  of  eggs 
in  a  close  group ;  an  Agrias  of  differing  species,  that  I  had 
been  fortunate  enough  to  observe,  placed  its  eggs  quite  sepa- 
rately on  the  under  sides  of  the  leaves.  In  addition  to  the 
above  perhaps  interesting  subject,  I  may  be  allowed  to  men- 
tion superficially  one  or  two  other  insects  attracted  by  the 
odor  of  the  fermenting  sap — two  were  very  prominent — a  fine 
Elater  of  silvery  gray  with  a  longitudinal  red  line  at  each  side 
of  the  thorax  and  elytra,  and  black  lines  in  centre  and  a  lively 
Wasp  with  a  sparkling  green-blue  body  and  shining  bronze 
wings  ;  early  one  morning  a  great  "Harlequin"  Beetle  (Macro- 
pus  longinianus}  hanging  on  by  its  six- inch  long  forelegs 
after,  presumably,  a  night's  debauch,  its  grotesquely  designed 
body  markings  of  stripes  and  curved  blotches  in  red,  black  and 
sage-green,  making  it  a  very  conspicuous  object.  Another 
solitary  and  very  large  visitor  was  a  giant  locust  of  the  genus 
Tropidacris ;  its  crimson  and  black  \vings  gave  a  spread  of 
nine  inches,  with  body  and  legs  in  proportion.  In  fair  number, 
but  making  only  a  very  short  visit,  came  a  colossal  wasp,  a 
Sceliphron  (apparently  near  nigripes},  but  seeming  to  appre- 
ciate more  the  flowers  of  a  Cacsalpina  coriaria  nearby.  In 
much  larger  numbers  came  the  black  stingless  Bees  and  cer- 
tain Sarcophagidae  and  Muscidae.  Ants,  strangely  enough, 
were  uninfluenced  by  the  attraction. 

On  several  occasions  thereafter  I  tried  the  stripping  of  bark 
in  places  where  Insect  life  was  intensely  abundant  in  num- 
bers and  very  varied  in  species,  but  either  the  sap  was  not  at 
the  right  stage  of  ripeness  or  the  trees  were  not  of  the  proper 
species,  as  all  that  resulted  were  Hesperidae,  of  course,  and 
the  equally  expected  Callidryas  and  Satyrinae. 

I  expect  to  return  to  the  same  localities  again  shortly  and 
this  time,  having  more  fixed  headquarters,  I  shall  install  a 
complete  outfit  of  breeding  cages  for  rearing  the  imagines  and 
for  making  colored  drawings  of  the  metamorphoses  of  all  pro- 
curable species  of  the  splendid  and  little  known  Lepidoptera 
of  this  difficult,  very  unhealthy  and  therefore  practically 
unmapped  and  entomologically  unexplored  country. 



The  Boundless  Field  of  Entomology 

With  the  present  number  the  NEWS  begins  its  thirty-third 
annual  volume  and  closely  approaches  its  third  of  a  century 
of  existence.  Many  changes  in  entomological  work  and  out- 
look have  taken  place  in  the  years  since  the  first  issue  of  this 
journal.  Like  politics  and  trade,  entomology  has  become  more 
international  and  the  insects  of  Asia  and  Africa  intrude  upon 
the  American  as  do  the  wares  of  the  Orient  and  measures  for 
the  relief  of  the  Near  East.  We  cannot  shut  out  the  rest  of 
the  world  entomologically,  even  if  we  would. 

Far  from  having  catalogued  the  insects  of  the  United  States, 
we  see  an  endless  vista  of  new  forms  to  be  distinguished,  even 
in  parts  of  our  country  supposedly  well  known.  "Species," 
which  the  entomologists  of  that  day  regarded  as  well  estab- 
lished, have  been  split  up  into  two  or  many  forms.  The  limits 
of  supposed  infra-specific  variation  have  been  contracted  and 
every  difference  between  individuals  assumes  an  importance 
which  our  predecessors  disregarded  or  esteemed  of  little 

In  every  sub-division  of  our  science  the  data  are  insuffi- 
cient and  the  conclusions  drawn  from  them  of  doubtful  or 
temporary  value.  There  is  a  superabundance  of  opportunity 
for  him  and  for  her  who  will  study  insects  intensively  and 


—  «»  — 

The  NEWS  takes  this  opportunity  of  thanking  all  those  who 
came  to  its  aid  by  subscribing  to  the  volume  for  1921  at  the 
increased  price.  While  this  price  still  holds  for  1922,  we  think 
that  signs  are  appearing  looking  toward  a  lessening  of  publica- 
tion costs.  When  realized,  this  decrease  will  be  placed  to  the 
advantage  of  our  subscribers. 


30  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Jan.,  '22 

Entomological    Literature 


Under  the  above  head  it  is  intended  to  note  papers  received  at  the 
Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  of  Philadelphia,  pertaining  to  the  En- 
tomology of  the  Americas  (North  and  South),  including  Arachnida  and 
Myriopoda.  Articles  irrelevant  to  American  entomology  will  not  be  noted; 
but  contributions  to  anatomy,  physiology  and  embryology  of  insects, 
however,  whether  relating  to  American  or  exotic  species,  will  be  recorded. 

The?  numbers  in  Heavy- Faced  Type  refer  to  the  journals,  as  numbered 
in  the  following  list,  in  which  the  papers  are  published. 

All  continued  papers,  with  few  exceptions,  are  recorded  only  at  their 
first  installments. 

The  records  of  papers  containing  new  genera  or  species  occurring  north 
of  Mexico  are  grouped  at  the  end  of  their  respective  Orders. 

For  records  of  Economic  Literature,  see  the  Experiment  Station  Record, 
Office  of  Experiment  Stations,  Washington.  Also  Review  of  Applied  En- 
tomology, Series  A,  London.  For  records  of  papers  on  Medical  Ento- 
mology,'see  Review  of  Applied  Entomology,  Series  B 

The  titles  occurring  in  the   Entomological   News  are  not   listed. 

10— Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington, 
D.  C.  12 — Journal  of  Economic  Entomology,  Concord,  N.  H.  19— 
Bulletin  of  the  Brooklyn  Entomological  Society.  33 — Annales  de  la 
Societe  Entomologique  de  Belgique,  Brussels.  36— Transactions  of 
the  Entomological  Society  of  London.  38 — Redia,  Firenze,  Italy. 
41— Bulletin  de  la  Societe  Entomologique  Suisse,  Bern.  49— Ento- 
mologische  Mitteilungen,  Berlin-Dahlem.  57 — Biologisches  Zentral- 
oiatt,  Leipzig.  59 — Journal  of  Agricultural  Research,  Washington, 
D.  C.  61 — Proceedings  of  the  California  Academy  of  Sciences.  San 
Francisco.  76 — Nature,  London.  78— Bulletin  Biologique  de  la 
^  ranee  et  de  la  Belgique,  Paris.  85 — The  Journal  of  Experimental 
Zoology,  Philadelphia.  96— Physis.  Revista  de  la  Sociedad  Argen- 
tina dc  Ciencias  Naturales,  Buenos  Aires.  Ill — Archiv  fur  Natur- 
geschichte,  Berlin.  118 — Die  Naturwissenschaften,  Berlin.  123— 
Zeitschrift  fur  Induktive  Abstammungs-  und  Vererbungslehre,  Leip- 
zig. 129 — The  Bulletin  of  the  Hill  Museum,  Witley,  Surrey,  Eng- 

GENERAL.  Bell,  E.  L.— Collecting  notes.  19,  xvi,  96-7.  Gif- 
ford,  J.  W.— Bee-sting  and  eyesight.  76,  cviii,  370.  Hanna,  G.  D.- 
Insects  of  the  Priblof  islands,  Alaska.  Introduction.  61,  xi,  153-5. 
Sasscer,  E.  R.— Important  insects  collected  on  imported  nursery 
stock  in  1920.  12,  xiv,  353-55.  Talbot,  G.— The  Hill  museum,  Sur- 
rey, England.  129,  i,  1-15.  Van  Duzee,  E.  P.— Orthoptera,  Neu- 
roptera,  Hemiptera  and  Lepidoptera  from  the  Pribilof  islands, 
Alaska.  61,  xi,  193-5. 

ANATOMY,  PHYSIOLOGY,  ETC.  Butschli,  O.— Yorlesungen 
iH'ber  vcrgleichende  anatomic.  III.  Sinnesorganc  und  leuchtorgane. 
r,  i:;-931.  Berlin.  Carpentier,  F. — Pterothorax  et  prothorax.  Etude 
des  segments  thoraciques  d'un  orthoptere.  33,  Ixi,  337-43.  Car- 

xxxiii, '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  31 

penter,  G.  D.  H. — Experiments  on  the  relative  edibility  of  insects, 
with  special  reference  to  their  coloration.  36,  1921,  1-105.  Lenz,  F. 
— Alternative  modifikationen  bei  schmetterlingen.  128,  xviii,  93-103. 
Malloch,  A. — Metallic  coloration  of  chrysalids.  76,  cviii,  302-3.  Mid- 
dleton,  W. — Some  suggested  homologies  between  larvae  and  adults 
in  sawflies.  10,  xxiii,  373-92.  Onslow,  H. — Metallic  coloration  of 
chrysalids.  76,  cviii,  366.  Rabaud,  E. — L'adaptation  et  1'instinct  des 
Cassides.  78,  Iv,  153-83.  Ruschkamp,  P.  F. — Wheelers  trophallaxis 
und  ursprung  der  insektenstaaten.  57,  xli,  481-94.  Seller,  J. — Ge- 
schlechtschromosomenuntersuchungen  an  Psychiden.  128,  xviii, 
81-92.  Tanzer,  E. — Morphogenetische  untersuchungen  und  beobach- 
tungen  an  Culiciden-larven.  Ill,  1921,  A,  7,  136-82.  Terao,  A. — A 
preliminary  note  on  the  structure  of  Hancock's  gland  of  Oecanthus. 
(Annot.  Zool.  Japon,  x,  41-4.)  Zeleny,  C. — The  direction  and  fre- 
quency of  mutation  in  the  bar-eye  series  of  multiple  allelomorphs  of 
Drosophila.  85,  xxxiv,  203-33.  Die  ruckbildung  der  augen  durch 
mutation  bei  Drosophila.  118,  xx,  648-50. 

ARACHNIDA,  ETC.  Berlese,  A.— Centuria  quinta  di  Acari 
nuovi.  38,  xiv,  143-95. 

NEUROPTERA.  Ulmer,  G.— Ueber  einige  Ephemeropteren- 
typen  alterer  autoren.  Ill,  1921,  A,  6,  228-67. 

Watson,  J.  R. — New  Thysanoptera  from  New  York.     19,  xvi,  78-86. 

HEMIPTERA.  Doane,  R.  W.— The  Stanford  collection  of  Cocci- 
dae.  12,  xiv,  306.  Parshley,  H.  M. — On  the  genus  Microvelia.  19, 
xvi,  87-93.  Pennington,  M.  S. — Notas  sobre  Coreidos  argentinos. 
96,  v,  28-39. 

Knight,  H.  H. — A  new  species  of  Bolteria  (Miridae).  19,  xvi, 

LEPIDOPTERA.  Engelhardt,  G.  P.— Foodplant  of  Luperina 
passer.  19,  xvi,  86-7.  Giacomelli,  E. —  Sobre  un  caso  de  albinismo 
(?)  en  "Dione  vanillae."  (Nymphalidae.)  96,  v,  64-6.  Hering,  M.— 
Die  geographische  verbreitung  der  Libytheiden.  Ill,  1921,  A,  4, 

DIPTERA.  Headlee,  T.  J.— The  mosquitoes  of  New  Jersey  and 
their  control.  (New  Jersey  Agr.  Exp.  Sta.,  Bull.  348,  229  pp.) 
Hoffman,  W.  A. — An  early  record  regarding  bot  flies.  12,  xiv,  374. 
Peryassu,  A.  G. — Os  Anophelineos  do  Brasil.  (Arch.  Mus.  Nac., 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  xxiii,  9-104.)  Shannon,  R.  C. — A  reclassification  of 
the  subfamilies  and  genera  of  the  North  American  Syrphidae.  19, 
xvi,  65-72. 

Alexander,  C.  P. — Dipterous  insects  of  the  family  Tipulidae  from 
the  Pribilof  islands,  Alaska.  61,  xi.  183-4.  Cole,  F.  R. — Diptera  from 

32  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Jan.,  '22 

the  Pribilof  Islands,  Alaska.  61,  xi,  169-77.  Felt,  E.  P.— The  number 
of  antennal  segments  in  gall  midges  and  a  new  species.  19,  xvi,  93-6. 
Johnson,  C.  W. — New  species  of  Diptera.  (Occ.  Pap.  Boston  Soc. 
Nat.  Mist.,  v,  11-17.)  Malloch,  J.  R. — Dipterous  insects  of  the  family 
Anthomyiidae  from  the  Pribilof  islands,  Alaska.  61,  xi,  178-82.  Van 
Duzee,  M.  C. — A  new  species  of  the  dipterous  family  Dolichopodidae 
from  the  Pribilof  islands,  Alaska.  61,  xi,  167-8. 

COLEOPTERA.  Banninger,  M. — Vierter  beitrag  zur  kenntnis 
der  Carabinae.  49,  x,  112-20  (cont.).  Craighead,  F.  C. — Hopkins 
host-selection  principle  as  related  to  certain  cerambycid  beetles.  59, 
xxii,  180-220.  Kessel,  F. — Ueber  die  stellung  der  Passandridae  im 
system.  Ill,  1921,  A,  6,  33-35.  Kleine,  R.— Ueber  die  stellung  der 
Ulocerinae  innerhalb  der  familie  der  Brenthidae.  Bestimmungs- 
tabelle  der  gattung  Estenorrhinus.  Ill,  1921,  A,  6,  268-74;  275-81. 
Knisch,  A. — Hydrophiliden  aus  Matto  Grosso.  Ill,  1921,  A,  6,  1-24. 
Notman,  H. — Concerning  species,  with  notes  on  Phytodecta  affinis, 
and  pallidus.  19,  xvi,  75-8.  d'Orchymont,  A. — Le  genre  Tropi- 
sternus.  (Hydrophilidae.)  33,  Ixi,  349-74.  Pic,  M. — Nouveautes 
diverses.  (Melan.  Exot.-Ent.,  xxxiv,  «63  pp.)  Wehrli,  E. — Mono- 
graphische  bearbeitung  der  gattung  Psoclos,  nach  mikroskopischen 
untersuchungen.  41,  xiii,  143-75.  Weise,  J. — Amerikanische  His- 
pinen.  Ill,  1921,  A,  5,  263-74. 

Van  Dyke,  E.  C. — Coleoptera  from  the  Pribilof  islands,  Alaska. 
61,  xi,  156-66. 

HYMENOPTERA.     Frers,  A.  G.— Notas  himenopterologicas.   96, 
v.  66-71.     Frison,  T.  H. — Hymenopterous  insects  of  the  family  Bre-- 
midae  from  the  Priblof  islands,  Alaska.     61,  xi,  185-7. 

Cockerell,  T.  D.  A. — Some  parasitic  megachilid  bees  of  the  west- 
ern U.  S.  The  epeoline  bees  of  the  American  museum  Rocky  Moun- 
tain expeditions.  (Amer.  Mus.  Novitates,  Nos.  21-23.)  MacGillivray, 
A.  D. — New  saw-flies  from  the  Pribilof  islands,  Alaska.  61,  xi,  188-92. 

The  December,  1921,  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  was  mailed  at  the 
Philadelphia  Post  Office,  December  16,  1921. 

If^  Morpho    menelau 

n  Stock      jar 

Morpho   menelaus.  per  100.   1st  qual.,  $110.00,  2nd  qual.,  $   78.0O 

Ornithoptera  hecuba,  males  65.00.  45.CO 

Urania  ripheus,  $90.  per  100;  Lycaena  exilis,  $6.00;  European  Lye.,  $500;  and  beautiful 
African  Lycaena,  $8.00  per  100.  Bright,  brilliant  mixed  Butterflies,  all  suitable  (or  Jew- 
elry, Trays  and  Decorative  Purposes,  good  quality,  $17.50  per  100.  Over  50,000  Butter- 
flies now  in  stock.  Prices  Net.  American  Currency.  Terms  Cash  or  C.  O.  D. 

G.  G.  MacBEAN    (Dealer),    Assiniboia,   Sask.,  Canada 


Large  Stock  of  Specimens  from  Ecuador,  Cameroon,  Celebes  and  Europe. 
To  be  sold  singly  and  in  lots  at  very  reasonable  prices. 

Lists  on  Application. 


0.  FULDA,  PROP..  63  FIFTH  AVE..  NEW  YORK 

Tropical  African  (Uganda)  Butterflies  and  Moths,  Etc. 

Excellent  Material.  Great  Variety. 

Apply  for  particulars  and  prices. 

R.  A.  DUMMER,  Care  S.  A   Museum,  Cape  Town,  South  Africa. 



One  of  the  ranking  collections  of  Europe,  containing  over  1200  species 
and  varieties,  represented  by  more  than  8000  specimens,  collected  in  all  parts 
of  the  world. 

Owner:— L.  Gylek,  Wahringerstrasse  132,  Vienna  XVIII,  Austria. 
A  detailed  list  of  species  may  be  obtained  from 


\X7  ANinTFT)  I  am  a  snut'in  invalid  and  very  thankful  to  hear  from  any- 
"  *"»OI  A  \LAJ  one  t}iat  wju  piease  give,  exchange,  or  sell  one  or  more 
perfect  specimens  or  live  pupae  of  large  moths,  such  as  Luna,  Selene,  Ori- 
zaba, Jorulla,  Splendida,  Promethea,  Calletta,  Hyperchiria  lo,  Budl« 
Incarnata,  Luecane,  Polyphemus,  Imperialis,  Cecropia,  Cynthia,  Papilio, 
etc.  Luna  pupae  and  midget  mounts  for  sale. 

WILLIAM  ENGELHART,  Cooley  Farm,  Warrensville,  Ohio 


From  Colombia,  South  America: 

Morpho  cypris  Morpho  amathonte 

sulkowskyi  Caligo  spp. 

From  Cuba: 

Papilio  columbus  Urania  boisduvali 

andraemon  Erinyis  guttalarts 

celadon  Protoparce  brontes,  etc. 

"        devilliersi 

From  Venezuela: 
Over  5000  Lepidoptera 

200  Dynastes  Hercules 

From  New  Guinea 

2000  Coleoptera 
200  Orthoptera 

From  Assam,  India: 

Papilio  arcturus  Kallima  inachis 

philoxenus.  Brahmaea  wallachi 

And  Many  Other  Showy  Species 

From  Tibet  (Bhutan)  : 
Arrnandia  Hdderdalii  Parnassius  hardwicki 



If  interested  kindly  send  yoi 
of  desiderata  for  further  information  to 


Department  of  Natural  Science  New  York 

G.  Lagai,  Ph.D.  56-58  West  23d  Street 

FEBRUARY,  1922 



No.  2 

•*   FFR  ]  1  19 



PHILIP  P.  CALVERT,  Ph.  D.,   Editor. 

E.  T.  CRESSON,  JR.,  Associate  Editor. 

HENRY  SKINNER,   M.D.,  Sc.D.,   Editor   Emeritus. 


EZRA  T.  CRESSON,  J.-  A.  G.  REHN, 



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delphia, and  The  American   Entomological   Society. 




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Plate  II. 



MEDIAL     L08C 







SEC  2 











L      THERMORTHEMIS         15 







FEBRUARY,  1922 

No.  2 


Kennedy — The  Morphology  of  the 
Penis  in  the  Genus  Libellula  (Odo- 
nata ) 33 

Parshley— Hemipterological  Notices— 
II 41 

Braun— A  New  Genus  in  the  Gelechii- 
dae  (Microlepidoptera) 43 

Tillyard — New  Researches  upon  the 
Problem  of  the  Wing- Venation  of 
(  donata 45 

Entomological  Losses  by  Fire 51 

Fisher— A  New  Cerambycid  Beetle 

from  Santo  Domingo  ( Col. ) 52 

Editorial — Entomology  at  the   Convo- 


cation  Week  Meetings   December, 


Hutchison — Mulford  Biological  Explo- 
ration of  i he  Amazon  Basin  News 

Bulletin  No.  5 55 

The  Crop  Protection  Institute 56 

Entomological  Literature 56 

Notice  of    Ferris'    Contributions    To- 
ward a  Monograph  of  the  Sucking 

Lice 61 

Obituary — Victor  Szepligeti 61 

Caroline  Burling  Thompson    62 
Doings  of  Societies — The  Entomologi- 
cal Society  of  America 64 

The  Morphology  of  the  Penis  in  the  Genus  Libellula 


By  CLARENCE  HAMILTON  KENNEDY,  Ohio  State  University, 


(With  Plates  II  and  III.) 

The  writer  has  just  recently  undertaken  to  trace  out  the 
phylogeny  of  the  genus  Libellula  through  a  study  of  the  penes. 
In  this  study  it  was  found  that  this  organ  was  more  complex 
and  varied  than  was  generally  supposed.  It  was  found  that 
the  internal  anatomy  of  the  penis  was  different  from  the  previ- 
ously published  ideas  on  the  subject.  This  article  will  confine 
itself  to  the  morphology  of  the  penis  and  the  honiologies  of  its 
parts,  while  the  phylogeny  of  the  genus  will  be  dealt  with  in 
the  second  article. 

The  leading  articles  on  this  subject  are  by  Rathke,  Goddard, 
Thompson,  Schmidt  and  Bartenef.2  Except  the  last  author, 

1  Contribution  from  Department  of  Zoology  and  Knt<>mology  of  Ohio 
State  UniuT.sity,  No.  65. 

-Sec  the  bibliography  at  the  end  of  this  article. 


34  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Feb.,  '22 

these  have  attempted  to  cover  too  much  ground,  as  the  penis  is 
very  different  from  genus  to  genus. 

Studies  of  the  developing  naiad  3  indicate  that  the  penis  in 
the  Anisoptera  is  an  outgrowth  of  the  anterior  end  of  the 
sternum  of  abdominal  segment  3.  It  is  flask-shaped.  The 
inflated  base  attached  to  the  sternum,  represents  the  body  of 
the  flask,  while  the  shaft  and  many  lobed  tip  represent  the 
neck  of  the  flask.  See  Plate  II,  fig.  4,  which  is  the  penis  of 
Libcllnla  composita.  The  Libcllnla  penis  is  divided  into  three 
segments  by  two  flexible  joints.  Segment  1  is  the  inflated  base, 
segment  2  the  short  shaft,  which  bears  a  short  spur  on  its  dor- 
sal apical  end,  while  segment  3  is  the  distal  portion,  which  con- 
tains the  seminal  vesicles  and  meati  and  which  bears  at  its 
apex  an  assortment  of  lobes.  In  the  Libellulinae  the  apex  of 
the  penis  may  bear  as  many  as  nine  lobes,  which  are  so  modified 
from  genus  to  genus  that  it  is  difficult  in  some  instances  to  fig- 
ure out  their  homologies.  The  first  half  of  this  article  will 
concern  itself  largely  with  these  lobes. 

THE  EXTERNAL  ANATOMY  of  the  penis  has  been  discussed 
by  Miss  Goddard,  by  Schmidt  and  by  Bartenef.     Schmidt  did 
not  name  the  parts.    Miss  Goddard  named  them  but  Bartenef 's 
terms,4  though  later,  are  so  much  more  apt  that  they  have  been 
followed  in  this  paper.     The  latter  author  used  the  penis  in  his 
monographic  revision  of  the  genus  Sympetrum,  so  the  present 
writer  has  begun  this  study  by  showing  how  Bartenef 's  terms 
apply  to  the  penis  of  our  own  Sympctrmn  scniicinctum.     See 
Plate  II,  figs.  1  and  2.     In  this  species  all  the  lobes  are  about 
equally  developed,  which  may  be  a  primitive  character.     The 
only  species  of  Libcllnla  in  which  a  similar  condition  exists  is 
semifasciata  on  account  of  which  condition  the  writer  has  con- 
sidered scmifasciata  to  be  our  most  ancient  Libcllnla.     The 
individual  lobes'  will  be  discussed  as  follows: 

Lateral  lobes  (marked  L  in  all  the  figures).  These  are  the  outer  and 
most  conspicuous  pair  of  lobes  and  are  usually  heavily  chitinized.  In 
Sympetrum  scmicinctum,  Plate  II,  figs.  1  and  2,  they  are  flattened 
cylinders  as  also  in  Libcllula  angclina,  Plate  II,  fig.  7.  In  semifasciata 

3  Thompson,  Backhoff. 

4  Bartenef.     Fig.  9,  p.  24,  Libellulidae,  Ins.  Neur.  Faune  Russe. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  35 

they  are  linear,  Plate  II,  fig.  5,  in  depressa  forked,  Plate  II,  fig.  12, 
while  in  Orthemis  they  are  hroad  flat  lobes,  Plate  II,  fig.  13.  These 
lobes  are  usually  easily  identified  and  are  the  starting  point  for  the 
identification  of  the  others. 

Medial  lobes  (marked  M  in  all  the  figures).  These  lie  entad  and 
ccphalad  of  the  lateral  lobes,  or  dorsad  from  them  if  the  penis  is 
straightened  out.  These  are  usually  unchitinized  and  are  not  always 
easily  identified  until  the  distal  meatus  of  the  seminal  vesicles  is 
located.  These  lobes  are  the  two  lips  guarding  the  distal  (or  apical) 
meatus.  In  lydia,  Plate  III,  fig.  16,  there  is  a  secondary  or  inner  pair 
of  medial  lobes  within  the  outer,  larger  pair.  The  medial  lobes  are 
usually  unchitinized  and  are  somewhat  erectile.  In  jesseana,  Plate  III, 
fig.  26,  they  are  covered  with  papillae  when  erect.  In  depressa,  if  cor- 
rectly identified,  they  are  chitinized  with  free  ends,  Plate  II,  fig.  12. 

Connta  (marked  C  in  all  the  figures).  These  are  very  conspicuous 
in  many  species  of  Sympctrum  but  are  frequently  highly  modified  in 
Libcllitla.  In  Sympetrum  they  are  a  pair,  but  in  Libellula  a  third  cornu 
may  exist  which  then  lies  between  the  other  two.  These  are  unchitinized, 
except  in  A-iihieiilata,  and  arise  at  the  extreme  apex  of  the  penis.  The 
cornua  are  well  developed  in  the  primitive  scinifasciata,  Plate  II,  fig.  5, 
where  the  median  one  is  rudimentary,  in  saturata,  Plate  IT,  fig.  3,  where 
the  right  one  is  asymmetrical,  and  in  Oft  lie  in  is,  Plate  II,  fig.  13.  In 
Orlhetniin,  Plate  II,  fig.  14,  if  correctly  identified,  there  seems  to  be  but 
(me.  In  coinposita.  Plate  II,  fig.  4,  nodisticta,  Plate  II,  fig.  6  and  -inccstii, 
Plate  II,  fig.  10,  they  are  probably  represented  by  the  apical  tooth,  as 
in  coiiiposita :  just  under  the  apical  tooth  are  two  smaller  teeth  which 
may  be  homologous  to  the  lateral  cornua.  In  jesseana,  Plate  III,  figs. 
26  and  27,  this  median  cornu  is  drawn  out  into  a  long  tail.  In  anaelinti, 
Plate  II.  fig.  7,  the  cornua  are  flattened,  which  specialization  is  carried 
much  farther  in  Platliemis,  Plate  II,  fig.  11,  and  Plate  III,  fig.  16. 

Internal  lobes  (marked  /  in  all  the  figures).  These  occur  in 
.•>\inpelntin  but  are  usually  not  conspicuous  in  Libellula,  unless  they  are 
homologous  with  the  part  marked  /  in  the  figures  of  jesseana,  Plate  111, 
figs.  26  and  27.  These  parts  are  very  erectile  and  are  usually  .with- 
drawn quite  completely  in  the  dried  penis. 

Posterior  lobe  (marked  P  in  all  the  figures).  This  is  an  unpaired, 
very  erectile  lobe  arising  on  the  posterior  or  ventral  surface.  It  shows 
in  cros>  M-rtion  in  Plate  III,  fig.  21.  It  is  retracted  and  not  visible  in 
Plate  III,  fig.  16.  It  is  fully  erect  in  Plate  III,  fig.  26,  of  jesseana. 

The  least  spcriali/ed  penis  in  the'  u;eiius  Libellula  is  that  of  semifas- 
eiatit.  .\  comparison  of  Plate  II.  tigs.  1  and  5,  will  show  that  it  is 
remarkably  like  the  penis  of  Syiiipetntin.  However,  in  the  various 
branches  of  the  genus  Libellula  some  very  high  speciali/ations  have 
come  about.  The  cornna  of  the  satnntta  group  are  fringed,  while  those 
of  the  two  Pltitlieinis  are  short  and  broad.  The  apex  (cornua?)  of  the 

36  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Feb.,  '22 

fuk'a  penis  is  inflated,  Plate  II,  fig.  9.  The  lateral  lobes  in  Plathcmis 
are  paddle-shaped  and  the  medial  lobes  of  incesta  and  jesscana  are  cov- 
ered by  a  prominent  chitinous  hood,  Plate  II,  fig.  10,  and  Plate  III,  fig. 
26.  In  the  composita  series,  including  incesta,  jesscana,  etc.,  the  various 
soft  lobes  are  very  erectile  and  are  covered  with  a  plush  of  erectile 
hairs.  See  Plate  III,  fig.  26. 

The  homologies  of  these  various  lobes  will  be  more  apparent  in  the 
figures  of  the  second  article  where  a  larger  series  of  species  is  figured. 

THE  INTERNAL  ANATOMY  of  the  Libellula  penis  is  illustrated 
in  Plate  III.     The  most  of  this  part  of  the  study  is  based  on 
the  penis  of  Plathcmis  lydia  because  the  writer  happened  to 
have  material  of  that  species  that  could  be  sectioned.     Fig.  16 
shows  the  adult  lydia  penis  in  ventral  and  lateral  views.     Fig. 
17  is  a  diagram,  in  shadows,  of  the  penis  of  a  last  instar  naiad, 
as  this  organ  lies  in  its  temporary,  larval  sulcus  at  the  anterior 
end  of  the  sternum  of  abdominal  segment  3.     In  this  stage  the 
apex  (penis  segment  3)  of  the  penis  is  fully  developed  but  the 
shaft  (segment  2)  and  the  inflated  base   (segment  1)   are  still 
only  partially  developed  and  are  wholly  unexpanded.     By  com- 
paring fig.  17  with  fig.  16,  the  difference  between  the  two  stages 
can  be  seen.     The  vertical  lines  indicated  by  letters  in  fig.   17 
locate  the  levels  of  the  sections  shown  in  figs.  18-25,  each  of 
which  bears  a  letter  to  correspond  with  its  level  on  fig.   17. 
The  internal  anatomy  of  the  Libcllnla  penis  is  simple.    In  its 
adult  condition  it  is  merely  a  bag  of  cuticula  lined  with  a  layer 
of  hypodermis  and  containing,  besides  two  tracheae,  the  re- 
mains of  the  embryonic  tissue  which  filled  its  cavity  during  its 
development.    Apparently  this  tissue  breaks  down  at  the  emerg- 
ence of  the  naiad,  so  that  in  the  imago  the  penis  interior  is  a 
cavity  continuous  with  the  haemocoele  of  the  body.     Probably 
erection  of  this  organ  is  due  to  a  sudden  surge  of  blood  from 
the  abdomen  into  this  cavity.  Fig.  25  is  a  cross-section  through 
the  embryonic  penis  shown  in  fig.  17  at  the  level  H,  and  show:« 
the  connection  of  the  embryonic  tissue  of  the  penis  cavity  and 
the  haemocoele  of  the  abdomen.     This  is  before  the  embryonic 
tissue  has  disappeared. 

The  penis  has  two  external  openings,  one  at  the  apex,  be- 
tween the  medial  lobes,  which  I  have  termed  the  distal  meat  us. 
and  one  at  the  outer  end  of  the  penis,  which  I  have  termed  the 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  37 

proximal  meatns.  See  fig.  16,  dm  and  pm.  Williamson  was 
the  first  to  point  out  that  the  penis  had  two  openings.  He  has 
figured  these  for  DesmogompJms.5  In  the  naiad  both  meat 
face  ventrad,  as  shown  in  fig.  17.  At  the  emergence  of  the  naiad 
into  imaginal  life  the  penis  bends  at  the  level  of  the  proximal 
meatus,  so  that  this  meatus  faces  cephalad  in  the  adult.  The 
distal  meatus  is  guarded  by  the  two  medial  lobes,  but  the 
proximal  meatus  lies  fully  exposed  on  the  outer  bend  of  the 

In  Desmogomphus,  \Yilliamson  uses  the  old  terminology 
and  calls  the  inflated  base  the  "vesicle."  Distad  to  this  are  three 
other  joints,  which  he  terms  first,  second  and,  third,  the  apical 
segment  being  the  "third."  As  the  "vesicle"  of  the  old  termin- 
ology is  merely  the  inflated  base  of  the  penis,  this  becomes  seg- 
ment 1,  as  I  have  named  the  parts  in  this  article,  so  that  the 
Desmogomphus  penis  has  four  joints  where  the  Libcllula  penis 
has  but  three.  The  segments  still  homologize  in  the  two  penes. 
Segment  4  of  the  Dcsnwgouiphiis  penis  is  merely  the  region  of 
the  distal  meatus  drawn  out  into  a  small  apical  segment  not; 
found  in  Libcllula.  Segment  3  of  the  penis  of  Libcllnla  equals 
segments  3  and  4  of  the  Desmogomphus. 

The  two  meati  are  connected  by  a  tube,  which  is  marked  T 
in  fig.  17.  At  either  end  this  tube  is  dilated  into  a  vesicle.  The 
distal  vesicle,  dv  in  fig.  17,  lies  just  within  the  tip  of  segment  3. 
The  proximal  vesicle,  pv  in  fig.  17,  lies  exactly  in  the  flexible 
outer  bend  of  the  (adult)  penis.  In  the  Libcllula  penis  these 
openings  and  vesicles  do  not  connect  with  the  cavity  or  inflated 
base  of  the  penis.  The  true  seminal  vesicle  is  this  pair  of 
connected  pockets  in  the  apex  of  the  penis  and  not  the  inflated 
base  of  it,  as  has  hitherto  been  supposed.  Just  how  these  apical 
vesicles  and  meati  function  can  be  only  surmised  in  our  present 
ignorance  of  their  action.  No  muscles  or  other  structures 
insi'de  the  penis  were  found  that  might  operate  them.  As  the 
proximal  vesicle,  p-r,  lies  exactly  in  the  flexible  bend  of  the 
penis,  its  action  in  filling  and  emptying  is  probably  directly  cor- 
related with  the  motions  of  this  joint.  The  distal  vesicle,  dr. 

•'  A  nc\v  Gomphine  j^mis    from   I'.ritish  Ciuiana.     Occ.  Papers  No.  80, 
Mus.  Zool.  Univ.  Mich.,   1920. 

38  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Feb.,  '22 

might  be  emptied  by  a  crushing  in  of  the  erectile  lobes  on  the 
end  of  the  penis  when  this  organ  is  inserted  into  the"  female. 
Because  of  the  hard,  heavily  chitinized  wall  of  the  penis  on  the 
side  opposite  the  lobes,  any  pressure  on  these  would  tend  to 
flatten  and  empty  the  apical  vesicle.  The  tube  connecting  the 
two  vesicles  suggests  that  one  is  efferent  and  the  other  afferent. 
Because  the  penis  of  the  adult  dragonfly  contains  such  flinty 
chitin,  the  sections  of  this  organ  were  made  from  an  individual 
in  the  last  naiadal  instar.  By  taking  the  naiad  just  before 
emergence,  the  outer  cuticula  peels  off  easily,  leaving  a  soft 
insect  that  the  razor  can  slice.  While  the  embryology  of  the 
penis  was  not  studied,  it  is  probably  true  that  the  vesicles  in 
the  tip  are  imaginations  of  the  body-wall  of  the  penis  tip. 
They  are  lined  with  chitin  and  in  this  final  stage  they  each  con- 
tain two  cuticular  exuviae,  so  that  one  may  legitimately  infer 
that  the  vesicles  exist  in  the  penis  during  the  last  three  instars 
of  the  naiad.  The  sections  figured  on  Plate  III  are  all  of  lydia 
except  figs.  28  and  29,  which  are  of  incesta.  The  figures  are 
drawn  to  show  only  outlines  and  cavities.  Each,  to  be  under- 
stood, should  be  referred  by  the  reader  back  to  its  proper  level 
in  fig.  17,  where,  as  mentioned  above  the  level  of  each  section 
is  indicated  by  a  letter  corresponding  to  that  of  the  figure  of 
the  section. 

Fig.  18  is  section  A  through  the  bases  of  the  cornua  and  the  lateral 
lobes.  The  ridges  on  the  outer  sides  of  the  cornua  are  the  distal  ends 
of  the  medial  lobes. 

Fig.  19  is  section  B  through  the  bases  of  the  cornua  and  the  lateral 

Fig.  20  is  section  C  and  shows  the  distal  meatus  and  a  small  slice, 
,f:',  through  the  apical  end  of  the  distal  seminal  vesicle. 

Fig.  21  is  section  D  through  the  distal  vesicle,  dz',  and  the  distal 
meatus,  dm. 

Fig.  22  is  section  H  through  the  seminal  tube,  T,  which  connects  the 
two  vesicles.  It  shows  also  a  thin  slice  across  the  proximal  end  of  the 
distal  vesicle,  dv. 

Fig.  23  is  section  F  showing  the  seminal  tube,  T,  and  the  tracheae,  /;•. 
This  figure  also  shows  a  cross  section  of  the  inflated  base,  bsc,  and  a 
portion  of  the  sulcus  of  the  sternum.  It  shows  also  the  ventral  dia- 
phragm which  is  muscular  where  it  attaches  to  the  body  wall.  This  dia- 
phragm is  well  developed  in  the  region  of  abdominal  segments  2  and  3 

xxxiii,  '221  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  39 

and  may  have  to  do  with  forcing  the  hlood  into  the  penis  when  the 
latter  is  erected. 

Fig.  24  is  section  G  through  the  proximal  vesicle,  pi',  and  the  proximal 
meatus,  />;».  It  shows  also  the  wrinkled  and  unexpanded  condition  of 
the  penis  shaft. 

Fig.  25  is  section  H  through  the  proximal  meatus  and  below  the  proxi- 
mal vesicle.  It  also  passes  through  the  attachment  of  the  penis  to  the 
sternum  and  shows  the  tissue  of  the  body-cavity  continuous  with  the 
penis  cavity.  The  author  has  found  no  actual  opening  from  the  ab- 
domen into  the  base  of  the  penis  hut  he  has  had  only  dried  and  poor 
material  to  work  with.  It  is  of  course  remotely  possible  that  the 
Libellula  penis  is  never  truly  erected,  that  the  erections  produced  by 
boiling  the  specimens,  as  in  fig.  26,  may  be  wholly  unnatural. 

In  the  series  of  species  beginning  with  the  primitive  com- 
posita  and  terminating  in  such  specialized  forms  as  librans 
and  iucesta,  the  softer  parts  of  the  penis  are  covered  with  a 
dense  plush  of  hairs,  which  become  erect  when  the  penis  is 
distended.  These  can  usually  be  demonstrated  by  boiling  the 
penis,  if  the  material  is  not  too  old.  Fig.  27  shows  the  penis  of 
jcsscana  relaxed  and  fig.  26  the  same  organ  after  boiling,  when 
it  is  supposedly  erect.  Fig.  28  is  a  cross-section  through  the 
penis  of  incest  a  at  the  line  shown  in  fig.  10  and  marked  sec. 
Fig.  29  is  the  upper  part  of  fig.  28  enlarged.  The  erectile  hairs 
shown  in  these  figures  are  hollow  outgrowths  of  the  soft  cuti- 
cula  and  fill  and  become  erect  when  the  main  organ  is  distended. 
At  that  time  they  are  distended  and  their  membraneous  base 
is  evaginated,  so  that  the  boiled  incest  a  penis  appears  somewhat 
as  does  the  erect  jcsscana  penis.  When  the  penis  is  relaxed 
these  hairs  are  so  completely  withdrawn  that  their  presence  may 
be  entirely  unsuspected. 

This  paper  has  shown  how  little  is  known  definitely  concern- 
ing the  genitalia  in  the  Odonata.  The  next  paper  will  show 
how  useful  the  genitalia  are  in  indicating  the  relationships 
within  the  genus  Libellula. 


RATHKE,  1832.     De  libellarum  partibus  genitalibus. 

Gom>AKi>.  IS'id.     On  the  second  abdominal  segment  in  a  few  /.//'. •//»//</</:•. 

Proc.  Amer.   1'hil.  Soc.  XXXV,  i>i>.  -'05-212. 
THOMPSON,  1(>OS.     Appendages  of  the  second  abdominal  segment  of  male 

dragonflics.     Hull.  X.  Y.  State  Mus.  No.  124,  pp.  249-263. 
BACKIIOFF,  1910.    1  >ie  Kntwicklung  des  Copulationsapparates  \<>n  Agritm. 

Xiitschr.  wiss.  Zool,  XCV,  pp.  647-/Ut.. 

40  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Feb.,  '22 

SCHMIDT,  1915.     Vergleichende  Morphologic  des  2  und  3.     Abdominal 

segment  bei  mannlichen  Libellen.     Zool.  Jahrb.,  Abteil.  Anat.  Ontog., 

XXXIX,  pp.  87-200. 
BARTENEF,    1915.     Libellulidae.     Insectes   Neuropteres   in   Fauna   de   la 

Russe.,  pp.  1-352. 
WILLIAMSON,  1920.     A  new  Gomphine  genus  from  British  Guiana  with 

a  note  on  the  classification  of  the   subfamily.     Occ.   Papers,   No.  80. 

Mus.  Zool.  Univ.  Mich. 



Figs.  1-2.  Sympctrum  scmicinctum  (Say).  Sunnyside,  Washington.  Lat- 
eral and  ventral  views  of  the  apical  segment  of  the  penis. 

Fig.   3.      Libcllula   saturata   Uhler.      Phoenix,   Arizona.      Penis,    ventral 
The  following,  except  fig.  11,  are  lateral  views  of  the  penis. 

Fig.  4.     Libcllula  composita  (Hagen).    Laws,  California. 

Fig.  5.    Libellula  scmifasciata  Burm.    Pungo  Lake,  North  Carolina. 

Fig.  6.    Libcllula  nodisticta  Hagen.     Laws,  Owens  Valley,  California. 

Fig.  7.     Libellula  angclina  Selys.     Kioto,  Japan.     Coll.  of  Ris. 

Fig.  8.  Libcllula  4-maculata  Linn.  Grodno  Government,  Poland.  From 

Fig.  9.     Libcllula  fulva  Muell.     Aries?     From  Morton. 

Fig.  10.    Libcllula  inccsta  Hagen.     (No  locality).     From  O.  S.  U.  coll. 

Fig.  11.  Libcllula  subornata  (Hagen).  Golconda,  Nevada.  Apex  of 
penis  viewed  from  the  inner  dorsal  side  with  the  lateral  lobes  spread. 
Enlarged.  See  Plate  III,  fig.  16  of  lydia. 

Fig.  12.  Libcllula  dcprcssa  Linn.  Lublin  Government,  Poland.  From 

Fig.  13.  Orthcinis  ferruginea  (Fabr.).  Atoyac,  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico. 
Coll.  O.  S.  U. 

Fig.  14.  Orthctrum  cacnilesccns  (Fabr.).  North  Wales.  From  Mor- 

Fig.  15.  Thcnnorthcmis  madagascarensis  (Ramb.).  Madagascar.  Coll. 
O.  S.  U. 


Figs.  16-25.    Libcllula  lydia  (Drury).     Columbus,  Ohio. 

Fig.  16.    Ventral  and  lateral  view  of  adult  penis. 

Fig.  17.  Lateral  view  of  penis  of  the  last  naiadal  instar  drawn  in 

Figs.  18-25.  Cross-sections  at  the  levels  indicated  in  fig.  17  by  the  let- 
tered lines. 

Figs.  26-27.  Libcllula  jcsscana  Willsm.  Enterprise,  Florida.  From  coll. 
Williamson.  Fig.  26  is  erected  by  boiling. 

Figs.  28-29.  Libcllula  incesta  Hagen.  Kingsboro,  North  Carolina.  Cross- 
section  of  penis  showing  the  erectile  hairs. 


Plate  III. 

18  A 

19  B 

20  C 

21  0 


t,r  sternum 

primary  loniji 
Stern,  muse 

23  F         ganglion     \ventra|  diaphragm 



24  G      ^ 

abdom  cavity      25   H 





XXxiii,  '22  |  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  41 

Hemipterological  Notices. — II.1 

By  H.  M.  PARSHLEY. 

For  many  years  C.  A.  Hart  devoted  a  great  deal  of  attention 
to  the  Pentatomoid  Hemiptera  and  had  nearly  completed  his 
manuscript  when  death  overtook  him  in  the  midst  of  his  labors. 
His  work  has  not  been  lost,  however,  for  Professor  J.  R. 
Malloch,  the  dipterist,  saw  to  its  final  preparation  and  publi- 
cation, thus  putting  greatly  in  his  debt  all  who  take  an  interest 
in  the  group,  and  as  editor  he  added  a  considerable  amount  of 
supplementary  matter  (always  carefully  indicated  as  such), 
which  in  the  main  possesses  distinct  value.  The  paper  as  a 
whole  contains  a  great  deal  of  new  and  important  material, 
especially  some  excellent  pioneer  work  in  the  neglected  study 
of  the  nymphal  stages,  an  introductory  discussion  of  phylogeny, 
and  generic  keys  which  are  not  confined  to  the  Illinois  fauna, 
but  embrace  most  of  the  North  American  groups.  In  going 
over  the  work  I  have  noted  a  few  matters  which  call  for  com- 

Page  180.  The  editor  remarks  on  the  curious  results  achieved 
by  Hart  in  his  effort  to  arrange  his  keys  so  as  to  indicate 
natural  sequence.  Such  a  plan  usually  results  in  defeating  the 
prime  purpose  of  a  key,  i.  c.,  ready  identification,  since  obscure 
characters  often  have  to  be  used.  I  think  that  the  arrange- 
ment both  of  genera  and  higher  groups  should  be  ignored,  in 
favor  of  that  given  in  Van  Duzee's  ''Catalogue." 

Page  192.  I  am  unable  to  accept  Malloch's  splitting  of 
Huschistus  tristif/unis  into  two  (or  three?)  species.  Like  some 
other  Pentatomids,  this  species  is  variable  in  the  form  of  the 
lateral  pronotal  angles  and  no  line  can  be  drawn  distinctly  sep- 
arating the  acutely  angled  forms  (var.  pyrrhoccrus  H.-S.>, 
which  become  more  frequent  in  the  southern  states.  Possibly  a 
tendency  toward  racial  development  may  be  found  here  when 
sufficient  distributional  data  are  made  known.  Similarly,  fig.  79 

1  Contributions    from    the    Department    of    Zoology,    Smith    Colic 
Xo.  83. 
-111.    Xat.    Hist.   Survey,   Bull,   xiii,   157-2J3,  pis.    16-21,    1919. 

42  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Feb.,  '22 

of  pi.  21  probably  represents  the  southern  form  of  Thy  ant  a 
ciistator,  another  variable  species,  and  not  T.  pcrditor,  which  is 
a  species  of  the  tropical  zone.  Barber  (in  Jiff.)  calls  my  atten- 
tion to  this  point. 

Pages  199-200.  In  Hart's  treatment  of  Apateticus  the  spe- 
cies crocatus  and  bracteatus  are  confused.  The  facts  will  be 
correctly  expressed  if  the  names  are  transposed,  except  that 
Van  Duzee  is  misquoted. 

Pages  218-219.  The  editor  contributes  a  supplement  in 
which  Stal's  subgenera  of  Apateticus  are  elevated  to  generic 
rank.  I  am  firmly  convinced  that  a  great  deal  of  the  modern 
multiplication  of  genera  (by  subdivision  rather  than  by  the 
discovery  of  new  groups)  is  a  detriment  rather  than  an  advan- 
tage to  science,  but  aside  from  this  general  question  it  should 
be  noted  that  in  this  particular  case  nothing  can  be  settled 
properly  without  a  study  of  the  neotropical  species.  For  in- 
stance, the  type  species  of  Apateticus  Ball,  is  A.  halys  Ball. 
(—  lincolatns  H.-S.),  a  species  which,  as  I  have  identified  it, 
lacks  the  one  character  ascribed  by  Malloch  to  his  Apateticus. 
This  character,  the  presence  of  small  pronotal  spines  near  the 
basal  angles  of  the  scutellum,  is  not  mentioned  by  Ballas3  nor 
by  Stal,4  but  it  is  found  in  A.  marginiventris,  to  which  refer- 
ence is  made  below.  In  other  words  it  seems  unlikely  that 
Apateticus  Mall,  is  precisely  equivalent  to  Apateticus  Ball. 

I  think  moreover  that  it  is  even  very  doubtful  whether  the 
generic  separation  of  Apateticus  and  Podisus  advocated  by 
Van  Buzeer>  is  well  founded,  since  the  chief  distinction  between 
the  groups  lies  in  a  secondary  sexual  character,  the  abdominal 
stridulatory  areas  which  are  more  or  less  clearly  developed  in 
the  males  of  Apateticus,  s.  str.  I  believe  that  the  arrange- 
ment of  Stal  and  of  Schouteden"  will  be  ultimately  adopted, 
with  possibly  one  modification,  namely  the  foundation  of  a 
new  subgenus  for  A.  marginiventris  Stal,  a  species  which,  is 
unique  in  this  group  by  virtue  of  its  posterior  pronotal  spines 
and  its  very  peculiar  facies. 

3  List  Hem.  Brit.  Mus.  1 :  105,  1851. 

*Bidr.  Hem.  Syst.,  Ofv.  Vet.-Ak.  Forh.,  XXIV,  No.  7:498,   1867. 

5  Can.  Ent,  XLI :  370,  1909. 

GWyts.  Gen.  Ins.,  Fasc.  52:68,  1907. 

XXXlii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  43 


In  my  "Essay"7  on  Aradus  I  have  noted  a  few  clerical  errors,  only 
one  of  which,  fortunately,  is  of  importance.  On  page  41  the  Rhode 
Island  and  Connecticut  records  of  .lr<i<tits  n>!<iistus  are  omitted  and  the 
following  should  be  inserted  after  line  9 : 

RHODE  ISLAND:  Kingston,  May  (J.  Barlow).  CONNECTICUT:  Meri- 
den,  V,  10,  1910  (A.  B.  Champlain)  ;  Xew  Haven,  il,  _'6,  1911  (A.  B. 
Champlain)  ;  Rainbow,  V,  7,  1914  (M.  P.  Zappe)  ;  Stonington,  V,  1914 
(M.  P.  Zappe). 

On  page  29,  line  16,  for  p.  17  read  p.  50;  and  on  pages  32,  66,  etc., 
Ottawa  is  placed  in  Quebec  instead  of  in  Ontario. 


Namacus   annulicornis   Stal.      Arcadia,    Florida,    November   23,    191'.* 

(H.  L.  Johnson). 


Proxius  gypsatus  Bergroth.    Manning,  South  Carolina,  March  28-:?'.), 

1919  (E.  R.  Kalmbach). 
Neurqctenus  pseudonymus  Bergroth.     Clarksville,  Tennessee,  March 

26,  1909   (S.   E.  Crumb). 
Aneurus  simplex  Uhler.      Proc.   Boston   Soc.   Nat.    Hist.,    XIV:106 


Lcctotypc  :  $  ,  Mass.,  U.  S.  N.  M.  No.  25213.  This  specimen 
bears  Uhler's  original  label  and  should  be  formally  designated 
as  the  type  of  the  species,  especially  in  view  of  the  very  inade- 
quate original  description,  which  refers  only  to  the  antennal 
structure  and  to  the  granulation  of  the  surface.  A  female 
specimen  with  the  same  data  is  designated  allotype. 

A  New  Genus  in  the  Gelechiidae  (Microlepidoptera). 

By  ANNETTE  F.  BRAUN,  Cincinnati,  Ohio. 
STEREOMITA  new  genus. 

Head  smooth,  antennae  nearly  equaling  the  fore  wings,  ba-al 
segment  long,  slender,  stalk  somewhat  serrate  toward  tip.  Labial 
palpi  long,  recurved,  second  segment  thickened  with  scales  be- 
neath and  slightly  tufted,  third  segment  equaling  the  second, 
thickened  with  scales  in  the  middle  and  acute  at  extreme  apex. 
Maxillary  palpi  short,  apprcssrd  to  tongue.  Posterior  tibiae 
with  rough  hairs  above  and  in  the  middle  beneath,  middle  spurs 
from  before  basal  fourth  of  the  segment. 

l'"ore  wings  narrow,  lanceolate-acuminate;  11   veins,   Ib  fur- 

'  Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc.,  XLVII:  1-106,  1921. 

44  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Feb.,  '22 

cate  at  base,  2  and  3  coincident  from  the  angle,  arising  nearly 
opposite  9,  4  and  5  connate,  nearer  6,  7  and  8  out  of  6,  9  dis- 
tant, 11  from  beyond  middle.  Hind  wings  l/2,  a  little  narrower 
in  the  male,  with  anal  angle  less  distinct,  termen  emarginate, 
apex  produced ;  all  veins  present,  2,  3,  4  and  5  remote,  5  near- 
est 6,  6  and  7  very  short  stalked. 

Genotype :  Stereomita  andropogonis  n.  sp. 

Allied  to  Metzncria  and  Megacraspcdus,  but  distinguished  by 
the  absence  of  a  vein  in  the  fore  wing,  and  by  the  thickened 
third  segment  of  the  labial  palpi. 

Stereomita  andropogonis  n.  sp. 

Head  whitish  straw-colored,  palpi  straw-colored,  with  a  dark  brown 
patch  near  apex  of  second  segment  outwardly,  and  a  dark  brown  an- 
nulns  around  middle  of  third  segment.  Antennae  pale  ocherous,  with  a 
narrow  brown  annulus  at  the  base  of  each  segment,  and  four  broader 
blackish  rings  on  the  outer  half  of  the  stalk,  separated  from  one  another 
by  two  or  three  pale  segments.  Fore  wings  pale  ochreous,  deepest 
toward  apex,  and  dusted  with  dark  brown  scales,  most  densely  on  the 
costal  and  dorsal  margins  with  a  tendency  to  longitudinal  streaking ;  at 
two-thirds  of  costa,  the  dusting  usually  forms  two  diffuse  oblique 
streaks.  Along  termen,  there  is  a  series  of  indistinct  brownish  dots,  and 
opposite  extreme  apex,  in  the  cilia,  a  transverse  brownish  spot.  Cilia 
brownish,  except  on  costa  before  apex,  where  they  are  ocherous.  Hind 
wings  pale  brown,  cilia  ocherous,  with  a  faint  reddish  tinge.  Legs 
ocherous,  dusted  with  brown.  Wing  expanse :  8.5-9.5  mm. 

Type  (  $  )  and  32  paratypes,  Miamiville,  Clermont  County, 
Ohio,  August  19  and  25.  Type  and  paratypes  in  the  writer's 
collection ;  paratypes  in  the  collection  of  the  Academy  of  Nat- 
ural Sciences  of  Philadelphia  and  in  the  U.  S.  National 

The  larvae  feed  in  the  inflorescence  of  Andropogon  scoparins 
(bear-grass.)  Their  presence  is  indicated  by  yellowish 
patches  in  the  flower  spikes. 

The  moths  are  active  in  early  morning  and  in  the  evening, 
flying  at  the  top  of  the  stems  around  the  flower  buds,  and 
alighting  head  downward.  During  the  middle  of  the  clay  they 
rest  amongst  the  basal  leaves  and  are  only  disturbed  with  diffi- 
culty. In  markings  of  wings,  palpi  and  antennae,  and  in  gen- 
eral appearance  when  at  rest,  this  insect  remarkably  resembles 
some  species  of  Batrachcdra. 

xxxiii,  '22  |  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NKVVS  45 

New  Researches  upon  the  Problem  of  the  Wing- 
Venation  of  Odonata. 

I.  A  Study  of  the  Tracheation  of  the  Larval  Wings  in  the  Genus 
Uropetala   from   New   Zealand 

By  R.  J.  TILL  YARD,  M.A.,  Sc.D.  (Cantab.),  D.Sc.  (Sydney), 
F.L.S.,  F.E.S.,  Entomologist  and  Chief  of  the  Biological 
Department,  Cawthron  Institute,  Nelson,  New  Zealand. 

(Continued  from  page  7) 

We  may  now  ask,  what  position  does  the  family  Pctalnridac 
hold  in  the  evolutionary  line  of  the  Odonata,  and  what  are  the 
successive  stages  in  the  evolution  of  the  vein  Ms  ?  These  ques- 
tions can  be  very  clearly  answered,  as  follows  :— 

(A)  The  first  true  Odonata  had  entirely  lost  their  original 
Rs  as  a  distinct  branch  of  R.    I  shall  show  later,  from  a  study 
of   the   Palaeodictyoptera  and   Protodonata,   that  this   original 
Rs  arose  from  R  close  to  the  base  of  the  wing,  as  in  other 
archaic  types  of  insects,  and  that  it  was  captured  and  cut  off 
from   R   by  an   upwardly  arching  branch   of   M ,   of   the   type 
found  in  many  Palaeodictyoptera  and  in  all    Orthopteroidea. 
The   vein   so    formed,    after    its   severance    from    R,   had    the 
appearance  of  a  six-branched  media  ;  but  one  of  the  original 
branches,  Mia.  has  become  degraded  in  the  highest  forms  of 
Odonata.  leaving  us  with  only  fire  recognizable  main  branches. 
The    best    designation     for    this    composite    vein    would    be 
the  radio-median,  with  the  notation  RM  ;  but  I  do  not  propose 
to  adopt  this  new  notation  until  I  have  fully  established,  from 
the  fossil  record,  the  proof  of  its  complete  nature. 

(B)  This  original  condition,  which  became  established  with 
the  rise  of  the  Protodonata,   is  continued  to  the  present  day, 
without  change,  into  the  whole  of  the  Order  Zygoptera,  with 
the  single  exception  of  the  Lestidac.     In  all  living  forms  which 
have   this   primitive   condition,    the   Jarral   tracheation    of   this 
portion  of  the  "viny  agrees  eractlv  "^'itli  the  subsequent  iina</- 
inal  I'cnation;  and  this,  I  take  it,  is  additional  proof,  if  such  is 
needed,  that  neither  the  tracheation  nor  the  venation  of  this 
portion  of  the  wing,  in  these  insects,  has  ever  become  special- 

46  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Feb.,  '22 

(C)  Arising  from  somewhere  low  clown  in  the  Megapoda- 
grionine  stem,  we  find  the  first  tracheational  specialization  still 
in  process  of  becoming  established,  in  the  subfamily  Synlestinac 
of  the  Lestidac.  In  these  archaic  insects,  whose  close  affinity  with 
the  still  more  ancient  Mcgapodagrioninac  admits  of  no  doubt 
whatever,  we  find  that,  in   most  larvae   (the  genus  examined 
was  Synlestcs],  there  is  a  complete  formation  of  long  bridge 
and  distal  oblique  vein  0'.     This  has  been  brought  about  by 
one  of  the  small  tracheae  descending  from  A/2,  far  distad  from 
the  nodus,  capturing  the  line  of  the  vein  Ms,  so  that  the  orig- 
inal  trachea   which  supplied  this  vein   from   its  base   on  M3 
outwards  becomes  withered,  leaving  the  apparent  long  bridge- 
vein  as  the  basal  half  of  Ms.     Also,  Synlestes  still  shows  the 
archaic  position  of  the  origin  of  Ms,  viz.,  from  M3,  though 
most  recent  Zygoptera  have  Ms  arising  from  Ml +2.     But,  in 
a  certain  number  of  these  larvae  of  Synlestes,  one  or  more  of 
the   wings   may    retain   the   original   Megapodagrionine   condi- 
tion, i.  c.,  there  is  no  trachea  forming  the  oblique  vein,  which, 
consequently,  is  absent  in  the  imago. 

In  the  subfamily  Lcstinae,  the  oblique  vein  and  long  bridge 
have  become  completely  established.  An  exactly  similar  forma- 
tion is  to  be  seen  in  the  Epiophlebiidae,  and  also  in  the  fossil 
genus  Heterophlcbia,  which  is  closely  allied  to  this  family. 
Both  Epiophlebia  and  Heterophlcbia  are  to  be  considered  as 
belonging  undoubtedly  to  Handlirsch's  Suborder  Anisozygop- 
tera,  the  discovery  of  the  larva  of  the  former  genus  making 
the  recognition  of  this  Suborder  a  necessity,  as  I  have  shown 
in  a  previous  paper.4 

(D)  For  the  next  step,  we  must  postulate  an  origin  for  the 
Suborder  Anisoptera  from  forms  among  the  Anisozygoptera  in 
which  the  distal  oblique  vein  and  long  bridge  were  fully  estab- 
lished.    Pletcrophlebia  may   not   have  been  the  true   ancestor 
of  the  Anisoptera,  but  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  it  repre- 
sents very  closely  what  that  ancestor  was  like,  at  the  stage  of 
the  first  formation  of  the  triangle  in  the  hind  wing.     Starting 

4Tillyard,  R.  J.  "On  an  Anisozy  gopterous  Larva  from  the  Himala- 
yas (Order  Odonata).  Records  Indian  Museum,  1921,  xxii,  pt.  ii,  no. 
12,  pp.  93-107,  pi.  xiii. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  47 

with  an  ancestral  form  of  this  type,  the  true  Anisoptera  began 
with  forms  in  which  the  point  of  origin  of  M2  became  fixed 
close  under  the  nodus.  The  small  trachea  beneath  the  nodus, 
arising  from  R,  and  supplying  the  subnodal  vein,  must  next 
have  grown  out  as  a  very  slender  branch  beneath  .1/1  and  M2, 
just  beyond  their  point  of  union,  and  must  have  at  last  found 
its  wav  down  to  the  level  of  Ms  at  about  the  middle  of  the 


long  bridge.  There  being  no  trachea  supplying  the  long  bridge, 
it  is  not  difficult  to  see  how  this  new  trachea  came  to  supply 
its  distal  half.  With  a  very  slight  increase  in  the  development 
of  this  trachea,  we  get  the  stage  represented  in  the  ante- 
penultimate instar  of  the  larva  of  Uropetala,  in  which  the 
calibre  of  the  new  tracheal  outgrowth  is  still  much  smaller 
than  that  of  Ms.  Further  increase  in  calibre  would  give  us 
the  present  condition  in  the  last  instar  of  Pctaluridae,  in  which 
the  trachea  from  the  subnodus  underlies  the  basal  oblique  vein 
0,  and  supplies  also  that  portion  of  Ms  between  O  and  O'.  I 
would  suggest  that  the  notation  Rs  for  this  trachea  should  be 
definitely  abandoned.  As  it  is  a  tracheal  outgrowth  from  R 
below  the  nodus,  it  should  be  called  the  subnodal  trachea, 
while  the  notation  Ms  should  be  kept  for  the  whole  vein.  If  it 
is  desired  to  distinguish  the  three  portions  of  the  vein  Ms  in 
Pctaluridae,  we  might  speak  of  the  bridge  or  basal  portion,  the 
subnodal  or  middle  portion,  and  the  distal  portion,  respectively. 

Thus  we  see  that  the  Pctaluridae  stand  as  the  oldest  type 
extant  within  the  Anisoptera,  possessing  tzuo  tracheal  special- 
izations in  the  region  of  Ms;  one,  indicated  by  0' ,  being  derived 
from  Anisozygopterous  ancestors,  and  being  homologous  with 
that  seen  in  the  Lestidae  and  Epiophlebiidae;  while  the  other, 
indicated  by  0,  is  peculiar  to  the  Anisoptera,  and  is  to  be  con- 
sidered as  of  later  origin. 

(E)  If  we  examine  the  Cordulegasteridae,  which  show 
affinity  with  the  Pefaluridac  on  the  one  hand  and  with  the 
Aeschnidae  and  Gotnphidae  on  the  other,  we  find  occasional 
specimens  in  which  the  two  oblique  veins  of  the  Pctaluridae 
are  present.  But,  in  most  cases,  only  the  basal  oblique  vein  0 
is  present,  with  a  short  bridge-vein.  Thus,  in  this  family,  we 
see  the  dying  out  of  the  original  tracheal  specialization  indi- 



[Feb.  ,'22 

cated  by  0'  and  the  long  bridge ;  the  trachea  which  first  cap- 
tured the  line  of  Ms  via  O'  becomes  ousted  by  the  subnodal 
trachea,  and  the  result  is  that  we  get  the  formation  seen  in  the 
larvae  of  almost  all  Anisoptera  at  the  present  day,  viz.,  a  single 
oblique  vein  O,  placed  not  far  distad  from  the  level  of  the 
nodus,  a  short  bridge  vein,  and  an  apparent  trachea  Rs  supply- 
ing the  course  of  the  vein  Ms. 


Text-fig.  2. — Diagrams  to  show  the  evolutionary  stages  in  the  region  of  the  nodus  and 
oblique  veins  in  Odonata.  A-B,  the  primitive  condition,  in  which  the  imaginal  venation 
corresponds  with  the  larval  tracheation,  and  no  oblique  veins  are  present.  C,  formation 
of  the  long  bridge  and  distal  oblique  vein,  as  in  Lestidae.  D,  condition  seen  in  Petalu- 
ridae,  with  short  bridge  and  two  oblique  veins.  E,  condition  present  in  the  majority  of 
Anisoptera,  with  short  bridge  vein  and  only  the  more  basal  oblique  vein  present. 

Text-fig,  2  shows  the  tracheation  of  the  larval  wing  for  each 
of  these  evolutionary  stages. 

If  this  outline  of  the  evolution  of  this  portion  of  the  larval 
and  imaginal  wings  be  accepted,  we  must  recognize  the  Zygop 
tera  and  the  Anisozygoptera  as  the  first  two  Suborders  to 
appear  by  differentiation  of  the  original  Odonite  stock,  and  we 
must  allow  that  the  Anisoptera  only  arose  later,  from  some  of 
the  more  specialized  types  among  the  Anisozygoptera.  That 
this  was  actually  so,  I  believe  can  be  fully  proved  by  a  careful 
study  of  the  known  fossil  record,  as-  I  shall  endeavor  to  set 
out  in  a  later  part  of  these  researches. 

We  have  now  to  deal  briefly  with  one  line  of  criticism  that 
will  most  certainly  be  levelled  against  the  position  taken  in  this 
paper.  In  his  original  paper  (1),  Needham  gave  drawings  of 
the  positions  of  his  supposed  trachea  Rs  in  the  developing 
stages  of  the  larva  of  a  species  of  Gomplms.  No  photographs 
were  given  of  any  but  the  last  instar.  In  these  drawings,  it 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  49 

was  shown  that,  in  the  very  earliest  stages,  Rs  lay  in  its  normal 
position  below  R,  without  crossing  M  at  all.  At  a  somewhat 
later  stage,  Rs  was  shown  crossing  Ml  only.  Later  still,  Rs 
was  shown  crossing  both  Ml  and  M2. 

If  these  drawings  represent  the  correct  postion  of  Rs,  they 
do  most  certainly  constitute  a  strong  argument  for  Needham's 
view.  Quite  apart  from  the  difficult  question  as  to  the  actual 
possibility  of  both  a  vein  and  its  precedent  trachea  shifting  its 
position  in  this  manner,  it  must  be  admitted  that,  if  the  larval 
wing  shows  the  ontogenetic  stages  in  correct  order,  it  would 
be  very  difficult  to  avoid  the  conclusion  that  we  were  really 
dealing  with  the  original  trachea  Rs  in  this  case. 

Now,  I  have  repeatedly  attempted  to  parallel  these  figures  of 
Needham's,  by  dissecting  off  the  earliest  stages  of  the  larval 
wings  in  various  Anisopterous  genera ;  but  I  have  never  suc- 
ceeded in  finding  any  other  condition  than  that  in  which  the 
supposed  Rs  crosses  both  .1/1  and  M2,  as  it  does  in  the  last 
larval  in  star.  The  genera  examined  by  me  were  Aeschna, 
Hcmicordulia  and  Diplacodes.  Dr.  Ris  has  also  examined  the 
earliest  stages  of  the  larval  wing  in  Libellula,  and  his  results 
agree  exactly  with  my  own.  One  of  his  photographs  shows 
such  an  early  stage  of  the  growth  of  the  larval  wing  that  the 
extreme  length  of  it  is  barely  half  the  breadth  at  the  base;  yet. 
in  this  case,  as  in  the  corresponding  stages  of  those  genera 
which  I  have  examined,  the  supposed  Rs  descends  almost  trans- 
versely across  the  wing,  crossing  both  Ml  and  M2,  as  in  the 
last  larval  instar. 

There  were,  therefore,  only  two  possible  conclusions  to  come 
to.  Either  the  genus  GouiMnis  presents  a  more  complete  onto- 
genetic series  of  the  development  of  Rs  than  do  the  other 
genera  studied,  or  Needham's  drawings  were  incorrect. 

Recently,  during  my  tour  round  the  world,  I  visited  Ithaca 
and  met  Professor  Needham.  Together  we  collected  larvae 
of  Complins  and  Ha/jcnius  in  the  creek  there,  and  I  decided 
to  dissect  the  wings  of  the  earliest  stages  obtainable,  and  com- 
pare them  with  Needham's  own  drawings.  I  must  admit  that 
the  result  came  as  a  great  surprise.  Text-fig.  3  shows  the  con- 
dition in  the  two  earliest  obtainable  instars.  The  instar  shown 



[Feb.,  '22 

in  Text-fig.  3,  a,  appears  to  correspond  to  that  which  Ris  suc- 
ceeded in  obtaining  for  Libellnla,  and  is  certainly  quite  as  early 
a  stage  as  that  figured  by  Needham  in  which  Rs  is  shown  not 
crossing-  M  at  all.  The  next  instar  to  this  is  shown  in  Text-fig. 
3,  b,  and  this  is  certainly  either  earlier  than,  or  as  early  as. 
that  in  which  Needham  figures  Rs  as  crossing  Ml  only.  Sev- 
eral larvae  of  Gomphus  in  these  early  stages  were  dissected, 
together  with  one  larva  of  Hagcnins.  All  agreed  in  having  the 

R _R 

Text-fig.  3.— a,  Gomphus  villosipes  Selys,  early  larvarl  instar,  tracheation  of  portion 
of  forewing,  greatly  magnified,  b,  the  same,  next  succeeding  larval  instar,  complete  tra- 
cheation of  forewing  less  highly  magnified. 

supposed  Rs  in  the  position  shown  in  Text-fig.  3.  It  is  only 
possible  to  conclude  that  Needham's  figures  of  these  stages 
were  incorrectly  drawn,  probably  through  displacement  of  the 
very  delicate  tracheae. 

Thus  we  may  now  be  sure  that  no  ontogenetic  stages  of  the 
supposed  development  of  Rs  really  exist  in  the  early  larval 
instars  of  Anisoptera.  The  position  of  this  trachea  being  the 
same  in  all  instars  from  the  earliest  upwards  is  easily  under- 
standable on  the  theory  that  it  is  not  the  original  Rs,  but  an 
extension  of  the  subnodal  trachea,  as  I  have  indicated  in  the 
argument  presented  in  this  paper. 

A  further  objection  which  has  to  be  met  is  this : — If  this 
trachea  does  not  represent  the  original  Rs,  where  is  the  original 
Rs?  I  have  already  indicated  that  the  solution  of  this  problem 
depends  upon  a  study  of  the  known  fossils  of  the  Orders 
Palaeodictyoptera  and  Protodonata.  The  solution  would  take 
us  far  beyond  the  confines  of  this  paper,  and  is  left  for  a  future 
part  of  these  researches. 

I  have  referred  only  briefly,  in  this  paper,  to  the  interesting 
problem  of  the  cubital  and  anal  veins  in  the  Odonata.  It  is 
quite  clear,  from  a  study  of  the  fossil  record,  that  the  present 

XXxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  51 

interpretation  of  the  limits  of  these  veins  cannot  stand.  It  has 
always  been  a  serious  difficulty,  in  studying  the  homologies  of 
the  wing-veins  in  different  Orders,  that  the  vein  named  Cul 
in  Odonata  was  concave,  whereas,  in  all  other  insects,  this 
vein  is  a  strongly  convex  vein ;  and  it  is  equally  difficult  to  ex- 
plain how  the  vein  called  O/2  in  the  Odonata  should  happen 
to  be  convex,  when  this  vein  is,  in  all  other  insects,  the  most 
concave  in  the  wing,  forming,  in  the  Orthopteroid  and  Panor- 
poid  Orders,  the  vena  dividcns  separating  the  clavus  from  the 
rest  of  the  wing.  I  hope  to  show  that,  in  the  Odonata,  the 
true  Cul,  which,  in  most  insects,  originates  from  a  compound 
vein  MS  -r-  Cul,  is  the  vein  which  we  now  call  M4 ;  also  that 
the  vein  which  we  call  Cul  in  Odonata  is  in  reality  the  homo- 
logue  of  Cu2  in  other  Orders;  and  finally  that  the  single  anal 
vein  existing  in  the  Odonata  is  IA,  and  that  it  extended  orig- 
inally far  along  the  posterior  part  of  the  wing,  embracing  all 
except  the  extreme  base  of  the  vein  which  we  now  call  Cu2 
in  Odonata.  Further,  the  presence  of  only  one  anal  vein  can 
be  explained  only  by  supposing  that  the  original  ancestors  of 
the  Odonata  had  a  very  narrowed  base  to  the  wing ;  and  this 
also  I  shall  be  able  to  demonstrate  from  the  fossil  record. 

Sufficient  has  now  been  said  to  make  it  evident  that  we  re- 
quire a  complete  re-study  of  Odonate  wing-venation,  in  order 
to  bring  our  notation  into  line  with  that  used  in  other  Orders. 
Tf  it  is  found  impossible  to  arrive  at  any  general  agreement  in 
this  matter,  then  it  would  be  far  better  to  go  back  to  the  non- 
committal names  given  by  de  Selys.  rather  than  to  continue 
to  use  a  notation  which  gives  an  entirely  false  idea  of  the 
limnologies  existing  between  the  veins  called  radial  sector, 
media,  cubitus  and  first  analis  in  the  Order  Odonata  and  those 
carrying  these  same  names  in  other  Orders. 

Entomological  Losses  by  Fire 

The  home  of  Dr.  Charles  P.  Alexander,  lTrhana,  Illinois,  was 
destroyed  by  fire  on  Xe\v  Year's  morning.  The  greater  part  of  his 
collection  of  crane-flies  was  saved,  this  including-  all  hut  a  few  typ'.-s. 
Duplicate  material,  both  of  specimens  and  reprints,  was  larm  1\ 
destroyed  by  fire  or  water.  Reprints  that  bad  been  sent  before  by 
entomologists  :tnd  can  still  be  duplicated  will  be  very  L-rate fully  received 
Such  may  be  addressed  to  him  at  the  Natural  History  Building, 
Urbana,  Illinois. 

52  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Feb.,  '22 

A  New  Cerambycid  Beetle  from  Santo  Domingo  (Col.). 

By  W.  S.  FISHER,  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Entomology. 

Among  a  small  collection  of  West  Indian  Cerambycidae  re- 
ceived from  Mr.  J.  J.  Davis  for  identification,  the  following 
apparently  new  species  was  found. 

Callichroma  domingoensis  new  species. 

$ . — Elongate,  subcylindrical  and  attenuate  posteriorly;  head,  pro- 
notum,  elytra  and  underside  except  abdomen  dull  metallic  green  with  a 
slight  violaceous  tinge ;  antennae,  tibiae,  tarsi  and  abdomen  black ;  femora 
entirely  of  a  bright  reddish-brown  color,  and  somewhat  opaque. 

Head  deeply  longitudinally  grooved  on  vertex.  Antennae  about  one 
and  one-half  times  as  long  as  the  entire  body;  joints  three  to  eleven 
strongly,  longitudinally  carinated. 

Pronotum  with  the  medio-lateral  tubercle  well  developed  and  acute  at 
tip;  antero-lateral  callosity  not  strongly  marked;  strongly  constricted 
anteriorly  and  along  the  base,  the  basal  constriction  being  more  shallow 
than  one  along  anterior  margin  ;  disc  on  each  side  of  median  line  with  a 
feebly  rounded  gibbosity  just  behind  the  anterior  constriction;  surface 
strongly,  transversely  rugose,  with  a  few  distant  punctures  between  the 
rugae,  and  sparsely  clothed  with  short  black  hairs.  Scutellum  large,  tri- 
angular, and  longitudinally  concave;  surface  smooth  at  middle  and 
rather  densely,  finely  punctate  towards  the  sides. 

Elytra  two  and  one-half  times  as  long  as  wide;  sides  very  much  nar- 
rowed from  base  to  tips,  which  are  rather  broadly  separately  rounded ; 
humerus  well  developed;  surface  rather  deeply,  densely  and  confluently 
punctate,  becoming  feebly  rugose  towards  apex,  and  sparsely  clothed 
with  very  short,  inconspicuous,  recumbent  black  hairs. 

Abdomen  rather  densely,  obsoletely  punctate  and  densely  clothed  with 
a  short,  somewhat  silvery  pubescence ;  last  ventral  segment  broadly 
rounded  at  apex  without  any  trace  of  a  notch. 

Front  and  middle  femora  short  and  abruptly  petiolate  near  apex ;  hind 
femora  slender,  compressed,  gradually  becoming  wider  to  apex  and 
reaching  to  the  tip  of  the  elytra.  Front  and  middle  tibiae  about  equal  in 
length  to  the  femora,  slightly  compressed  and  gradually  enlarged  anter- 
iorly; surface  longitudinally  carinate,  finely,  irregularly  punctate  and 
clothed  with  long  stiff  black  hairs.  Hind  tibiae  not  quite  as  long  as  the 
femora,  moderately  broad  and  strongly  compressed ;  lower  surface 
broadly  concave  with  the  inner  margin  densely  clothed  with  a  series  of 
stiff  black  hairs. 

Length  28  mm. ;  width  8  mm. 

Type  Locality. — "San  Sidro,  Santo  Domingo."  Type. — Cat. 
No."  24676,  U.  S.  National  Museum. 

Described  from  a  single  male  specimen  received  from  Mr. 
J.  J.  Davis,  and  collected  by  Dr.  Browne  during  April  or  May, 
1919,  at  "San  Sidro,  Santo  Domingo."  [San  Isidro?]. 

This  species  resembles  Callicliroina  plicaturn  LeConte,  to  a 
certain  extent,  but  is,  however,  easily  separated  from  that 
species  by  the  abdomen  being  entirelv  Mack,  pronotum  less 
densely  punctured,  and  the  femora  being  uniformly  light  red- 
dish-brown in  color,  and  not  tipped  with  black  as  in  plica f it m. 



Entomology  at  the  Convocation  Week  Meetings,  December,  1921 
The  meetings  of  the  American  Association  for  the  Advance- 
ment of  Science  and  of  the  Associated  Scientific  Societies,  held 
at  Toronto,  Canada,  December  27  to  31,  1921.  were  highly 
successful  and  interesting,  well  attended  and  took  place  under 
favorable  weather  conditions,  the  extreme  cold  which  many 
feared  not  having  been  present.  The  arrangements  for  the 
meetings  in  the  various  buildings  of  the  University  of  Toronto 
were,  in  nearly  all  respects,  very  convenient  and  satisfactory. 
Lunches  and  many  dinners  were  held  in  Hart  House,  that  mag- 
nificent home  of  the  social  activities  of  students  and  faculty. 
To  the  members  of  the  Local  Committees,  especially  those  in 
charge  of  the  entomological  visitors,  we  extend  our  heartiest 

Papers    relating,    in    whole    or    in    part,    to    the    tracheate 
Arthropods  were  listed  on  the  programs  of 

A.  A.  A.  S.,  General  Sessions 1 

American  Society  of  Zoologists   (alone) 20 

The  same  with  the  Ecological  Society  of  America 2 

Entomological  Society  of  America  (alone) 16 

The  same  with  the  Entomological  Society  of  Ontario 15 

The  same  with  the  Ecological  Society  of  America 18 

Kcological  Society  of  America  (alone) 1 

American   Association   of   Economic   Entomologists    (alone,   but   in- 
cluding its  Sections  on  Apiculture  and  Horticultural  Inspection).  55 

The  same  with  the  Entomological  Society  of  Ontario 19 

Tlie  same  with  the  American  Phytopathological  Society,  symposium  1 

American  Society  of  Naturalists 2 

American   Nature  Study  Society 1 

American  Society  for  Horticultural  Science....  1 

Total    152 

These   152  papers  were  concerned   with   the  following  sub- 
jects : 


54  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Feb.,  '22 

General  Entomology  8  Relations  to   Plants    (noneconom- 

Methods  5  ic)  2 

Cytology  4  Parasites   (of  animal  hosts)  9 

Anatomy  8  Relations  to  Man  5 

Physiology  15  General   Economic  Entomology   19 

Ontogeny  4  Insects   Injurious  to   Plants  24 

Genetics  8  Insecticides   and   Fumigants    18 

Taxonomy  6  Apiculture  8 

Ecology  9  Other   Special    Insects    10 

Araneina   1  Hemiptera  16 

Acarina  6  Coleoptera  15 

Myriopoda  1  Hymenoptera   (exclusive  of  Apis) 

Orthoptera  3  8 

Isoptera  1  Apis  8 

Ephemerida  3  Lepidoptera  25 

Odonata  2  Diptera  (exclusive  of  Drosophila) 

Xeuroptera  1  19 

Mallophaga  1  Drosophila  6 

Anoplura  1  Siphonaptera  1 

Many  of  the  figures  in  this  second  list  are  duplicated ;  thus 
a  paper  on  the  Genetics  of  Drosophila  appears  under  both  of 
these  headings. 

The  paper  credited  to  the  general  sessions  of  the  A.  A.  A.  S. 
was  the  address  of  the  retiring  President,  Dr.  L.  O.  Howard, 
entitled,  "On  Some  Presidential  Addresses :  The  War  on  the 
Insects,"  which  has  been  published  in  Science  for  December 
30,  1921. 

The  symposium  of  the  Economic  Entomologists  and  the 
American  Phytopathological  Society  was  on  "Insects  as  Dis- 
seminators of  Plant  Diseases,"  in  which  Dr.  E.  D.  Ball,  of 
Washington,  D.  C,  and  Prof.  L.  Caesar,  of  Canada,  represented 
the  Entomologists. 

Included  in  the  above  lists  are  also  the  Annual  Address  of 
the  Entomological  Society  by  Dr.  Seymour  Hadwen,  of  the 
United  States  Biological  Survey,  on  "Northern  Oestridae" ;  the 
Presidential  Address  before  the  Economic  Entomologists  by 
Prof.  George  A.  Dean,  of  Manhattan,  Kansas,  on  "How  We 
May  Increase  the  Effectiveness  of  Economic  Entomology,"  and 
a  paper  read  by  Dr.  L.  O.  Howard  on  "The  Organization  Meet- 
ing of  the  Association  of  Economic  Entomologists,  at  Toronto. 
August,  1899."  This  was  "saved"  for  the  very  enjoyable 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  55 

Entomologists'  dinner,  at  the  Prince  George  Hotel,  on  Friday 
evening,  December  30.  At  this  occasion,  Professors  J.  H. 
Comstock  and  Herbert  Osborn,  guests,  with  Dr.  Howard,  of 
the  Association  of  Economic  Entomologists,  gave  some  very 
interesting  reminiscences  of  early  events  in  their  respective 

Not  included  in  the  lists  we  have  given,  but  of  great  interest 
to  entomologists  and  biologists  generally,  were  three  symposia, 
one  by  the  botanists,  "The  Species  Concept"  ;  one  by  the  Nat- 
uralists, "Origin  of  Variations,"  and  one  by  the  Zoologists, 
''Orthogenesis."  Here  too  we  must  mention  the  addresses  by 
Prof.  William  Hateson,  guest  of  the  A.  A.  A.  S.  and  of  the 
Zoologists,  on  "The  Evolutionary  Faith  and  Modern  Doubt" 
before  a  general  session  of  the  Association,  and  on  "The  Out- 
look in  Genetics"  at  the  Zoologists'  dinner. 

The  total  of  152  papers,  all  hough,  as  usual,  not  all  of  them 
were  given,  is,  we  believe,  the  highest  ever  listed  for  one  of 
these  meetings. 

Notes  and  Nevsrs. 



Mulford  Biological  Exploration   of  the   Amazon  Basin 
News  Bulletin  No.  5. 

The  arrival  in  Philadelphia  of  a  second  shipment  of  scient.fic  speci- 
mens from  the  Mulford  Exploration  is  announced.  The  H.  K.  Mulford 
Company  has  arranged  for  their  clearance  through  Customs  and,  in  ac- 
cord with  Dr.  Rusby's  instructions,  has  distributed  them  to  specialists  of 
the  Universities  and  Museums  who  are  co-operating  in  the  work  of  this 

The  latest  letters  received  from  Dr.  Rusby  and  his  party,  were  writ- 
ten Oct.  21st,  1921,  and  mailed  from  Rurrenabaque,  Bolivia.  Dr.  Rusby 
and  his  party  had  at  that  time  started  out  on  the  trip  to  Lake  Rocagua 
and  surrounding  territory,  with  the  expectation  of  finding  much  that  was 
new,  including  geographical  facts  as  well  as  biological  and  botanical 
imens.  Although  all  the  maps  of  South  America  show  the  Kin 
.\egro  as  the  outlet  of  Lake  Rocagua,  their  information  was  that  no 
connection  exists  between  the  lake  and  the  river  but  that  the  river  origi- 
nated in  a  low  range  of  hills  situated  near  the  lake. 

Cable  messages  since  received  indicate  the  successful  termination  of 
their  trip  to  Lake  Rocagua  and  progress  as  far  as  Kiberalta  in  Bolivia 
near  the  Brazil. an  border.  All  the  members  of  the  party  were  reported 
in  excellent  health  and  spirits  except  the  director  himself.  Dr.  Rushy 
has  been  suffering  I'nun  infectious  rheumatism  brought  on  and  height- 
ened by  the  exposure  and  hardships  of  the  life  in  the  wilderness.  It  is 
probable  that  on  account  of  the  state  of  his  health  it  may  be  necessary 
lo  abandon  the  second  part  of  their  trip  up  into  Columbia,  as  contemplat- 
ed in  the  original  plans. — R.  11.  Hi n  HISON,  Secy.,  Philadelphia,  Fa. 

56  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Feb.,  '22 

The   Crop  Protection  Institute. 

The  first  annual  meeting  of  the  Crop  Protection  Institute  will  have 
been  held  at  Rochester,  New  York,  in  connection  with  the  New  York 
Horticultural  Society's  meeting,  with  a  dinner  on  January  12th,  at  the 
Rochester  Chamber  of  Congress. 

It  was  announced  that  among  those  taking  part  on  the  program  v/ould 
be  Professor  W.  C.  O'Kane,  of  the  New  Hampshire  Agricultural  Experi- 
ment Station,  and  Chairman  of  the  Board  of  Governors  of  the  Crop 
Protection  Institute,  who  was  to  talk  on  the  ideals  of  the  Institute;  Dr. 
L.  R.  Jones,  Chairman  of  the  Division  of  Biology  and  Agriculture  of 
the  National  Research  Council,  whose  theme  was  to  be  the  "Relation  of 
Environment  to  Disease  and  Disease  Resistance  of  Plants  ;"  Dr.  R.  \Y. 
Thatcher,  Director  of  the  New  York  Agricultural  Experiment  Station, 
who  was  to  speak  informally  on  the  "Need  for  Investigations  in  the 
Chemistry  of  Insecticides  and  Fungicides."  From  the  standpoint  of 
industry  Mr.  G.  R.  Cushman,  of  the  General  Chemical  Company,  was 
to  give  a  brief  talk.  Professor  P.  J.  Parrott,  of  the  New  York  Agri- 
cultural Experiment  Station,  would  also  probably  talk  on  Paradichloro- 

The  Crop  Protection  Institute,  which  has  a  membership  of  about  three 
hundred  and  fifty  (350)  prominent  entomologists,  plant  pathologists, 
agricultural  chemists  and  manufacturers  of  insecticides  and  fungicides 
and  others  interested  in  the  protection  of  all  kinds  of  crops,  was  organ- 
ized only  a  year  ago,  under  the  auspices  of  the  National  Research  Coun- 
cil of  Washington,  D.  C.  The  purpose  of  the  Institute  is  not  to  dupli- 
cate the  work  of  individuals  or  other  organizations,  but  to  bring  about 
closer  co-operation  of  effort,  to  strengthen  the  weak  places  and  develop 
needed  investigations  that  are  not  being  pursued  by  other  agencies. 

Entomological    Literature 


Under  the  above  head  it  is  intended  to  note  papers  received  at  the 
Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  of  Philadelphia,  pertaining  to  the  En- 
tomology of  the  Americas  (North  and  South),  including  Ara.chnida  and 
Myriopoda.  Articles  irrelevant  to  American  entomology  will  not  be  noted; 
but  contributions  to  anatomy,  physiology  and  embryology  of  insects, 
however,  whether  relating  to  American  or  exotic  species,  will  be  recorded. 

The  numbers  in  Heavy -Faced  Type  refer  to  the  journals,  as  numbered 
in  the  following  list,  in  which  the  papers  are  published. 

All   continued  papers,   with  few  exceptions,   are  recorded   only  at 
first  installments. 

The  records  of  papers  containing  new  genera  or  species  occurring  north 

tomology,    Series   A,    London.     For  records   of  papers    on    Medical    Ento- 
mology,  see  Review  of  Applied  Entomology.   Series  B 

The  titles  occurring  in  the   Entomological   News  are  not  listed. 

2 Transactions  of  the  American  Entomological  Society,  Philadel- 
phia.     4 — Canadian    Entomologist,     London,     Canada.      5— Psyche. 
•Cambridge,   Mass.     9 — The  Entomologist,   London.      12 — Journal   of 
Economic    Entomology,    Concord,    N.    H.      15— Insecutor    Inscitiae 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  57 

Menstruus,  Washington,  D.  C.  20 — Bulletin  de  la  Societe  Ento- 
mologique  dc  France,  Paris.  22 — Bulletin  of  Entomological  Re- 
search, London.  39 — The  Florida  Entomologist,  Gainesville,  Florida. 
42 — Entomologiske  Meddelelser  udgivne  af  Entomologisk  Forening, 
Kjobenliavn.  48 — Wiener  Entomologische  Zeitung.  49 — Entomol- 
ogischc  Mitteilungen  Berlin-Dahlem.  52 — Zoologischer  Anzeiger, 
Leipsic.  54 — Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington. 
D.  C.  61 — Proceedings  of  the  California  Academy  of  Sciences,  San 
Francisco.  64 — Parasitology,  London.  68 — Science,  Lancaster.  1'... 
76 — Nature,  London.  77 — Comptes  Rendus  des  Seances  de  la 
Societe  de  Biologic,  Paris.  85 — The  Journal  of  Experimental 
Zoology,  Philadelphia.  87 — Arkiv  for  Zoologi,  K.  Svenska  Veten- 
skapsakademien,  Stockholm.  90 — The  American  Naturalist,  Lan- 
caster, Pa.  91 — The  Scientific  Monthly,  Lancaster,  Pa.  99 — Bulletin 
du  Museum  National  d'Histoire  Naturelle,  Paris.  102 — Broteria, 
Revista  Lusco  Brazileira,  Serie  Zoologica,  Braga.  104-  ZeitschrifL 
fur  Wissenschaftliche  Zoologie,  Leipzig.  106 — Anales  de  la  Sociedad 
Cientifica,  Argentina,  Buenos  Aires.  Ill — Archiv  fur  Naturges- 
chichte,  Berlin.  119 — Proceedings  of  the  National  Academy  of 
Sciences  of  the  U.  S.  A.,  Washington,  D.  C.  130 — Revista  Chilena 
de  Historia  Natural.  131 — Annales  de  Zoologia  Aplicacla,  Santiago 
de  Chile.  132 — Revista  do  Museu  Paulista,  Sao  Paulo.  Brazil. 

GENERAL.  Bird,  H. — Soil  acidity  in  relation  to  insects  and 
plants.  (Ecology,  ii,  193  7.)  Cockerell,  T.  D.  A.— Dru  Drury,  an 
eighteenth  century  entomologist.  91,  xiv,  67-82.  Glendenning,  R.— 
Notes  on  the  fauna  and  flora  of  Mt.  McLean,  B.  C.  43,  Xo.  is.  :;<>-44. 
Hempel,  A. — As  pragas  e  molestias  do  arroz  no  estado  de  Sao  Paulo. 
132,  xii,  147-50.  Howard,  L.  O. — On  some  presidental  addresses: 
the  war  against  the  insects.  68,  liv,  641-51.  Johansen,  F. —  Insect 
life  on  the  western  arctic  coast  of  America.  (Rep.  Canada.  Arct. 
Exped.,  iii,  K,  61  pp.)  Lucas  and  Strand. — Jahresberichtc  uhcr  die 
wissenschaftlichen  leistungen  im  gebiete  der  Trichoptera,  Mecoptera. 
rodentia,  Odonata,  Agnatha..  .  Orthoptera.  Ill,  I'.nti,  I'..  1-19,  171. 
Neuroptera,  Mallophags,  Anoplura,  Thysanoptera,  Plecoptera,  Cor- 
Porter,  C.  E. — Sobre  algunos  arthropodos  colectados  en  div .-r>a- 
localidades  del  pais  por  los  senores...  Thomas,  Campo.,  etc.  130, 
xxiv,  l.":i-6(>.  Serre,  P.  A. —  Inscctes  piquants  et  parasites  an  Costa- 
Rica.  99,  1<)21,  170-2.  Weiss  and  West. — Additional  notes  on 
fungous  insects.  54,  xxxiv,  167-71.  Whiting,  P.  W. —  Rearing  meal 
moths  and  parasitic  wasps  for  experimental  purposes.  Heredity  in 
wasps.  (Genetics,  xii,  255-61;  202-66).  Wildeman,  E.  de.— A  pmi111- 
de  myrmecophilie.  77,  Ixxxv,  874-6. 

ANATOMY,   PHYSIOLOGY,   etc.     Bertin,  L.— La   bouche   des 
insectes    et    leur    alimentation.      (La    Nature,    Pari-.     L921,    :::.':: 
Brocher,  F. — Etude  experimentale  sur  le  fonctionnement  du  vaisseau 

58  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Feb..  '22 

dorsal  et  sur  la  circulation  du  sang  chez  les  insectes.  87,  Ix,  1-45. 
Courrier,  R. — Sur  1'existence  d'une  secretion  intranucleaire  dans 
1'epithelium  du  spermatheque  de  la  reine  d'abeille  sa  signification. 
77,  Ixxxv,  941-3.  Crampton,  G.  C.— Note  on  the  surginopods  of 
certain  Mecoptera  and  Neuroptera.  5,  xxviii,  151.  Cunliffe,  N.— 
Some  observations  on  the  biology  and  structure  of  Ornithodorus 
moubata.  64,  xiii,  327-47.  Fraenkel,  H. — Die  symbionten  der  blat- 
tiden  im  fettgewebe  und  ei  insbesondere  von  Periplaneta  orientalis. 
104,  cxix,  53-66.  Fuhrmann,  H. — Beitrage  zur  kenntniss  der  haut- 
sinnesorgane  der  tracheaten.  Die  antennalen  sinnesorgane  der 
myriapoden.  104,  cxix,  1-52.  Gerould,  J.  H. — Blue-green  cater- 
pillars: The  origin  and  ecology  of  a  mutuation  in  hemolymph  color 
in  Colias  philodice.  85,  xxxiv,  385-416.  Hollande,  A.  C. — Reactions 
des  tissus  du  Dytiscus  marginalis.  87,  xlix,  543-63.  Lancefield  & 
Metz. — Non-disjunction  and  the  chromosomes  relationships  of  Dro- 
sophila  willistoni.  119,  vii,  225-9.  Mallock,  A. — Metallic  colouring 
of  beetles.  76,  cviii,  432-3.  Monnot,  E. — Le  mechanisme  du  saut 
chez  les  Elaterides.  (Bui.  Soc.  Sc.  et  Med.  Quest,  xxviii,  17-37; 
xxix,  19-28.)  Sturtevant,  A.  H. — A  case  of  rearrangement  of  genes 
in  Drosophila.  119,  vii,  235-7.  Szymanski,  J.  S. — Die  sogenannte 
tierische  hypnose  bei  einer  insektenart.  (Pfluger's  Archiv...,  clxvi, 
528-30.)  Tanzer,  E. — Die  zellkerne  einiger  dipterenlarven  und  ihre 
entwicklung.  104,  cxix,  114-53.  Wade,  J.  S. — Notes  on  defensive 
scent  glands  of  certain  Coleoptera.  5,  xxviii,  145-9.  Zeleny,  C. — De- 
crease in  sexual  dimorphism  of  bar-eye  Drosophila  during  the  course 
of  selection  for  low  and  high  facet  number.  90,  Iv,  404-11. 

ARACHNIDA,  &c.  Brolemann,  H.  W.— Clef  dichotomique  des 
divisions  et  des  especes  de  la  famille  des  Blaniulidae.  87,  Ix,  1-10. 
Emerton,  J.  H. — Notes  on  Canadian  and  Arctic  spiders.  5,  xxviii, 

NEUROPTERA.  Esben-Petersen,  P. — Collections  zoologiques 
du...Selys  Longchamps.  Catalog.  Syst.  et  Descript.,  Fasc.  v, 
Mecoptera,  172  pp.  Hankin,  E.  H. — The  soaring  flight  of  dragon- 
flies.  (Proc.  Cambridge  Phil.  Soc.,  xx,  461-65.)  Navas,  R.  P.  L.- 
Insectos  Americanos  nuevos  o  criticos.  102,  xix,  113-24.  Algunos 
insectos  del  Brasil.  132,  xii,  413-17.  Porter,  C.  E.— Los  Tisanopteros. 
131,  vii,  21-32. 

Calvert,  P.  P. — Gomphus  dilatatus,  vastus  and  a  new  species, 
lineatifrons.  2,  xlvii,  221-32. 

ORTHOPTERA.  Buckell,  E.  R.— Notes  on  the  ecological  dis- 
tribution of  some  orthoptera  from  the  Chilcotin  district  of  British 
Columbia.  43,  No.  18,  32-8.  Hebard,  M. — Mexican  records  of 
Blattidae.  2,  xlvii,  199-220.  Reed,  C.  S. — Dos  mantidos  Argentines 
aclimatados  en  Chile.  131,  vii,  20. 

XXxiii,  '22}  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  59 

Caudell,  A.  N. — On  the  orthopterous  group  Phaneropterae  (Scud- 
deriae),  with  descriptions  of  a  new  genus  and  species.  (Jour.  Wash. 
Acad.  Sci.,  xi,  487-93.)  Rehn,  J.  A.  G. — Descriptions  of  new  and 
critical  notes  upon  previously  known  forms  of  N.  Am.  Oedipodinae. 
2,  xlvii,  171-97. 

HEMIPTERA.  Brethes,  J. — Description  d'un  nouveau  homoptere 
Chilien.  130,  xxiv,  10-11.  Hempel,  A. — Descripcoes  de  ciccidas 
novas  e  pouco  conhecidas.  132,  xii,  329-77.  Mason,  A.  C. — A  host 
plant  list  of  Aphids  in  the  vicinity  of  the  University  of  Florida.  39, 
v,  21-5.  Porter,  C.  E. — Descripcion  de  un  nuevo  coccido  Chileno. 
132,  vii,  33-4.  Schumacher,  F. — Aphidologische  notizen.  52,  liii, 
181-91;  281-86. 

Parshley,  H.  M. — A  report  on  some  Hemiptera  from  British 
Columbia.  43,  No.  18,  13-24. 

LEPIDOPTERA.  Blackmore,  E.  H.— The  Sphingidae  of  British 
Columbia.  43,  No.  18,  25-32.  Bowman,  K. — Annotated  check  list 
of  the  macrolepidoptera  of  Alberta — additions,  1920.  4,  Hi,  211-12. 
Dyar,  H.  G. — New  American  moths.  The  larva  of  Basilodes  pepita. 
15,  ix,  192-4;  196.  Englehardt,  G.  P. — A  note  on  the  occurrence  of 
two  Pyralids.  15,  ix,  160.  Giacomelli,  E. — Notas  sobre  el  Papilio 
thoas.  Danos  de  su  oruga  en  los  citrus.  131,  vii,  6-11.  Hall,  A.— 
Descriptions  of  three  new  butterflies  from  Colombia.  9,  liv,  278-9. 
Meyrick,  E. — The  North  American  species  of  Orneodes.  9,  liv. 
274-76.  Meyrick,  E. — Exotic  microlepidoptera,  ii,  449-80.  Schaus, 
W. — New  species  of  heterocera  from  South  America.  15,  ix,  161-71). 

Barnes  &  Lindsey. — A  new  species  of  Heterocampa  (Noctuidae). 
Notes  on  Noctuidae  with  descriptions  of  some  n.  sps.  5,  xxviii. 
150-1;  156-9.  Benjamin,  F.  H. — A  study  of  the  noctuid  moths  of 
the  genera  Lampra  and  Cryptocala.  (Bui.  So.  Cal.  Acad.  Sen.,  xx, 

DIPTERA.  Brethes,  J. — Description  d'un  nouveau  diptere  Chil- 
ien, parasite  de  Laora  variabilis.  131,  vii,  12-13.  Dyar,  H.  G. — The 
species  of  Finlaya  allied  to  terrcns.  New  Mosquitoes  from  Costa 
Rica.  Note  on  Melanoconion  indecorabilis.  Note  on  Culex  dec- 
larator. 15,  ix,  151-3;  154-5;  155-7;  194-5.  Franca,  C. — Observations 
sur  le  genre  Phlebotomus.  (Bui.  Soc.  Portugaise  Sci.  Nat.,  viii, 
214-36.)  Freeborn,  S.  B. — The  seasonal  history  of  Anopheles  occi- 
dentalis  in  California.  12,  xiv,  415-21.  Hearle,  E. — The  importance 
of  mosquitoes,  with  notes  on  some  Br.  Col.  species.  43,  No.  13. 
132-35.  Herms,  W.  B. — Distributional  and  ecological  notes  on 
anopheline  mosquitoes  in  California.  12,  xiv,  410-1  1.  Lamb,  C.  G. 
—An  unusual  type  of  male  secondary  characters  in  the  diptera. 
(Proc.  Cambridge  Phil.  Soc.,  xx,  475-77.)  Morris,  H.  M. — The 
larval  and  pupal  stages  of  the  Bibionidae.  22,  xii,  221  -32.  Muller, 

60  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Feb., '22 

M. — Rhyphus  und  Mycetobia,  mit  besonderer  berucksichtigung  des 
larvalen  Darmes.  52,  liii,  297-304.  Seguy,  E. — Les  Dipteres  qui 
vivent  aux  depens  des  escargots.  20,  1921,  238-9.  Etude  sur 
I'Omphrale  fenestralis.  99,  1921,  60-6.  Surcouf,  J.  M.  R. — Notes 
biologiques  sur  certains  dipteres.  Revision  du  genre  Pelegorhynchus. 
(Dipteres  piqueurs  de  la  famillc  des  Tabanidae).  99,  1921,  67-74; 
221-24.  Thompson,  W.  R. — Contributions  a  la  connaissance  des 
formes  larvaires  des  Scarcophagides.  20,  1921,  219-22. 

Cole  &  Lovett. — An  annotated  list  of  the  Diptera  of  Oregon.  61, 
xi,  197-344.  Dietz,  W.  G. — A  list  of  the  crane-flies  taken  in  the 
vicinity  of  Hazleton,  Pennsylvania.  2,  xlvii,  233-68.  Malloch,  J.  R. 
-The  North  American  species  of  the  anthomyiid  genus  Hebecnema. 
4,  lii,  214-15.  Sherman,  R.  S.— New  sps.  of  Mycetophilidae.  .43,  No. 
16,  16-21.  Tothill,  J.  D.— A  revision  of  the  Nearctic  species  of  the 
Tachinid  genus  Ernestia.  4,  lii,  199-205  (cont.) 

COLEOPTERA.  Bernhauer,  M.— Neue  Staphyliniden  aus  Sud- 
amerika,  besonders  aus  Argentinen.  48,  xxxviii,  169-79.  Borchmann, 
F. — Othniidae  versuch  einer  ubersicht  uber  die  famillie.  Die  amer- 
ikanischen  gattungcn  und  arten  der  Statirnae.  Ill,  1921,  A,  1, 
191-215,  216-355.  Heller,  K.  M.— Nuevos  Curculionidos  de  la  Ar- 
gentina. 106,  xci,  19-35.  Horn,  W. — Haben  Ur-Phaeoxantha- 
formen  den  "Ameghino-Strom"  bewohnt?  49,  x,  149-50.  Lesne,  P. 
—Les  especes  typiques  de  Trogoxylon.  Position  systematique  de 
ce  genre.  20,  1921,  228-31.  Melzer,  J. — Longicorneos  novos  ou 
pouco  conhecidos  do  Brasil.  132,  xii,  421-37.  Satterthwait,  A.  F.— 
Notes  on  the  food  plants  and  distribution  of  certain  billbugs. 
(Ecology,  ii,  198-210.)  Weiss  &  Lott. — Notes  on  Orchestes  rufipes 
in  New  Jersey.  5,  xxviii,  152-5. 

HYMENOPTERA.  Brethes,  J.— Description  d'un  Encyrtidae 
nouveau  du  Chili.  130,  xxiv,  137-9.  Herbst,  P. — Neue  Chilenische 
blumenwespen.  (Apidae).  130,  xxiv,  8-9.  Kieffer,  J.  J. — Proc- 
totrypides  notes  des  fourmis  en  Argentine.  106,  xci,  36-41.  Lueder- 
waldt,  H. — Chave  para  determinar  os  Dorylineos  brasileiros.  132, 
xii,  231-57.  Marchand,  W. — The  egg-laying  habits  of  Megarhyssa 
(Thalessa).  68,  liv,  607-8.  Porter,  C.  E. — Sobre  algunos  Braconidos 
Chilenos  y  descripcion  de  una  nueva  especie.  130,  xxiv,  5-7. 
Schrcttky,  C. — Les  abeilles  du  genre  "Ancyloscelis."  Himenopteros 
nuevos  o  poco  conocidos  sudamericanos.  132,  xii,  153-176;  179-227. 
Trouvelot,  B. — Observations  biologiques  sur  1'Habrobracon  johan- 
senni.  77,  Ixxxv,  1022-24.  Wheeler  &  Taylor. — Vespa  arctica,  a 
parasite  of  Vespa  diabolica.  5,  xxviii,  135-44. 

Cockerell,  T.  D.  A. — Western  bees  obtained  by  the  American 
museum  expeditions.  (American  Mus.  Novitates  No.  24.)  Wells  & 
Metcalf. — A  new  species  of  oak  gall  and  its  maker.  4,  lii,  212-13. 

XXXl'ii,  '22  |  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  61 

On  January  14,  1920  (although  dated  1919),  there  appeared  the  first 
GORDON  FLOYD  FERRIS,  then  Instructor,  now  Assistant  Professor  of  En- 
tomology at  the  Leland  Stanford  Junior  University  and  published  by 
that  institution.  It  was  announced  to  be  the  first  of  a  series  which,  when 
complete,  will  constitute  a  monograph  of  the  Anoplura,  and  that  the 
sequence  in  which  the  various  genera  would  be  dealt  with  would  be  gov- 
erned entirely  by  convenience  and  relative  completeness  of  material.  The 
collection  forming  the  basis  of  the  work,  presumably  that  at  Stanford, 
is  stated  to  be  without  a  doubt  the  largest  and  most  comprehensive  now 
in  existence,  containing  approximately  three-fourths  of  the  described 
Series.  The  most  significant  portion  of  it  has  been  obtained  by  the 
initiation  of  the  mammal  skins  in  certain  museums.  This  first  part 
consisted  of  51  octavo  pages  and  32  text  figures  and  treated  of  the 
genera  Endcrleincllns  and  Microfhthirns.  The  second  part  appeared  in 
1921.  as  Vol.  II,  No.  2  of  the  Stanford  University  Publications,  Uni- 
versity Series,  Biological  Sciences.  It  occupies  76  pages,  contains  57  text 
figures  and  is  concerned  only  with  the  genus  Hoploplcitra.  Part  I  states 
that  all  discussion  of  the  group  as  a  whole  and  all  keys  to  the  families 
and  genera  must  of  necessity  be  delayed  until  the  final  papers  of  the 
series,  which  will  also  contain  a  complete  host  list,  a  bibliography,  ac- 
knowledgments of  the  sources  of  material  and  other  matter  of  general 



Thanks  to  Dr.  K.  Kertesz,  I  am  now  able  to  contribute  the 
following  obituary  of  Victor  Szepligeti.  Born  in  Zircz  (Hun- 
gary) August  21,  1855,  he  died  in  his  60th  year  on  March  24, 
1915.  He  studied  at  the  University  and  Technical  University 
at  Budapest.  He  became  professor  of  Natural  History  and 
Chemistry  in  1877.  He  taught  until  1912  when  he  retired. 

First  he  was  a  botanist  and  had  a  very  large  and  precious 

herbarium  (now  in  the  Botanical  Department  of  the  Hungarian 

National   Museum. )      Then  he   was  interested  in   Aphids  and 

galls.     Later  he  began  to  collect  and  study  the  Braconidae  and 


Up  to  the  time  of  his  death  he  had  published  sixty  papers 
which,  with  but  three  or  four  exceptions,  dealt  with  Ichneu- 
nit  moidea. 

lie  published  one  paper  on  Cecidomyidae  (Diptera)  in  18()(). 

62  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Feb.,  '22 

From   1883  to   1895  he  published  three  papers  that  relate  to 
Diptera  or  other  insects  either  wholly  or  in  part. 

In  Roi'artani  Lapok,  Vol.  22,  1915,  pp.  141-147,  is  a  portrait. 
obituary  and  bibliography.  The  latter  lists  his  publications 
except  the  posthumous  ones.  The  obituary  notice  of  nearly 
two  pages  is  in  Hungarian. 



Miss  Caroline  Burling  Thompson,  professor  of  zoology  at 
Wellesley  College,  Wellesley,  Massachusetts,  died  at  that  place 
December  5,  1921.  She  was  born  in  Germantown,  Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania,  June  27,  1869,  daughter  of  Lucius  P.  and  Caro- 
line Burling  Thompson.  She  attended  the  University  of  Penn- 
sylvania, receiving  the  degrees  of  B.S.  in  Biology  in  1898  and 
of  Ph.D.  in  1901.  Under  the  influence  of  the  late  T.  H.  Mont- 
gomery, Jr.  (then  Assistant  Professor),  she,  as  a  graduate, 
took  up  the  study  of  the  Nemertean  worms  and  published  at 
least  three  papers  on  this  group.  One  of  them,  her  thesis  for 
the  doctorate,  on  the  anatomy  of  Zygeupolia  Htoralis,  appeared 
in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of 
Philadelphia  for  1901. 

Tn  1901  she  was  appointed  Instructor  in  Zoology  at  Welles- 
ley  College  and  was  subsequently  promoted  to  be  Associate 
Professor  (1909)  and  Professor  (1916)  in  that  subject.  It 
was  while  there  that  Dr.  Thompson's  entomological  work  began 
with  her  comparative  study  of  ants'  brains,  a  subject  "sug- 
gested to  me  by  Prof.  W.  M.  Wheeler  of  Harvard  University 
as  one  that  needed  investigation."  Her  detailed  description  of 
the  structure  of  this  organ  afforded,  she  believed,  additional 
evidence  that  the  mushroom  bodies  are  the  chief  motor  and 
psychic  centers  and  that  the  queen's  brain  seems  to  represent 
the  generalized  type  from  which  the  worker  caste  has  departed. 
(1913.}  Extending  her  studies  to  termites,  to  compare  their 
brains  with  those  of  ants,  she  found  that  "The  termite  brain 
as  a  whole  is  very  similar  in  structure  to  the  brain  of  ants. 


with  the  notable  exception  of  the  mushroom  bodies  which  an- 
of  a  much  more  simple  and  primitive  type"  and  suggested  that 
the  frontal  gland,  found  in  all  castes  of  termites,  "may  have 


arisen   phylogenetically     from    the    ancestral    median    ocellus 
which  is  now  lacking  in  the  termites"  (1916). 

Her  most  important  paper  is  that  dealing  with  the  origin  of 
the  castes  of  the  common  termite  (1917).  In  it,  after  review- 
ing the  views  held  as  to  the  influence  of  food  on  differentiation 
of  the  various  forms  as  well  as  the  doubts  expressed  by  others, 
she  produced  evidence  that  there  are  visible  internal  differences 
between  the  newly  hatched  young  which  are  to  develop  into 
the  reproductive  and  non-reproductive  members  of  the  com- 
munity respectively,  although  externally  they  are.  all  alike. 
'Therefore  the  fertile  and  sterile  types  are  predetermined  at 
the  time  of  hatching,"  *  *  *  *  "My  final  conclusion  is  that 
all  termite  castes  are  predetermined  in  the  egg."  She  was  care- 
ful to  point  out  the  bearing  of  this  discovery  and  the  similar 
observations  of  Bugnion  (1912,  1913)  on  ''the  greater  ques- 
tion whether  the  heritable  bodily  structure  is  determined  by 
extrinsic  factors,  such  as  food  and  environment,  or  by  in- 
trinsic factors  within  the  germplasm."  In  two  other  papers 
(1919.  1920)  additional  confirmatory  evidence  in  support  of 
the  germinal  predetermination  theory  was  furnished.  In  con- 
junction with  Mr.  T.  E.  Snyder,  of  the  United  States  Bureau 
of  Entomology,  she  discussed  the  question  whether  the  phvlo- 
genetic  origin  of  termite  castes  (1919)  could  be  referred  to 
continuous  or  discontinuous  variations,  without,  however, 
reaching  a  definite  conclusion. 

Mr.  Snyder  has  published  a  sympathetic  notice  of  her  abili- 
ties as  a  teacher  and  an  investigator  in  Science  for  January  13, 
1922,  which  the  present  writer  heartily  endorses.  His  acquaint- 
ance with  her  dates  from  her  first  appearance  as  a  student  at 
the  University  of  Pennsylvania  and  he  has  followed  her  work, 
on  the  termites  especially  with  the  greatest  interest  and  pride 
in  her  achievements.  Oh  that  she  had  lived  longer  and  carried 
out  her  plans  for  similar  work  on  the  honey  bee ! 


A  list  of  Dr.  Thompson's  entomological  papers  follows: 
1913.  A   Comparative   Study   of   the   Brains   of   three   Genera   of    Ants, 
with  special  reference  to  the  Mushroom  Bodies.     Journ.  Comp. 
Neur.,  I'hila..  23,  515-572. 

64  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Feb..  '22 

1914.  The  Posterior  Roots  of  the  Mushroom  Bodies  in  the  Worker  of 
Bombits  sp.     Op.  cit.  24:283-289. 

1916.  The   Brain  and  the  Frontal   Gland   of   the   Castes   of  the   "White 

Ant,"    Leucotermes    flaznpes    Kollar.      Journ.    Comp.    Neurol., 
26  -.553-602. 

1917.  Origin    of    the    Castes    of    the    Common    Termite,    Lencotenncs 

flavipcs.     Journ.  Morphol.,   Phila,  30:83-106. 

1918.  Dual   Queens   in  a  Colony   of   Honey   Bees.      Science,   N.   York, 

48  :294-5. 

*1919.  The    Question    of    the    Phylogenetic    Origin    of    Termite    Castes. 
Biol.  Bull.,  Woods  Hole,  36:115-132. 

1919.  The   Development   of   the   Castes   of    Nine    Genera   and   Thirteen 

Species  of  Termites.     Op.  cit.  36:379-398. 

*1920.  The  "Third  Form,"  the  Wingless  Reproductive  Type  of  Term- 
ites:  Reticiilitcnncs  and   Prorhinotcnnes.     Journ.   Morph.   34: 
Papers  marked  with  a    (*)   were  written  conjointly  with  Mr.  T.   E. 


Doings  of  Societies. 

The  Entomological  Society  of  America. 

At  its  recent  meeting  in  Toronto  in  December,  the  Society  elected  the 
following  officers  and  committees  for  1922 : 

President,  Arthur  Gibson,  Dominion  Entomologist,  Ottawa,  Canada. 
First  Vice-President,  Dr.  W.  A.  Rile}',  University  of  Minnesota,  St. 
Paul.  Second  rice-President,  Professor  R.  A.  Cooley,  University  of 
Montana,  Bozeman,  Mont.  Secretary-Treasurer,  Dr.  C.  L.  Metcalf, 
University  of  Illinois,  Urbana,  111. 

Additional  Members  of  the  Executive  Committee — Dr.  J.  M.  Aldrich, 
United  States  National  Museum,  Washington.  Mr.  Wm.  T.  Davis, 
New  Brighton,  N.  Y.  Dr.  E.  M.  Walker,  University  of  Toronto,  Tor- 
onto, Ontario.  Dr.  O.  A.  Johannsen,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 

Managing  Editor  of  the  Annals,  Dr.  Herbert  Osborn,  Ohio  State 
University,  Columbus,  Ohio.  Assistant  Managing  Editor,  Dr.  C.  H. 
Kennedy,  Ohio  State  University,  Columbus,  Ohio. 

Editorial  Hoard — Dr.  W.  S.  Marshall,  University  of  Wisconsin, 
Madison,  Wis.  Dr.  Vernon  L.  Kellogg,  National  Research  Council, 
Washington,  D.  C.  Dr.  F.  E.  Lutz,  American  Museum  of  Natural 
History,  New  York  City.  Dr.  \Vm.  M.  Wheeler,  Bussey  Institution, 
Boston  30,  Mass.  Dr.  E.  M.  Walker,  University  of  Toronto,  Toronto, 
Ontario.  Dr.  S.  A.  Forbes,  University  of  Illinois,  Urbana,  111.  Dr.  A. 
D.  Hopkins,  Bureau  of  Entomology,  Washington,  D.  C.  Prof.  A.  L. 
Lovett,  Oregon  Agricultural  College,  Corvallis,  Ore.  Dr.  Frederick 
C.  Muir,  H.  S.  P.  A.  Experiment  Station,  Hawaii. 

C.  L.  METCALF,  Secretary-Treasurer. 

T3       j-fpr.f!1 :  Collectors    who    wish   to 

ULl  LLv^l  1  llv.^*  obtain  Specimens  from 
India,  Burma  and  Ceylon,  should  write  to  W.  R.  McMul- 
len,  Port  Blair,  Andaman  Isles. 


Large  Stock  of  Specimens  from  Ecuador,  Cameroon,  Celebes  and  Europe. 
To  be  sold  singly  and  in  lots  at  very  reasonable  prices. 

Lists  on  Application. 


0.  FULDA,  PROP.,  63  FIFTH  AVE.,  NEW  YORK 

Tropical  African  (Uganda)  Butterflies  and  Moths,  Etc. 

Excellent  Material.  Great  Variety. 

Apply  for  particulars  and  prices. 

R.  A.  DUMMER,  Care  S.  A   Museum,  Cape  Town,  South  Africa. 



One  of  the  ranking  collections  of  Europe,  containing  over  1200  species 
and  varieties,  represented  by  more  than  8000  specimens,  collected  in  all  parts 
of  the  world.  . 

Owner: — L.,Gylek,  Wahringerstrasse  132,  Vienna  XVIII,  Austria. 
'A  detailed  list  of  species  may  be  obtained  from 


YV7  A  MTJT ]"}  I  arn  a  shut-in  invalid  and  very  thankful  to  hear  from  any- 
**  *~*1^'  *  LLiLS  one  ty,a(.  wju  p]ease  give,  exchange,  or  sell  one  or  more 
perfect  specimens  or  live  pupae  of  large  moths,  such  as  Luna,  Selene,  Ori- 
zaba, Jorulla,  Splendida,  Promethea,  Calletta,  Hyperchiria  lo,  Budleya, 
Incarnata,  Luecane,  Polyphemus,  Imperialis,  ,Cecropia,  Cynthia,  Papilio, 
etc.  Luna  pupae  and  midget  mounts  for  sale. 

WILLIAM  ENGELHART,  Cooley  Farm,  Warrensville,  Ohio 


From  Colombia,  South  America: 

Morpho  cypris  Morpho  amathonte 

sulkowskyi  Caligo  spp. 

From  Cuba: 

Papilio  columbus  Urania  boisduvali 

andraemon  Erinyis  guttalaris 

celadon  Protoparce  brontes,  etc. 



From  Venezuela: 

Over  5000  Lepidoptera 

200  Dynastes  hercules 

From  New  Guinea 

2000  Coleoptera 
200  Orthoptera 

From  Assam,  India: 

Papilio  arcturus  Kallima  inachis 

philoxenus  Brahmaea  wallachi 

And  Many  Other  Showy  Species 

From  Tibet  (Bhutan)  : 
Armandia  liddcrdalii  Parnassius  hardwicki 



If  interested  kindly  send  your  list 
of  desiderata  for  further  information  to 


Department  of  Natural  Science  New  York 

G.  Lagai,  Ph,D.  56-58  West  23d  Street 

MARCH,  1922 



No.  3 


PHILIP   P.   CALVERT,   Ph.   D.,   Editor. 

E.  T.   CRESSON,  JR.,  Associate   Editor. 

HENRY   SKINNER.    M.D.,   Sc.D..    Editor    Emeritus. 




Logan  Square 

Entered  at  the  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Post  Office  as  Second  Class  Matter. 

Acceptance  for  mailing:  at  the  special  rate  of  postage  prescribed  for  in  Section  1103, 

Act  of  October  3,  1917,  authorized  January  15,  1921. 


published  monthly,  excepting  August  and  September,  in   charge   of  the 
Entomological  Section  of  The  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  Phila- 
delphia, and  The  American   Entomological    Society. 




ADVERTISING  RATES:    Full  width  of  page.  Payments  in  advance. 
One  issue,  1  in.,  $  1.20,  2  in.,  $  2.40,  half  page,  $  4.00,  full  page,,  $  8.00 
Five  issues,     "  5.50,     "  11.00,  17.50,  35.00 

Ten  issues       "         11.00,     "  20.00,         "  35.00,        "  70.00 

communications  regarding  subscriptions,  non-receipt  of  the  NEWS  or  of 
reprints,  and  requests  for  sample  copies,  should  be  addressed  to  Entomo- 
logical News,  1900  Race  St,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

All  complaints  regarding  non-receipt  of  issues  of  the  NEWS  should  be 
presented  within  three  months  from  date  of  mailing  of  the  issue.  After 
that  time  the  numbers  wil!  be  furnished  only  at  the  regular  rate  for  single 
copies.  Not  more  than  two  issues  will  be  replaced  gratis,  through  loss  in 
transit  or  in  change  of  address,  unless  such  have  been  registered,  at  the 
subscriber's  expense. 

MANUSCRIPTS.  Address  all  other  communications  to  the  editor,  Dr. 
P.  P.  Calvert.  Zoological  Laboratory,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Phila- 
delphia. Pa. 

TO  CONTRIBUTORS.  All  contributions  will  be  considered  and  passed 
upon  at  our  ear  iest  convenience  and,  as  far  as  may  be,  will  be  published 
according  to  date  of  reception.  The  receipt  of  all  papers  will  be  acknowl- 
edged. Proof  will  be  sent  to  authors  only  when  specially  requested. 
Twenty-five  "extras"  of  an  author's  contribution,  without  change  in  form 
and  without  covers,  will  be  given  free  when  they  are  wanted;  if  more 
than  twenty-five  copies  are  desired  this  should  be  stated  on  the  MS. 


Owing  to  increased  cost  of  labor  and  materials,  no  illustrations  will 
be  published  in  the  NEWS  for  the  present,  except  where  authors  furnish  the 
necessary  blocks,  or  pay  in  advance  the  cost  of  making  blocks  and  pay  for 
the  cost  of  printing  plates.  Information  as  to  the  cost  will  be  furnished  in 
each  case  on  application  to  the  Editor.  Blocks  furnished  or  paid  for  by  au- 
thors will,  of  course,  be  returned  to  authors,  after  publication,  if  desired. 

The  printer  of  the  NEWS  will  furnish  reprints  of  articles  over  and  above  the  twenty- 
five  given  free  at  the  following  rates:  One  or  two  pages,  twenty-five  copies,  35  cents; 
three  or  four  pages,  twenty-five  copies,  70  cents;  five  to  eight  pages,  twenty-five  copies, 
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of  copies  will  he  at  the  corresponding  multiples  of  these  rates. 


Plate  IV. 

»/  1/3 

Vfj  AXILLENA    '  '/ 

\  20 







MARCH,  1922 

No.  3 


Kennedy — The  Phylogeny  and  the  Geo- 
graphical Distribution  of  the  Genus 
Libellula  ( Odonata) 65 

Parshley — A  change  of  name  in  the  Sal- 
didae(Hemip.) 71 

Reinhard — Host  Records  of  Some 
Texas  Tachinidae  (  Oiptera) 72 

Photographs  received  for  the  album  of 
the  American  Entomological  Soc..  73 

Skinner — The  Identity  of  Neominois 
ridingsi  and  N.  dionysus  (Lepid., 
Satyridae ) 74 

Ewing— Notes  on  the  Occurrence  and 
Distribution  of  Antarctic  Land  Ar- 
thropods (Springtails  and  Mites: 
Collembola  and  Acarina) 76 

McAtee — Prosimulium  fulvum  Cpquil- 
lett  a  Biting  Species  (Dip.,  Simuli- 
idae ) 79 

Weiss  and  Lott— The  Juniper  Web- 
worm,  Ypsolophus  marginellus 
Fabr.  (Lepid.,  Gelechiidae) 80 

Fall— A  Correction  and  a  Protest  ( Col. )    83 



Chamberlin  — A  New  Diplopod  from 
British  Guiana  taken  at  Quarantine 
at  Philadelphia 85 

Rile> — Food  during  Captivity  of  the 
Water-Striders,  Gerris  remigis  Say 
.and  Gerris  marginatus  Say  (  Hem.) 

McAtee — A  Shower  of  Corixidae  (  Het.  ) 

Editorial— Those  Incomplete  Titles 

Again 89 

McAtee— Bird  Lice  (Mallophaga)  At- 
taching Themselves  to  Bird  Flies 
(  H  ippoboscfdae ) 90 

Save  the  Zoological  Record 91 

Hutchison  The  Mulford  Biological 
Exploration  of  the  Amazon  Basin. 
Bulletin  No.  6 91 

Entomological  Literature 92 

Review  of  Fletcher's  Catalogue  of  In- 
dian Insects 95 

Review  of  The  Bulletin  of  the  Hill 
Museum 95 

Doings  of  Societies — Entomological 
Workers  in  Ohio  Institutions 96 

The  Phylogeny  and  the  Geographical  Distribution  of 
the  Genus  Libellula  (Odonata).1 

By  CLARENCE  HAMILTON  KENNEDY,  Ohio  State  University, 


(Plate  IV.) 

In  the  first  paper2  was  discussed  the  morphology  of  the  penes 
in  the  genus  Libellula.  The  various  structures  found  in  the 
penes  were  homologized  and  their  usefulness  in  classification 
was  pointed  out.  In  this  paper  the  writer  wishes  to  show  the 
value  of  these  structures  in  a  study  of  the  phylogeny  and  dis- 
tribution of  the  genus,  for  the  penis  characters  divide  the  genus 
into  distinct  groups  that  are  consistent  with  other  characters 
and  which  appear  to  be  consistent  geographically. 

Thanks  to  the  generosity  of  Mr.  Williamson,  Dr.  Calvert 
and  Dr.  Ris  twenty-seven  of  the  known  species  of  Libellula 

1  Contribution  from  Department  of  Zoology  and  Entomology  of  Ohio 
State  University,  No.  68. 

2Ent.  News,  vol.  xxxiii,  pp.  33-40,  1922. 


66  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Mar.,  '22 

have  been  examined.     This  article   is  an   explanation   of   the 
accompanying  plate. 

If  the  reader  will  refer  to  the  accompanying  plate  (IV),  he 
will  note  that  the  genus  falls  into  three  levels  of  differentia- 
tion as  indicated  by  the  heavy  horizontal  lines.  These  are : 

Level  I.  Scinifasciata,  angclina  and  foliata.  By  comparison 
with  any  of  the  other  penes  figured  it  is  obvious  that  these  are 
alike  in  that  none  of  their  parts  are  as  much  exaggerated  or 
specialized  as  are  one  or  more  of  the  parts  of  any  of  the  spe- 
cies figured  in  the  two  higher  levels.  By  this  same  compara- 
tive standard,  scniifasciata  is  more  generalized,  hence  older, 
than  foliata,  which  has  the  cornua  slightly  specialized  and 
than  angclina,  which  has  the  lateral  lobes  lengthened  and  broad- 
ened. As  will  be  shown  later,3  all  three  are  probably  pre-Mio- 
cene  species. 

Level  II.  This  includes  all  the  species  lying  between  the 
two  horizontal  lines  on  Plate  IV.  These  are  all  American  and 
are  species  that  probably  date  from  the  Miocene  or  later.  Some 
of  these  groups  are  apparently  at  the  height  of  their  develop- 

Level  III.  This  level  includes  the  Eurasian  species,  less  the 
primitive  angclitia.  These  are  the  most  specialized  of  the 
genus  and  are  the  postglacial  remnants  of  a  Eurasian  fauna 
that  probably  reached  its  climax  in  preglacial  times. 

The  individual  species  and  minor  groups  of  the  genus  will 
be  discussed  as  follows : 

Group  1.  Semifasciata  Burm.  PI.  IV,  fig.  1.  Maine  to  Florida, 
west  to  Michigan  and  Texas.  A  spring  and  early  summer  species 
found  in  woods  swamps  in  the  deciduous  and  southern  pine  forests.1 

The  primitiveness  of  this  species  seems  to  be  confirmed  by 
its  isolated  position  morphologically,  by  its  non-Libellula  wing 
pattern,  which  has  basal  markings  and  color  that  recall  CcJi- 
thcinis  and  Pcrlthcmis,  by  its  less  rugged  build,  which  is  very 
different  from  the  husky  proportions  of  many  of  the  more  spe- 
cialized Libellulas,  by  its  spring  and  early  summer  season  which 

3  In  the  April  number  of  the  NEWS. 

*  As  far  as  possible  the  writer  has  tried  to  correlate  the  distribution 
of  the  species  of  Libcllnla  with  the  plant  formations  of  the  eastern 
United  States  as  worked  out  by  Transeau.  See  "Forest  Centers  of 
Eastern  America,"  Amer.  Nat.,  xxxix,  pp.  875-889,  1905. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  67 

is  the  season  of  many  other  primitive  Odonata,  and,  perhaps, 
by  its  retiring  habit  of  life  in  woods-swamps  where  are  not 
found  many  of  the  more  specialized  Odonata  which  enjoy  the 
fierce  strife  of  open  ponds.  Its  general  distribution  through 
the  wooded  Appalachian  region  agrees  with  the  distribution 
of  other  very  primitive  Odonata  (Tachoptcry.v,  Cordulcgastcr, 

Group  2.  Foliata  Kirby.  PI.  IV,  fig.  2.  Mexico  to  Panama,  in 
zone  4  of  Calvcrt  (B.  C.  A.  Neur.,  p.  xxiv).  March  to  July  in  small 
swampy  places.5 

A  casual  inspection  of  the  plate  shows  at  once  that  this  is  the 
most  primitive  member  of  the  line  of  species  terminating  in 
licrcula;.  However,  it  is  so  little  differentiated  as  compared 
to  the  other  three  members  of  this  series  that  it  has  been  placed 
in  Level  I.  Foliata  is  primitive  in  its  smaller  size,  its  ante- 
humeral  stripes,  its  lack  of  a  distinct  red  coloration  and  in  its1 
distribution,  for  in  zone  4  as  outlined  by  Calvert6  are  found 
such  primitive  Odonata  as  Xanthostigm-a,  Cora,  Paraphlcbia, 
Cordulegaster,  etc.  These  are  temperate  species  that  appar- 
ently cannot  stand  the  winter  temperatures  of  the  same  faunal 
zone  farther  north.  Hill7  and  Bray,8  as  mentioned  by  Calvert, 
suggest  that  the  islands  of  zones  3  and  4  were  connected  and 
supported  a  continuous  fauna  in  the  Tertiary.  At  that  time 
Mexico  was  a  peninsula  that  had  not  been  connected  with 
South  America  since  the  Cretaceous  and  with  its  stable  climate 
it  has  harbored  these  early  Tertiary  species  to  the  present  time. 

Group  3.  Angelina  Selys.  PI.  IV,  fig.  3.  Japan.  Habits  un- 

Angelina  is  primitive  in  its  full  quota  of  three  spots  in  the 
wings  and  in  its  penis  whose  only  specializations  are  the  length- 
ened lateral  lobes  and  widened  cornua.  Its  distribution  con- 
firms this  diagnosis  as  Japan  contains  several  very  old  Odonates. 
Being  an  island  in  a  great  ocean  stream,  its  climate  has  prob- 
ably been  very  stable  and  mild.  The  nearest  modern  relative 
of  aiif/i'lina  is  4-macnlata. 

5  From  notes  supplied  by  Dr.  Calvert. 

6  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.,  Phila.,  Oct.,  1908,  pp.  475-478. 

7  Bull.  Mus.  Comp.  Zool.  xxxiv,  pp.  205-207,  1899. 

8  Science,  Nov.  9,  pp.  709-716,  1900. 

68  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Mar.,  '22 

Group  4.  Saturata  Uhler.  PI.  IV,  fig.  4.  Montana  and  Texas 
west  to  California  and  Baja  California,  occurring  from  sea-level  up 
to  5000  ft.9  This  is  a  vigorous  form  of  open  muddy  ponds,  cattail 
swamps  and  sluggish  streams. 

Croceipennis  Selys.  PI.  IV,  fig.  5.  From  sea-level  in  Texas  and 
Baja  California,  to  4000  ft.  elevation  in  Costa  Rica,  occurring  in 
zones  3-4  of  Calvert,  but  mainly  in  zone  4.  Open  swampy  places 
and  sluggish  streams.10 

Herculea  Karsch.  PI.  IV,  fig.  6.  Mexico  to  Ecuador  and  Para- 
guay. The  "Biologia"  records  are  from  Calvert's  zones  3  and  4. 
Usually  found  about  brush  piles  in  open  muddy  streams.11 

Of  this  group,  saturate!  appears  to  be  the  only  species  that 
can  stand  even  light  frosts.  The  other  species  occupy  the  Mex- 
ican and  Central  American  highlands,  though  Dr.  Calvert  states 
in  a  letter  that  he  found  licrculca  at  Guacimo,  Costa  Rica,  at 
an  elevation  of  less  than  800  ft.  The  fact  that  this  species  has 
reached  South  America  across  the  low  Isthmus,  shows  that  it 
can  live  also  below  the  highlands.  The  climate  of  the  Mexican 
and  Central  American  plateau  corresponds  to  that  of  the  south- 
eastern United  States,  except  that  the  occasional  winter  frosts 
of  the  States  are  lacking.  Because  of  the  large  number  of 
species  of  Libclhtla  occupying  the  southern  states  and  this 
semitropical  plateau,  the  climate  of  this  region  is  probably  the 
optimum  climate  for  the  genus. 

This  group  has  developed  directly  from  the  foliata  stock  of 
the  Central  American  highlands  (zone  4  of  Calvert).  Prob- 
ably the  present  distribution  of  foliata  is  less  than  in  former 
times  as  safurata,  the  most  generalized  species  of  group  4.  has 
a  distribution  north  of  and  not  in  touch  with  the  present  habi- 
tat of  foliata.  Dr.  Calvert12  describes  individuals  intermediate 
between  satnrafa  and  croccipcnnis.  It  would  be  interesting  to 
study  the  penes  of  these. 

Group  5.  Julia  Uhler.  PI.  IV,  fig.  7.  Maine  to  British  Columbia. 
A  species  of  northern  coniferous  forest  swamps. 

Exusta  Say.  PI.  IV,  fig.  8.  Maine  to  Wisconsin,  south  to  Indiana 
and  Ohio.  A  species  of  the  deciduous  forest. 

n  The  higher  records  from  Wyoming,  etc.,  are  probably  from  warm 
spring  streams. 

10  In  notes  loaned  by  Dr.  Calvert. 

11  Statements  to  the  writer  by  E.  B.  and  Jesse  Williamson. 

12  B.  C.  A.  Neur.5  p.  211. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  69 

Deplanata  Ramb.  PI.  IV,  fig.  9.  North  Carolina,  Georgia  and 
Florida.  Found  by  the  writer  about  muddy  ponds  at  Raleigh,  N.  C 

The  broad  lateral  lobes  associate  this  \vith  the  angcllna-4- 
inaculata  line.  Julia  appears  to  be  the  primitive  species  of  this 
group  in  that  specialization  increases,  from  Julia  in  the  north 
to  dcplanata  in  the  south,  in  the  increasing  length  of  the  medial 
lobes  and  in  the  decrease  in  size,  so  that  dcplanata  is  the  small- 
est species  in  the  genus.  This  distribution  and  relationship  to 
Eurasian  species  suggests  an  origin  of  this  group  in  northern 
Eurasia  and  a  migration  to  America  later  than  the  migration 
of  the  stocks  of  the  semifasciata,  foliata,  nodisticta  and  com- 
posita  groups  which  all  show  a  preference  for  warmer  climates 
than  does  julla.  Geologists  tell  us  that  the  opportunities  for 
the  migration  of  warm  climate  species  existed  largely  before 
the  Miocene,  but  that  a  migration  of  northern  species  came  in 
the  late  Miocene  and  in  the  Pliocene.  Julia  and  c.rusta  at  least 
are  distinct  species,  probably  also  dcplanata.  Ris13  states  that 
"the  habitus  difference  is  greater  between  jidia  and  c.vusta  than 
between  c.vusta  and  dcplanata."  This  might  be  expected  if 
julia  is  the  most  primitive  of  the  three. 

Group  6.  Subornata  Hagen.  PI.  IV,  fig.  10.  Kansas  and  Texas 
to  Nevada  and  southern  California.  Found  about  semidesert,  alkali 

Lydia  Drury.  PI.  IV,  fig.  11.  Newfoundland  to  British  Columbia 
south  to  Florida  and  California.  Any  permanent  pond. 

These  are  a  branch  of  the  angelina-4-maculata  line  because 
of  their  widened  lateral  lobes.  Subornata  is  the  more  primi- 
tive in  the  unfused  wing-bands  of  the  male,  in  the  less  broad- 
ened lateral  lobes  of  the  penis  and  in  the  less  deeply  divided 
fork  on  segment  one  of  the  male.14 

In  this  series  an  adventitious  wing-band  has  appeared.  It 
is  narrow  and  appears  at  the  inner  end  of  the  stigma.  In  the 
lemale  of  sithnniata  it  is  free;  in  the  male  of  the  same  species 
it  is  fused  with  the  nodal  band  by  a  paler  area.  In  l\dia  it  is 
more  differentiated  sexually.  In  the  male  it  has  become  com- 
pletely fused  with  the  nodal  band,  thus  giving  the  broad  band 

13  Libellulinen,  Coll.  Selys,  p.  259,  1919. 

14  Williamson.     Plathcmis  subormita.     Ent.  News,  Nov.,  1906,  p.  351. 

70  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Mar.,  '22 

of  the  male  lydia,  while  in  the  female  it  appears  only  in  rare 
examples.15  Subornata  should  probably  be  associated  with  the 
group  of  southwestern  primitives,  foliata,  nodisticta  and  com- 
pos it  a. 

Group  7.  Nodisticta  Hagen.  PI.  IV,  fig.  12.  Montana  and  Wash- 
ington10 to  the  highlands  of  southern  Mexico.  A  semidesert  species 
taken  by  the  writer  on  slow  fresh  streams  at  Oroville  and  Auburn, 

Forensis  Hagen.  PI.  IV,  fig.  13.  Montana  and  British  Columbia 
to  Arizona  and  California.  An  alkali  pond  species,  but  may  occur  in 
fresh  water  also. 

Pulchella  Drury.  PI.  IV,  fig.  14.  Maine  to  Washington  south  to 
Florida  and  California.  A  strictly  fresh  pond  species. 

The  writer  does  not  know  the  locality  of  the  Washington 
record  for  nodisticta,  but  it  must  be  near  sea-level.  The  Mon- 
tana record  is  probably  from  a  warm,  spring-fed  stream,  while 
all  other  United  States  records  are  from  elevations  of  500-3000 
ft.  Southward  it  is  found  at  constantly  increasing  elevations 
until  its  southernmost  authentic  record  is  at  8000  ft.  in  More- 
los,  Mex.  This  would  indicate  that  the  Venezuelan  and  Co- 
lombian records  in  the  earlier  literature  are  questionable,  for  it 
is  not  probable  that  the  Isthmus  of  Panama  has  been  elevated 
enough  to  enable  this  species  to  pass  into  South  America. 

In  this  group  specialization  is  towards  a  wing  heavily  spotted 
with  black,  alternating  with  areas  of  white  pruinescence.  It 
starts  with  the  lightly  marked  wing  of  nodisticta,  throws  a  spe- 
cies, forcnsis,  more  heavily  marked,  to  the  desert  and  reaches 
its  apex  in  pulcJiclla  with  three  full  bands  in  each  wing.  These 
species  may  not  form  a  series  as  they  have  had  to  be  arranged 
on  the  plate,  but  may  be  a  group  of  mutations  from  some  more 
primitive  stock.  The  large  size  and  the  great  development  of 
wing  color  in  pulchclla  indicate  that  it  is  the  most  specialized 
of  the  three.  The  distribution  of  nodisticta  indicates  that  its 
naiad  cannot  endure  heavy  freezes,  while  the  distribution  of 
pulcJiclla  shows  it  to  be  almost  as  hardy  as  4-niactilata  and 

15  Kennedy.     Odonata  of  Kansas,  Bull.  Kans.  Univ.,  vol.  18,  pi.  VII, 

16  Muttkowski.     Cat.  Odonata  N.  Amer.,  p.  138.  1910. 

(To  be  continued  ) 

XXXlii,    '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  71 

A  phylogenetic  tree  of  the  dragonflies  of  the  genus  Libelhila,  based  on 


All  figures  are  by  camera  lucida  to  the  same  scale.  Because  of  the 
limits  of  the  plate,  species  have  had  to  be  shown  in  series  that  should  be 
on  short  lateral  branches. 

1.  Libelhila  scinifasciata  Burin.     Pungo  Lake,  Wenona,   North   Caro- 


2.  LibcUnla  foliata    (Kirby),  Cartago,  Costa  Ricat  coll.   Calvert. 

3.  Libelhila  angcliua   Selys.     Kioto,  Japan,  coll.   Ris. 

4.  Libelhila  salnrata  Uhler.     Phoenix,  Arizona. 

5.  LibcUnla  croceipcnnis  Selys.     Cuernavaca,  Mexico,  coll.  Williamson. 

6.  Libelhila  hcrculca    Karsch.      Santa    Lucia,    Guatemala,    coll.    Ohio 

State  University. 

7.  LibcUnla  julia  Uhler.     Kent,  Ohio,  coll.  O.  S.  U. 

8.  Libelhila  e.vusia  Say.     Orono,  Maine,  coll.  O.  S.  U. 

9.  Libelhila  dcplatiata  Ramb.     Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 

10.  Libelhila  snbornata   (Hagen).     Golconda,  Nevada. 

11.  Libelhila  lydia  Drury.     Sacramento,  California. 

12.  Libelluht  nodistlcta  Hagen.     Laws,  Owens  Valley,  California. 

13.  LibcUnla  forcnsis  Hagen.     Palo  Alto,  California. 

14.  Libelhila  pnlchella  Drury.     (No  label.)     Coll.  O.  S.  U. 

15.  LibcUnla  composita   (Hagen).     Laws,  Owens  Valley,  California. 

16.  Libelhila  jesseana  Wllmsn.    Enterprise,  Elorida,  coll.   Williamson. 

17.  Libelhila  llarida  Ramb.     Raleigh,  North  Carolina,  coll.  Williamson. 

18.  LibeUula  auripcnnis   Burin.     Kingsboro,   North   Carolina. 

19.  Libelhila  hictnosa   Burm.     Raleigh,   North  Carolina. 

20.  Libelhila  a.villena  Westw.     Dunbrooke,  Virgina,  coll.   Osburn. 

21.  Libellnla  cyanea  Fabr.     Kingsboro,  North  Carolina. 

22.  Libellnla  coimnicJic  Calv.     Oroville,  California. 

23.  Libellnla  iueesla   Hagen.      (No  locality.)      Coll.   O.   S.   U. 

24.  Libelhila  ribraus   Fabr.     Kingsboro,  North  Carolina. 

25.  Libclhtia  dcprcssa   Linn.      Lublin   Government,    Poland,    from   Bar- 


26.  Libellnla  quadrimaculata  Linn.     Grodno  Government,  Poland,  from 


27.  LibeUnla  fitlra  Miill.     Aries   (?),  from.  H.  K.  Morton. 

A  Change  of  Name  in  the  Saldidae   (Hemiptera) 

1  have  recently  described  a  species  of  Saldidae  as  Sahhila  emnata 
(Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  British  Columbia,  No.  18,  Syst.  Sen,  p.  21,  1^21),  but, 
as  I  am  reminded  by  Dr.  E.  !'.<  r.urnth,  this  name  is  preoccupied  by 
Salda  cantata  Champion  (Biol.  Centr.-Amer.,  Ins.,  Khyiu-b.  II.,  p.  ,!41. 
1900).  The  two  are  undoubtedly  congeneric  and  hence  I  would  propose 
Saldnla  eontalnla.  nom.  nov.,  for  my  species. — H.  M.  I '  \KSHI.KV,  Smith 
College,  Northampton,  Massachusetts. 

72  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Mar.,  '22 

Host  Records  of  Some  Texas  Tachinidae  (Diptera). 

By  H.  J.  REIN  HARD,  Entomologist,  Texas  Experiment  Station, 

College  Station,  Texas. 

Twenty-one  breeding  records  of  sixteen  species  of  Tachinidae 
are  given  in  this  paper.  Twelve  of  these,  so  far  as  the 
writer  is  aware,  have  not  been  previously  recorded.  Where 
there  is  a  published  record  the  reference  is  given  in  each  in- 
stance. Six  records  included  in  this  list  were  obtained  from 
F.  C.  Bishopp,  M.  M.  High,  and  S.  W.  Bilsing,  and  due  credit 
for  each  record  is  given  below.  All  other  breeding  records 
given  were  made  by  the  writer  at  College  Station. 

ARCHYTAS  ANALIS  Fabr.  Host:  Cirphis  unipuncta  Haw.  Bred  at 
College  Station,  from  larva  collected  at  Denton,  Texas,  by  A.  P.  Swal- 
low. 1  specimen  issued  June,  1919.  Previously  noted  according  to 
W.  R.  Walton. 

EXORISTA  CERATOMIAE  Coq.  Host :  Lo.vostcgc  swiUalis  Guen.  Bred 
from  pupae  collected  at  Laredo,  and  College  Station.  4  specimens 
issued  June  17,  1920. 

EXORISTA  CONFINIS  Fall.  Host:  Uranotcs  melinus  Hubn.  Bred  at 
College  Station,  from  larvae  collected  at  the  following  localities  in 
Texas :  Oletha,  Mart,  Trinity,  Cause,,  Grand  Saline,  and  Brazoria 
County.  14  specimens  emerging  from  June  20,  to  July  10,  1920. 

EXORISTA  FLAVIROSTRIS  v.  d.  W.  Host:  Megalopyge  opercularis  A.  & 
S.  Bred  at  Dallas,  Texas,  by  F.  C.  Bishopp,  from  pupae  of  host.  Many 
specimens  issued  during  August  and  September,  1920.  Also  bred  at 
College  Station,  from  a  caterpillar  collected  locally.  1  specimen  emerg- 
ed August,  1920.  Cf.  Coquillett,  Revision  of  Tachinidae,  p.  14. 

EXORISTA  LOBELIAE  Coq.  Host:  Alabama  argillacca  Hubn.  Bred  by 
S.  W.  Bilsing  at  College  Station.  1  specimen  issued  October,  1920. 

EXORISTA  PYSTE  Walk.  Host:  Loxostegc  siniilalis  Guen.  Bred  from 
pupae  collected  at  College  Station.  2  specimens  issued  June  16  and  17, 
1920.  Previously  recorded  by  T.  H.  Parks  at  Wellington,  Kansas, 
according  to  W.  R.  Walton. 

ID.  Host:  Acrobasis  caryh'-orcUa  Rag.  Bred  by  S.  W.  Bilsing  at 
College  Station,  from  pupae  collected  locally.  Many  specimens  issued 
June,  July,  1918,  1919,  and  1920. 

EXORISTA  LOXOSTEGEAE  Host :  Lo.vostcgc  siniilalis  Guen.  Bred  at  Col- 
lege Station  from  pupae  collected  locally.  23  specimens  issued  June 
13-23,  1920.  Cf.  Ann.  Ent.  Soc.  Amer.,  Vol.  14,  No.  4,  p.  332. 

METAPLAGIA  OCCIDENTALIS  Coq.  Host:  Hersc  coni'olrnli  L.  Bred  by 
M.  M.  High  at  Kingsville,  Texas.  Flies  issued  November,  1919. 

ORMIA  OCHRACEA  Bigot.  Host:  Gryllus  assiinilis  Fabr.  Three  mag- 
gots issued  September  22,  1920,  from  an  adult  host  specimen,  collected 
by  A.  R.  Cahn  at  College  Station.  The  maggots  pupated  September  22, 

xxxiii.  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  XF.WS  73 

but  the  adult  flies  failed  to  emerge.  The  puparia  were  identified  by 
C.  T.  Greene.  The  habits  of  this  genus  are  unknown  and  this  appears 
to  be  the  first  record  of  a  host  relationship  for  this  species. 

PELETEIUA  ROBUSTA  Wied.  Host:  Cirphis  unipuncta  Haw.  Bred  at 
College  Station,  from  a  larva  collected  in  Wilbarger  County,  Texas.  1 
specimen  issued  May  23,  1919. 

PHOROCEKA  CLARIPENNIS  Macq.  Host :  Megalopygc  opcrcularis  A.  & 
S.  Bred  at  Dallas,  Texas,  by  F.  C.  Bishopp.  41  specimens  issued  dur- 
ing August  and  September,  1920. 

ID.  Host:  Laphygma  frugipcrda  A.  &  S.  Bred  at  College  Station, 
from  larva  collected  in  Hamilton  County,  Texas.  1  specimen  issued 
June  4,  1919.  This  record  previously  noted  according  to  W.  R.  Walton. 

ID.  Host :  Synchloc  lacinia  Drury.  Bred  from  chrysalides  collected 
locally.  8  specimens  issued  August  1920. 

PLAGIPROSPHERYSA  PARVIPALPIS  v.  d.  W.  Host:  Loxostcgc  similalis 
Gucn.  Bred  at  College  Station,  from  pupae  collected  at  Laredo,  Texas. 
3  specimens  issued  June  14  and  15,  1920. 

STURMIA  ALBIFRONS  Walk.  Host :  Esiigmcnc  acraca  Drury.  Bred  at 
College  Station,  from  larvae  collected  at  Hempstead,  and  Bay  City, 
Texas.  7  specimens  issued  June,  1918,  and  May,  1919.  Cf.  Coquillett, 
Revision  of  Tachinidae,  p.  20. 

STURMIA  DISTINCTA  Wied.  Host:  Jlcrsc  convolvuli  L.  Bred  at  Kings- 
ville,  Texas,  by  M.  M.  High.  Flies  issued  November,  1919. 

TACHINA  MELLA  Walk.  Host:  Apantcsis  rcctilinca  French.  Bred  at 
College  Station.  1  specimen  issued  June  7,  1918. 

ID.  Host:  Estigmcnc  acraca  Drury.  Bred  from  larvae  collected  at 
College  Station.  2  specimens  issued  July  15  and  16,  1919.  Cf.  Coquil- 
lett, Revision  of  Tachinidae,  p.  21. 

TRICHIOPODA  PENNIPES  Fabr.  Host:  Lcptoglossus  phyllopus  L.  Bred 
at  College  Station,  from  adults  collected  locally.  Flies  issued  June,  1919. 
Cf.  Quarterly  Bulletin,  Fla.  State  Plant  Board.  Vol.  4,  No.  3,  p.  67. 

ID.  Host:  Nezara  riridula  L.  Bred  from  adults  collected  at  College 
Station.  Many  specimens  issued  June,  July,  and  August,  1919  and  1920. 
Cf.  Loc.  cit.  and  Bull.  No.  689,  U.  S.  1).  A.,  p.  22. 

Photographs   Received   for  the   Album   of  The   American    Entomo- 
logical Society. 

Since  the  last  record  (Ent.  News,  xxviii,  p.  128),  photographs  for  the 
album  have  been  received,  and  acknowledged  from  the  following,  and 
the  Society  again  wishes  to  thank  the  donors  for  their  gifts  which  are 
much  appreciated. 

J.  M.  Aldrich,  Charles  P.  Alexander,  Karl  W.  T.  Beling  (from  Dr. 
C.  P.  Alexander),  Emil  Bergroth,  John  J.  Davis,  William  T.  Davis. 
J.  Henri  Fabre  (from  Mr.  Philip  Laurent),  G.  F.  Ferris,  Morgan 
Hebard,  Otto  Heideman  (from  Mr.  J.  11.  Paine),  Herman  Hornig, 
Herbert  K.  Morrison  (from  Mrs.  Morrison).  Emily  L.  Morton  (from 
Mr.  H.  H.  Newcomb),  W.  H.  Patton  (from  Dr.  L.  O.  Howard),  Otto 
mar  Reinecke  (from  Mr.  Philip  Laurent),  Herbert  II.  Smith  (from  Dr. 
L.  O.  Howard). 

74  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Mar.,  '22 

The  Identity  of  Neominois  ridings!  and  N.  dionysus 
(Lepidoptera,  Satyridae). 


Ridinc/si  was  described  from  four  females  taken  at  Burling- 
ton, Boulder  County,  Colorado.  The  types  of  dionysus  were 
taken  in  the>,Juniper  Mountains;  on— Motmt  Trumbull.  This 
mountain  is  "sixty  miles  east  of  St.  George"  in  southern  Utah. 
N.  stretchi  Edw.  is  a  synonym  of  rldingsi  and  the  types  were 
taken  in  Nevada.  AshtarotJi  Strecker  is  a  synonym  of  diony- 
sus and  the  type  was  a  female  from  Arizona.  The  question  is 
whether  we  have  one  or  two  species  represented  by  these 

Scudder  in  his  description  of  dionysus  says  it  differs  from 
N.  ridingsi,  to  which  it  is  closely  allied,  by  its  larger  size,  its 
more  cinereous  tints,  and  by  the  much  more  produced  serra- 
tions of  the  margins  of  all  the  banded  markings  of  the  hind 
wings.  None  of  these  characters  appear  to  be  differential  and 
I  have  been  unable  to  find  characters  that  warrant  the  dividing 
these  two  forms  into  distinct  species.  There  is  a  difference 
in  size,  but  it  only  represents  individual  difference  seen  in 
many  species.  The  males  range  from  20  mm.  (one  wing)  to 
25  mm.,  and  the  females  from  24  mm.  to  28  mm.  The  color 
varies  considerably,  but  appears  to  be  gradational  and  not  dif- 
ferential. The  serrations  of  the  margins  of  the  bands  on  the 
inferior  wings  are  also  gradational.  The  primary  wings  are 
identical  in  all  the  specimens  I  have  examined.  The  series  in 
the  collection  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadel- 
phia are  from  Whitehorn  anad  Glenwood  Springs  in  Colorado: 
Beaver  Canyon,  Idaho ;  Medicine  Bow,  Wyoming,  and  Flag- 
staff, Arizona.  The  dates  of  capture  vary  from  June  23rd  to 
July  24th.  Mr.  W.  H.  Edwards  gives  an  interesting  account  of 
rldingsi  and  says  it  flies  from  early  June  and  also  states  that 
there  is  a  late  brood  appearing  in  August  and  September.  1 
have  not  seen  any  specimens  with  such  late  dates  of  appear- 
ance. Mr.  Scudder  says  the  types  of  dionysus  were  taken 
June  4th  and  June  7th  to  10th. 

David  Bruce,  who  collected  extensively  in  Colorado,  states 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  75 

that  the  two  exist  at  the  same  altitude  and  cites  ridingsi  as 
common  near  Denver  and  dionysus  as  abundant  at  Glenwood 
Springs,  Colorado.  He  records  both  forms  from  Salida,  Colo- 
rado. He  infers  that  they  are  two  species  and  that  dion\sits 
is  found  on  sandy  and  desert  tracts  and  ridingsi  is  found  in 
the  short  grass.  We  have  a  series  of  specimens  from  him, 
doubtless  from  Glenwood  Springs,  but  having  only  "Colorado" 
on  the  pins.  A  series  of  specimens  taken  by  Prof.  A.  ]. 
Snyder  in  Beaver  Canyon,  Idaho,  July  24,  1895,  shows  very 

Genitaiia  of  Neominois  ridingsi,  male. 

considerable  variation  and  both  forms  may  be  picked  from  this 
series.  The  specimen  from  Flagstaff,  Arizona,  is  a  typical 
ridingsi.  The  variations  in  the  species  do  not  appear  to  be  due 
to  geographical  variation  or  altitude. 

There  are  not  sufficient  data  to  judge  of  the  brood  differ- 
ences, but  the  first  brood  would  be  likely  to  be  somewhat  dif- 
ferent from  a  late  one.  An  examination  of  the  genitalia  of 
the  males  shows  no  difference.  The  genitalic  figure  was  made 
by  Mr.  E.  T.  Cresson,  Jr.  The  original  description  spells  the 
name  dionysus  (Greek  name  of  Bacchus).  The  lists  spell  the 
name  dionysius  (the  elder  Tyrant  of  Syracuse).  The  original 
spelling  should  be  followed. 

76  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Mar.,   '22 

Notes  on  the  Occurrence  and  Distribution  of  Ant- 
arctic Land  Arthropods  (Springtails  and 
Mites  :  Collembola  and  Acarina). 

By  H.  E.  EWING,  Bureau  of  Entomology,  U.  S.  Department 

of  Agriculture. 

Although  vast  in  extent,  the  south  polar  region  and  more 
especially  the  Antarctic  Continent  itself,  is  remarkably  devoid 
of  any  extensive  land  flora  or  fauna.  Our  knowledge  of  the 
occurrence  of  land  arthropoda  on  this  continent  is  in  reality 
quite  meager.  Almost  all  of  the  land  species  so  far  discovered 
in  this  region  belong  to  two  orders,  the  Collembola  and  the 

Statements  to  the  effect  that  winged  insects  do  not  occur  in 
the  Antarctic  Region  are  not  strictly  correct,  for  Racovitza 
reported  a  dipteron  taken  by  the  Antarctic  expedition  of  the 
"Belgica"  (1897-1898),  and  Keilin  has  recently  pointed  out 
that  Racovitza  had  not  one  but  two  species.  One  of  these 
species,  according  to  Keilin,  belongs  to  the  family  Chironomidae 
and  the  other  to  the  family  Sciaridae.  The  reason  for  this 
apparent  mistake  by  Racovitza  was  that  he  presumed  that  the 
larvae  accompanying  the  adult,  which  he  determined  as  Belgica 
antarctica  Jacobs,  were  of  the  same  species  as  the  imago.  Keilin 
has  made  a  special  study  of  B.  antarctica,  and  states  that  it 
occurs  along  the  strait  of  Gerlache  between  64°  and  65°  27' 
south  latitude.  This  is  south  and  somewhat  east  of  Cape  Horn. 

Several  species  of  Collembola  have  been  taken  in  the  Ant- 
arctic, and  one  of  these  as  far  south  on  the  continent  itself  as 
Granite  Harbor,  77°  S.  lat.  and  162°  E.  long.,  on  the  south- 
trending  continental  coast-line  of  Victoria  Land.  The  sig- 
nificance of  the  distribution  of  the  Collembola  of  the  Antarctic 
Region  has  been  very  ably  discussed  by  Carpenter,  who  notes, 
among  other  things,  that  the  groups  of  springtails  represented, 
that  were  at  one  time  considered  characteristically  arctic  or 
subarctic,  are  now  known  to  occur  in  many  places  either  on  the 
American  continents  or  adjacent  islands.  This  would  seem  to 
indicate  a  former  land  connection  between  the  Antarctic  and 
South  American  continents.  Carpenter  states:  "We  cannot 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  77 

doubt  that  this  affinity  points  to  a  former  connection  between 
the  Antarctic  continent  of  which  the  South  Orkneys  once 
formed  part,  and  the  northern  continents." 

The  other  group  of  terrrestrial  Arthropods  represented  in 
the  meager  south  polar  fauna,  the  Acarina,  have  been  studied 
by  Trouessart  and  by  Berlese.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that 
these  two  authorities  on  mites  hold  almost  opposite  views  in 
regard  to  the  significance  of  the  geographical  distribution  of 
the  Antarctic  Acarina.  It  is  largely  because  of  noting  this  fact, 
but  also  because  of  the  present  writer's  knowledge  of  the 
American  Acarina.  that  these  lines  are  written.  A  further 
incentive  is  found,  however,  in  the  recent  acquisition  of  a  mite 
collection  from  the  Antarctic  Region  through  Captain  George 
H.  Wilkins.  of  the  British  Imperial  Antarctic  Expedition  of 

The  material  left  by  Captain  Wilkins  consisted  of  a  vial  of 
insects  and  mites.  Three  species  are  represented,  one  spring- 
tail  and  two  mites.  The  specimens  were  collected  on  March 
27,  1921,  from  Port  Lockroy,  Weinke  Island,  lat.  64.50  S.: 
long.  63.30  W.  This  island  is  just  off  the  coast  of  Graham's 
Land.  The  material  has  been  studied  and  slides  made  for  the 
United  States  National  Museum.  A  report  is  here  given. 
Species  found : 

(1).  A  springtail,  Cryptopygus  crassus  Carpenter.  Many  specimen-, 
representing  all  stages,  present.  Specimens  sent  to  Dr.  Folsom  for  con- 
firmation of  determination.* 

(2).  A  beetle  mite,  Halozctcs  (Lucoppia)  antarctica  (Michael).  Many 
specimens  representing  various  nymphal  stages  and  both  sexes  of  adult 

(3).  A  camasid  mite,  Gamasellus  (Gainasus)  racoi'itzai  (Trouessart). 
A  single  male  specimen  found. 

Captain  Wilkins  made  the  following  note  in  regard  to  local 
conditions,  habits,  etc.,  of  the  species  found  :  "Local  conditions: 
Exposed  cracked  granite  boulders  at  few  feet  above  sea  level 
on  which  penguins  make  their  nests.  Black-backed  gulls  nest  in 

*  Dr.  Folsom  writes  that  the  specimens  sent  also  agree  with  speci- 
mens which  Wahlgren  referred  to  C.  anturcticus  Willem.  Folsom  also 
states  that  he  believes  the  correct  name  for  this  species  is  Ci'vp 
untarcticus  Willem. 

78  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Mar.,   '22 

near  locality.  Bases  of  rocks  are  covered  with  penguin  guano. 
Insects  are  found  beneath  loose  boulders  in  crevices  sometimes 
in  separate  colonies,  sometimes  together.  Insects  are  active  at 
all  hours  of  day  during  summer  except  when  rain  is  falling,  at 
such  time  they  seem  to  be  unable  to  move  if  exposed  to  pres- 
sure of  moisture.  The  round-bodied  species  (Halozctcs  ant- 
arc  tica}  build  dome-shaped  brown  cells  closely  connected  but 
only  one  story  high.  Other  species  apparently  do  not  build  any 
kind  of  extra  shelter." 

There  are  known  up  to  the  present  at  least  fourteen  good 
species  of  terrestrial  Acarina  from  the  Antarctic  Region.  These 
species  are  well  distributed  in  the  order  belonging,  as  they  do, 
to  four  different  suborders  and  five  different  families.  Since 
some  of  these  species  are  almost,  if  not  quite,  identical  with 
species  occurring  in  the  Arctics  and  others  are  of  a  wide 
geographical  distribution,  Trouessart  came  to  the  conclusion 
that  the  Antarctic  continent  had  no  distinctive  acarid  fauna. 

Berlese,  who  worked  with  a  much  larger  amount  of  material 
and  at  a  later  date,  came  to  the  conclusion  that  two  of  the  beetle 
mite  species  (one  of  them  Halozctes  antarctica}  were  sufficiently 
distinct  to  be  placed  in  a  new  genus.  He,  therefore,  established 
in  1^16  the  genus  Halozetcs,  having  as  its  type  H.  antarctica 
(Mich.).  This  genus,  according  to  Berlese,  includes  species 
exclusively  of  the  antarctic  fauna  and  have  little  of  affinity 
with  the  others  which  belong  to  the  arctic,  or  subarctic.  If 
Berlese's  contention  is  correct  this  is  the  only  case  of  a  strictly 
endemic  genus  of  Acarina  thus  far  known  in  the  Antarctic 

When  the  writer  first  observed  the  specimens  of  Halosetes 
antarctica,  left  by  Captain  Wilkins,  he  was  especially  struck; 
with  its  resemblance  to  species  with  which  he  was  familiar 
from  our  own  country  and  from  Europe.  A  more  careful 
study  of  this  species  has  been  made,  and  the  writer  must  insist 
that  it  is  in  reality  fairly  near  some  of  the  temperate  or  tropical 
species  of  the  genus  Lucofpia  Berlese  (type  Zctcs  lucornm 
Koch).  When  the  type  species  of  Halozrtcs  is  compared  with 
that  of  Lncoppia-  the  differences  between  them  appear  to  be 
sufficiently  distinct,  but  when  the  type  species  of  Halozctes  is 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  79 

compared  with  various  other  species  of  Lucoppia.  one  is  at  a 
loss  as  to  where  to  draw  the  line  of  generic  distinction.  Cer- 
tainly one  would  hardly  conclude  that  Halozetes  has  very  little 
of  affinity  TC'/.'/I  other  genera  known  from  arctic  regions.  Even 
the  tyjje  of  Berlese's  genus  Lucoppia,  the  old  Zetes  lucornm 
Koch,  which  occurs  throughout  all  Europe  and  most  of  North 
America,  is  found  in  Spitzenbergen.  The  truth  of  the  matter  is 
that  species  rather  closely  related  to  Halozctes  antarctica 
(Mich.)  and  H.  belgieac  (Mich.)  are  of  practically  worldwide 
distribution.  The  genus  is  practically  cosmopolitan.  The  writer 
has  described  one  species  from  decaying  leaves  and  trash  col- 
lected at  Columbia,  Missouri,  another  from  decaying  mush- 
rooms at  Jordan,  Minnesota ;  another  from  moss,  Nilgiri  Hills, 
India,  while  our  Lucoppia  pilosits  (Banks)  is  probably  found 
throughout  most  of  North  America  under  a  variety  of  condi- 

In  closing  these  notes  the  writer  wishes  to  state  that  accord- 
ing to  his  opinion,  we  are  hardly  justified  in  making  any  state- 
ment at  present  to  the  effect  that  the  Antarctic  Region  supports 
a  distinctive  mite  fauna  that  is  of  any  significance  whatever. 
Doubtless  a  more  complete  survey  will  bring  more  interesting 
and,  very  probably,  quite  remarkably  distinct  and  character- 
istic mite  species  to  our  attention.  At  least  we  would  expect 
so  if  we  should  draw  any  analogy  from  the  bird  fauna  of  this 
region,  which  is  remarkably  distinctive  and  characteristic  in 

many  respects. 

—  «»» — 

Prosimulium  fulvum  Coquillett  a  Biting  Species   (Dip.,  Simuliidae). 

In  his  report  on  the  Black  Flies,  Mr.  J.  R.  Malloch  says*  with  regard 
to  this  species:  "There  are  no  records  of  whether  or  not  it  hites  either 
man  or  animals."  This  being  the  case  it  seems  desirahle  to  publish  some 
notes  given  by  Mr.  A.  H.  Twitchell  regarding  the  species,  specimens  of 
which  were  collected  by  Ir'm  along  Fourth-of-July  Creek.  Alaska,  July 
20,  1()21.  He  states:  "They  are  not  very  common  but  I  could  get.  a 
hundred  of  them  at  that  place  in  an  hour.  They  bite  horses  about  the 
ears,  inside  or  out  and  at  times  they  bite  around  the  eye  and  also  go 
into  the  mane.  I  have  seem  them  on  no  other  stock  than  horses,  but 
one  bit  me  on  the  car." 

Prosimulium  fith'itin  Coiiuillett  ranges  from  Alaska  south  to  British 
Columbia,  Montana  and  Colorado.  It  is  the  largest  species  of  the  fam- 
ily in  this  country  and  the  only  yellow  species  known  to  occur  in 
Alaska. — W.  T..  M<  ATI-F.  t".  S.  Biological  Survey.  Washington,  D.  C. 

*Tech.  Ser.  Bui.  26,  U.  S.  Bur.  Ent.  1914,  p.  IS. 

80  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Mar.,   '22 

The  Juniper  Webworm,  Ypsolophus  marginellus 
Fabr.  (Lepid.,  Gelechiidae). 

By  HARRY  B.  WEISS  and  RALPH  B.  LOTT,  New  Brunswick, 

New  Jersey. 

This  European  species  was  first  recorded  as  occurring  in 
America  by  Dr.  E.  P.  Felt  in  the  26th  Report  of  the  State 
Entomologist  of  New  York1  where  it  is  mentioned  as  having 
been  collected  at  Tarrytown  and  Plandome,  N.  Y.,  the  larva 
feeding  on  juniper.  Smith  in  his  New  Jersey  list2  mentions 
the  species  but  gives  no  localities.  Britton3  states  that  it  occurs 
in  Connecticut,  giving  Hartford,  Meriden,  Greenwich  and 
\Yilton  as  localities.  In  all  cases,  juniper  is  the  recorded  food 

During  the  past  several  years,  this  species  has  been  increas- 
ing in  several  places  in  New  Jersey  and  doing  noticeable  dam- 
age. At  present  it  is  known  definitely  to  occur  at  Rutherford, 
Scotch  Plains.  Springfield  and  New  Brunswick,  principally  in 
nurseries.  The  larval  feeding  appears  to  be  confined  to  the 
foliage  of  Jnnipcnis  coinuiitiiis  and  such  varieties  as  anrca, 
horizontalis,  dcprcssa,  hibcrnica,  etc.  Overwintering  takes 
place  in  a  partly  grown  larval  condition,  one-half  to  almost  full- 
grown  caterpillars  hibernating  in  the  webbed-up  foliage.  In 
the  northern  half  of  New  Jersey,  the  caterpillars  become  active 
early  in  May,  feeding  on  the  more  or  less  dry  leaves  and 
becoming  full  grown  and  pupating  in  numbers  from  the  middle 
of  May  on.  Pupation  takes  place  in  whitish,  silken  cases  found 
among  the  partly  eaten  and  webbed-up  needles.  The  first 
moths  issue  about  the  last  of  May  or  first  of  June  after  a 
pupation  period  of  about  fifteen  days.  On  account  of  the 
difference  in  size  of  the  hibernating  larvae,  the  moths  appear 
over  a  period  of  several  weeks,  the  majority  however  emerging 
about  the  middle  of  June.  At  this  time  they  can  be  noted  in 
the  field,  flying  in  irregular  dashes  from  one  juniper  to  another 
if  disturbed. 

Eggs  are  deposited  singly  and  can  be  found  in  numbers  dur- 
ing the  third  week  of  June.  As  a  rule  they  are  laid  on  the  new 

!Mus.  Bull.  147,  p.  35.  1'MO  (Diclmincris). 
-Kept.  N.  J.  State  Mus.  1909  (Dichomeris) . 
3  15th  Kept.  State  Ent.  Conn.  p.  137,  1915  (Dichomeris) . 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOI  OGICAL  NEWS  81 

terminal  growth,  each  egg  being  deposited  in  the  axil  formed  by 
the  stem  and  leaf.  Many  are  found  on  the  inner  bases  of  the 
developing  leaves  near  the  shoot  from  which  the  leaves  arise. 
Some  are  found  on  the  surface  of  the  shoots  or  stems.  Usually 
they  are  deposited  singly,  rarely  in  pairs  but  an  entire  terminal 
shoot  may  bear  several  or  more  eggs.  The  incubation  period  is 
not  definitely  known  but  larvae  0.5  mm.  in  length  were  first 
found  on  July  8. 

After  hatching,  the  larvae  feed  on  the  upper  epidermis  of  the 
small  leaves,  causing  them  to  turn  brown  in  spots  and  later 
entirely  brown.  About  the  last  of  July,  when  the  larvae  are 
about  2  mm.  in  length,  the  webs  are  plainly  visible.  As  the 
larvae  become  older,  their  gregariousness  becomes  more  pro- 
nounced and  the  foliage  is  webbed -up  more  compactly.  At 
first  the  web  includes  the  terminal  shoot ;  later  several  inches 
behind  the  tip  are  included  and  such  webbed-up  shoots  occur 
on  different  parts  of  the  plant,  spoiling  its  ornamental  appear- 
ance. As  the  season  progresses,  the  webs  become  larger,  filled 
with  more  excrement  and  the  leaves  become  dry  and  dead. 
Small  junipers  of  the  upright  kind,  such  as  hibcrnica,  may  be 
webbed-up  solid  from  top  to  bottom.  There  appears  to  be  only 
one  brood  each  year,  the  caterpillars  developing  slowly  during 
the  summer  and  hibernating  during  the  cold  months.  In  the 
spring,  when  they  become  active,  if  no  or  little  green  food  is 
available,  they  appear  to  develop  as  readily  on  the  dried  foliage. 
The  webs  vary  in  length  from  one  inch  to  two  or  three  inches 
and  longer,  depending  on  the  manner  of  growth  of  the  plant 
infested.  Such  nests  contain  from  several  to  fifteen  or  more 

Egg.  Length  G.5  mm.  Width  0.21  mm.  Subcylindrical,  with  hroadly 
rounded  ends :  ends  almost  flat ;  one  end  slightly  narrower  than  the 
other;  sides  suhparallcl  ;  whitish  when  first  laid,  later  becoming  pinkish 
or  tinged  with  pink:  chorion  sculptured  with  numerous,  longitudinal,  ir- 
regularly parallel  wavy  ridges. 

Lar:\i.  Length  ahnut  14  mm.  Width  of  head  1  mm.  Klongate,  nar- 
row, subcylindrical,  slightly  tapering  at  both  extremities.  Head  and  pro- 
thorax  suhequal  in  width,  remaining  thoracic  and  abdominal  segments, 
except  the  8th  and  9th,  slightly  wider  and  subequal  in  length.  Anterior 
dorsal  half  of  mesothorax  and  mctathorax  with  transverse  plicae.  Head 
and  body  segments  each  bearing  several,  short,  white  hairs,  most  of  them 

82  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Mar.,  '22 

arising  from  dark  tubercles.  Crotchets  of  prolegs  biordinal,  those  of 
anal  prolegs  in  two  groups.  Head  dark  reddish  brown.  Antennae  yel- 
lowish brown.  Thoracic  shield  broad,  a  variable  brown ;  body  light 
brown,  longitudinally  marked  as  follows  :  median  stripe  reddish  brown, 
submedian  stripes  whitish,  sublateral  dark  brown,  lateral  ones  light  red- 
dish brown,  all  somewhat  interrupted  ;  thoracic  legs  dark  brown,  prolegs 
yellowish  white,  apically  light  brown ;  anal  plate  reddish  brown,  pos- 
terior margin  dark. 

Pupa.  Length  about  5.5  mm.  Slender,  reddish  brown ;  wing  cases  ex- 
tending to  fourth  abdominal  segment ;  terminal  segment  subacute,  nar- 
rowly rounded  with  a  cluster  of  5  or  6  irregular,  long,  slender,  hooked 

Adult.  This  was  described  by  Fabricius  in  1781  (Spec.  Insect.  2:307) 
as  Alucita  ttwrfjhiclla,  the  original  description  being  as  follows:  "alls 
fusco  nitidis,  marginibus  niueis.  Habitat  in  Juniperetis  Angliae.  Mus. 
Dom.  Yeats.  Media.  Palpi  carassi,  bifidi,  interne  niuei,  externe  fuscae. 
Caput  niueum,  antennis  fuscis.  Alae  anticae  fuscae,  nitidae  margine  in- 
teriore  et  exteriore  late  niueo.  Posticae  exalbidae  immaculatae." 

The  adult  is  rather  attractive.  The  forewings  are  brown 
with  white  front  and  rear  margins,  the  white  disappearing 
before  reaching  the  apex  of  the  wing.  The  hind  wings  are 
uniformly  pearl  gray  above  and  below,  shining  and  heavily 
fringed.  The  thorax  and  abdomen  above  and  below  are  light 
brown  with  a  tuft  of  creamy  white  hairs  on  the  head  and 
prothorax.  The  wing  spread  is  about  15  mm.,  and  length  about 
7  mm. 

According  to  Rebel4  this  species  occurs  in  Europe  except  the 
polar  regions  and  Siberia.  Meyrick5  mentions  several  English 
localities.  Central  Europe  and  Northern  Asia.  He  also  lists 
another  species,  YpsolopJuts  junipcrellus,  as  occurring  in  a  web 
on  juniper. 

For  the  control  of  this  species,  it  is  recommended  that  in- 
fested plants  be  sprayed  or  dusted  with  arsenate  of  lead  during 
the  last  of  June  or  first  part  of  July  when  the  webs  are  small, 
weak  and  easily  penetrated.  Later  a  dust  could  not  be  used 
and  a  spray  would  be  necessary  to  penetrate  the  more  closely 
webbed  foliage.  On  some  varieties  of  juniper,  the  dried  nests 
containing  caterpillars  could  be  cut  and  burned  early  in  the 

4  Cat.  Lepid.  Palaearc.  Faun.  2:  159,  1901  (Nothris'). 
5Handb.   Brit.  Lepid.,  pp.  607-608,   1895    (Ypsolophus). 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  83 

A  Correction  and  a  Protest  (Col.,  Carabidae). 

l'>y  H.  C.  FALL,  Tyngsboro,  Massachusetts. 

In  the  December,  1919,  number  of  the  Journal  of  the  New 
}'oi'k  Entomological  Society,  Mr.  Howard  Notman  concludes, 
after  a  somewhat  elaborate  argument,  that  Hayward,  in  his 
Review  of  the  North  American  Species  of  Bcinbidimn,  was  in 
error  in  suppressing  the  B.  arcnatnin  and  probably  also  the 
incrcnmtnni  of  LeConte  as  synonyms  of  the  European  dcntcl- 
liun  Thunb.  Mr.  Notman's  points  would  seem  to  the  casual 
reader  to  be  well  taken,  but  unfortunately  his  conclusions  rest 
almost  solely  on  his  interpretation  of  the  descriptions  of  the 
species  in  question,  while  Hayward,  as  we  know,  had  the 
LeConte  types  before  him  at  the  time  of  writing,  and  being 
notably  conservative  in  his  work  it  is  fair  to  presume  that  he 
would  not  have  suppressed  these  names  without  good  reason. 

During  a  recent  visit  to  the  Museum  at  Cambridge  I  took  the 
opportunity  to  examine  carefully  the  types  of  arcnatnin  and 
incrematum,  and  to  compare  them  with  a  good  and  undoubtedly 
authentic  European  series  of  dcntellum  present  in  the  Museum 
collection,  which  comparison  quite  satisfied  me  that  Hayward's 
course  was  the  correct  one. 

This  incident  is  here  mentioned,  not  so  much  to  correct  Mr. 
Notman's  misapprehension  in  this  particular  case,  as  to  express 
a  protest  against  the  custom,  all  too  common  of  late,  of  creating 
so-called  new  species  on  differences  evolved  from  a  too  rigid 
interpretation  of  the  descriptions  of  the  earlier  authors.  To 
cite  a  single  instance  out  of  many :  There  occurs  on  the 
Southern  California  seashore  a  rare  and  aberrant  little  Ca rabid, 
described  by  LeConte,  under  the  name  Lyuinacinn  Iciticcps, 
afterward  referred  to  Bembidium.  In  the  brief  description  the 
color  is  given  as  piceous  tinged  with  rufous,  and  the  thorax 
is  said  to  be  not  wider  than  the  head.  Tn  a  recent  paper  Col. 
Casey  describes  as  new  Lyimicops  angusticeps  from  the  same 
region  and  having  the  same-  peculiar  characters,  but  held  to  be 
distinct  because  of  the  color  being  pale  red  brown  with  a  discal 
fuscous  cloud,  and  the  head  not  as  wide  as  the  thorax.  As  a 
matter  of  fact  the  head  is  not  as  wide  as  the  thorax  in  the 
type  of  laticcps  and  the  color  is  substantially  as  described  of 
angusticeps.  In  other  words,  Casey's  description  of  any  us- 

84  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Mar.,  '22 

ticcps  fits  LeConte's  type  of  laticcps  better  than  does  the  orig- 
inal diagnosis.  I  have  in  my  collection  specimens  from  San 
Pedro,  California,  the  type  locality  of  angnsticeps,  which  are 
unquestionably  the  same  thing,  and  which  show  conclusively 
that  angusticeps  is  an  absolute  synonym  of  the  LeContean 

Here  the  responsibility  for  the  synonym  rests,  1   think,  not 
so  much  upon  the  rather  trifling  inexactness  of  the  old  Latin 
diagnosis,  as  upon  the  failure  to  allow  for  this  in  the  face  of 
the  prinm  facie  probability  that  the   San  Diego  type  and  the 
nearby  San  Pedro  specimens  were  specifically  identical.     As  a 
perfectly  true  generalization  we  may  say  that  every  description, 
no  matter  how  carefully  drawn  up,  is  in  some  degree  inadequate, 
or  as  my  friend  Banks  more  strongly  put  it  during  a  recent 
conversation  at  the  Museum,— -"descriptions  never  can  be  relied 
upon."     That  there  is  a  very  large  kernel  of  truth  in  this  some- 
what epigrammatic  statement  must  be  evident  when  we  reflect 
that  no  two  taxonomists  would  describe  the  same  insect  in  the 
same  way  or  in  precisely  equivalent  terms  ;  nor  on  the  other 
hand    would    a   given    description    convey   precisely   the   same 
meaning  to  two  different  individuals,  or  even  to  the  same  in- 
dividual under  different  conditions,  the  interpretation  as  well  as 
the  description  depending  upon  general  experience,  degree  of 
familiarity  with  the  group  in  question,  and  that  very  real  but 
indefinite  bias  known  as  the  personal  equation,  not  to  mention 
certain  other  incidental   factors  which  may   further  color  the 
views  of  the  individual. 

All  this  of  course  is  perfectly  well  known,  and  yet  its  entire 
disregard  in  some  quarters  coupled  with  a  tendency  to  magnify 
into  specific  characters  the  inevitable  more  or  less  trifling  in- 
dividual or  local  variations  to  which  all  organic  species  are 
subject,  is  burdening  our  literature  with  a  mass  of  useless 
names  which  serve  only  to  further  obstruct  and  befog  an 
already  difficult  pathway.  Since  of  the  making  of  species  as 
"of  the  making  of  many  books  there  is  no  end,"  we  should  at 
least  see  to  it  that  our  creations  rest  on  reasonably  secure 
foundations,  lest  we  give  further  cause  for  the  mental  reserva- 
tion which  a  glance  at  the  new  check  list  excites  in  most  of  us, 
best  expressed  perhaps  by  the  misquotation — of  a  truth  there 
are  fewer  things  in  heaven  and  earth  than  are  dreamed  of  in 
our  philosophy. 

XXxiii,    '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  85 

A  New  Diplopod  from  British  Guiana  taken  at 
Quarantine  at  Philadelphia. 

I'.y  RALPH  V.  CHAMBERLIN,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts. 
A  number  of  myriopods  were  found  in  soil  around  a  potted 
palm  from  Georgetown,  British  Guiana,  by  Inspector  Chester 
A.  Davis  who  took  the  plant  from  a  passenger  on  the  American 
schooner  "Rosalie  Hall"  at  Philadelphia  on  May  23,  1921. 
Among  these  are  two  specimens  of  the  chilopod  Me  cist  o- 
ccphalns  iiui.villaris  (Gervais)  which,  it  may  be  noted,  was 
first  described  at  Paris  in  1837  from  a  specimen  apparently 
similarly  immigrant.  One  symphylid  occurs,  this  being  the 
widespread  Scutigerella  innuaculata  (Newport).  The  diplo- 
pods  represented  comprise  a  female  of  the  tropicopolitan 
Orthonwrpha  coarctafa  (Saussure),  two  very  young  spirobo- 
loids  probably  belonging  to  Rhinocricns,  and  the  interesting 
new  nannolenid  described  below,  this  being  represented  In 
several  males  and  females. 

TRICHONANNOLENE,   gen.    nov. 

Gnathochilarium  as  in  Epinannolenc.  Ocelli  present.  Head 
and  tergites  clothed  with  numerous  short  hairs.  Gonopods  of 
male  with  telopodite  presenting  a  slender  branch  octal  in  posi- 
tion and  fitting  into  a  notch  of  the  principal  branch:  the  latter 
broad,  not  two-pronged  as  in  Epmannolene.  Posterior  legs  of 
seventh  segment  in  male  abortive.  Genotype, — T.  (juiiuiaims, 
sp.  no\ . 

Trichonannolene  guiananus,  sp.  nov. 

Dark  brown,  with  head,  antennae  and  legs  paler. 

Head  proportionately  broad;  with  no  distinct  median  sulcus  across  ver- 
tex; clothed  with  numerous  short,  straight  hairs.  Antennae  with  second 
aiticle  narrower  than  the  first,  slender  and  widening  distad,  the  other 
joints  widening  clavately  distad  to  the  fifth,  the  sixth  cylindrical,  the 
seventh  short  and  narrower.  Hyes  widely  separated;  composed  of  com- 
paratively few,  small  and  often  indistinct,  ocelli  which  are  normally  in 
two  series  or  with  one  in  a  third;  e.  g.,  2.  4;  ,\  .1;  .1.  4;  and  1.  3,  2. 

Col  him  with  caudal  margin  nearly  straight,  the  anterior  margin  con- 
vex ;  lower  ends  indexed  beneath,  rather  narrowly  rounded,  the  anterior 
margin  flattened  or  slightly  notched  a  little  above  the  lower  end;  with 
four  principal  striae  beneath  on  each  side,  these  striae  line  and  curving' 
upward  anteriorly  so  as  to  parallel  anterior  margin  for  a  short  distance. 
With  numerous  regularly  spaced  ^etae  similar  to  those  of  head. 



[Mar.,  '22 

Segments  of  body  deeply  constricted,  with  posterior  division  longer 
and  somewhat  thicker  than  the  anterior.  Pore  well  removed  caudad 
from  furrow.  Tergites  behind  constricting  furrow  clothed  conspicu- 
ously with  numerous  short  straight  hairs,  similar  ones  also  present  on 
anal  tergite  and  valves. 

Last  tergite  widely  rounded  behind,  equalled  or  a  little  exceeded  by 
the  valves.  Valves  weakly  margined,  flattened  on  each  side.  Anal  scale 
with  caudal  margin  nearly  straight. 

Trichonannolene guiananus  gen.  et  sp.  nov.    Gonapods  of  male,  posterior  view. 

The  gonopods  of  male  as  shown  in  the  accompanying  figure.  Behind 
the  gonopods  a  pair  of  minute,  conical  appendages  represent  the  pos- 
terior legs  of  the  segment  in  abortive  condition. 

Number  of  segments  in  male,  thirty-one  to  thirty-eight;  in  the  female, 
to  forty-four. 

Length,  to  about  12  mm. 

Type  in  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  Cambridge, 

Food  during  Captivity  of  the  Water-Striders,  Gerris 
remigis  Say  and  Gerris  marginatus  Say  (Hem.).1 

By  C.  F.  CURTTS  RILEY,  University  of   Manitoba,  Winnipeg, 


The  writer  has  been  giving  attention  to  the  general  habitat 
responses  of  water-striders  for  the  past  ten  years.  In  the 
course  of  these  investigations,  a  considerable  amount  of  data 

1  Certain  phases  of  the  food  problem  of  aquatic  Hemiptera  have  been 
discussed  by  me  in  another  paper,  in  which  reference  is  made  to  the 
food  of  water-striders:  1918.  Riley,  C.  F.  C.  Food  of  Aquatic  Hem- 
iptera. Science,  N.  S.,  Vol.  XLVIII,  pp.  545-547. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  87 

has  been  accumulated  in  connection  with  their  food  habits.  In 
this  short  paper  it  is  the  intention  to  direct  attention  to  certain 
different  kinds  of  food  used  by  Gcrris  rcmigls  Say  and  Gcrris 
marginatiLS  Say  while  in  captivity  in  aquaria. 

In  my  habitat  studies  of  these  two  species,  it  has  been  noticed 
that  Gcrris  rcuiiyis  feeds  on  a  variety  of  insect  food,  and  the 
same  is  true  with  respect  to  Gcrris  inaryinatits.  Additional 
information  was  obtained  on  this  tendency  toward  omnivorous 
feeding,  while  studying  water-striders  during  confinement  in 
aquaria.  Many  observations  were  recorded  \vith  respect  to  the 
kind  of  food  that  was  eaten. 

It  was  found  that  both  Gcrris  rcinii/is  and  Gcrris  marginatus 
will  feed  on  the  pupae  and  adults  of  Gulc.r  sp.,  small  and  large 
species  of  Tipulid  flies,  Syrphid  flies.  Musco  doincstica,  Chiron- 
oinns  sp.,  Tabaiuts  sp.,  and  Drosophila  anipclophila. 

Gcrris  rcmiyis  is  a  more  vigorous  and  daring  feeder  than  is 
Gcrris  marginal  us  and  has  been  observed  to  feed  on  Notonccta 
nndnlata,  Chrysopa  sp.,  Calopteryx  inacitlata,  Ifctacrina  aincr- 
icana,  and  Arctocorixa  sp. 

My  observations  seemed  to  indicate  that  both  species  of 
water-striders  are  flesh  feeders,  but  when  they  have  been  de- 
prived of  food  for  several  weeks,  they  are,  apparently,  not 
particular  as  to  the  character  of  their  food.  Both  Gcrris  re  in  it/is 
and  Gcrris  marginatus  were  noticed  as  they  were  feeding  on 
the  soft  parts  of  banana  fruit  and  also  on  the  inner  softer 
portions  of  the  skin.  Several  persons  in  the  laboratory  saw 
this  unusual  form  of  response.  During  confinement  in  aquaria, 
both  species  suck  the  juices  of  freshly  killed  snails,  Pliysa  sp. 
and  Planorbis  sp.  and  also  small  pieces  of  fresh  beef. 

Gcrris  remit/is  and  Gcrris  margmatus  display  cannibalistic 
responses  in  their  own  habitat.  When  their  brook  habitat  so 
shrinks  in  volume,  during  a  drought,  that  then-  remain  only 
a  few  small  isolated  pools  in  the  bed  of  the  stream,  thus  de- 
priving the  gerrids  of  food,  they  will  attack  members  of  their 
own  species.  This  somewhat  unusual  respond-  has  been  oh 
served  to  nrcur  in  aquaria.  Gcrris  remit/is  not  infrequently 
seizes  and  sucks  the  body  juices  of  weaker  individuals  of  its 
own  kind  and  also  of  Gcrris  marginatus.  Gerris  iiniryinatiis 
has  been  seen  to  feed  on  the  weaker  members  of  its  own  species. 

88  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Mar.,  '22 

These  cannibalistic  traits  are  more  in  evidence  when  the  gerrids 
have  been  deprived  of  food  for  two  or  more  weeks.  This 
statement  regarding  the  cannibalism  of  these  two  species  of 
water-striders  is  somewhat  at  variance  with  the  observations  of 
McCook2,  who  has  not  seen  such  food  responses  of  gerrids. 

While  most  of  the  observations  on  water-striders  in  captivity 
seem  to  indicate  that  they  prefer  fresh  food,  yet  they  have  been 
seen  to  feed  on  recently  dead  insects  and  also  on  those  that 
have  been  dead  so  long  that  they  are  beginning  to  decay.  Both 
G err is  rcmigis  and  Gcrris  marginatits  have  been  observed  to 
use  as  food  freshly  killed  and  stale  individuals  of  their  own 
kind,  also  Miisca  domestica  and  Drosophila  ampelophila  in  a 
similar  condition. 

These  observations  seem  to  indicate  that  both  species  of 
gerrids  are  indiscriminate  feeders  and  apparently  will  use  as 
food  many  kinds  of  animal  bodies.  Little  choice  appears  to  be 
shown,  so  long  as  it  is  possible  to  push  their  bill-like  mouth- 
parts  through  the  exoskeleton  into  the  softer  tissues. 

A  Shower  of  Corixidae  (Heter.). 

In  1917  the  writer  published  a  Review  of  instances  of  "Showers  of 
Organic  Matter"*  and  genuine  cases  of  insect  rain  were  found  to  be 
few.  This  year  the  writer  received,  through  the  kindness  of  Dr.  A.  K. 
Fisher,  a  mass  of  Corixidae  with  the  following  note  by  Mrs.  A.  P. 
Bigelow,  of  Ogden,  Utah,  the  collector. 

"I  am  mailing  you  a  box  containing  samples  of  a  swarm  of  insects 
which  fell  near  here  last  night.  A  few  were  dead  and  the  living  were 
unable  to  raise  themselves  from  the  ground  though  provided  with  tiny 
gauze  wings.  They  fell  in  a  thick  swarm  covering  a  space  not  to  exceed 
six  feet  and  pattered  like  hail  on  the  straw  hat  of  the  farmer  as  he  sat 
by  his  door  about  9  P.  M.  They  lay  thickly  covering  the  ground.  I  saw 
them  this  morning  (August  3,  1921)  still  unable  to  fly  and  lying  in 
thick  heaps." 

Subsequent  inquiry  developed  the  fact  that  there  was  no  light  which 
might  have  attracted  the  insects.  This  question,  among  others,  asked  for 
safety's  sake,  was  really  unnecessary  since  such  small  insects  rarely  if 
ever,  come  to  light  in  numbers  so  great  as  to  form  "thick  heaps." 

These  water  boatmen  (of  the  genera  Ramphocorixa  and  had 
a  generally  frayed  appearance,  and  although  no  unusual  wind  was  noted 
when  they  fell  it  is  probable  that  somewhere  on  their  journey  they  had 
encountered  some  destructive  wind  phenomenon  that  resulted  in  their 
precipitation  to  the  ground. — W.  L.  McATEE,  U.  S.  Biological  Survey, 
Washington,  D.  C. 

-  1907.    McCook,  H.  C.  Nature's  Craftsmen.     New  York,  p.  267. 

*  Monthly  Weather  Review,  45,  pp.  217-224,  May,  1917. 



Those  Incomplete  Titles  Again. 

Several  times  in  recent  years  we  have  had  occasion  to  call 
attention  to  the  derelictions  of  authors  and  editors  in  the  mat- 
ter of  incomplete  titles  of  papers.  An  editorial  under  this 
caption  appeared  in  the  NEWS  for  June,  1915,  page  280.  In 
a  set  of  "New  Year's  Resolutions  for  the  Entomologist,"  in 
our  issue  for  January,  1920,  page  22,  was  one  reading: 

6.  Add  the  names  of  the  Order  and  the  Family,  to  which  the  insectb 
treated  belong,  to  the  title  of  your  paper. 

It  seems  hardly  necessary  to  point  out  again  the  reasons 
for  this  addition. 

We  lately  had  to  sort  out  some  publications  of  the  Federal 
Department  of  Agriculture  for  definite  purposes  and  to  group 
them  by  orders  and  families.  Here  are  some  of  the  snags  we 
struck  : 

Wade   &  Boving.      Biology   of   Embaphion  muricatum.      1921. 
Beyer.     Garden   Flea  Hopper  in  Alfalfa  and  its   Control.     1921. 
Snyder.     Injury  to  Casuarina  trees  in  Southern  Florida  by  the  Man- 
grove Borer.     1919. 

Brooks.     Spotted  Apple-tree  Borer.     1920. 

Hofer.     The  Aspen  Borer  and  How  to  Control  it.     1920. 

The  list  could  be  extended  easily.  In  all  of  these  cases  it 
was  necessary  to  hunt  through  the  text  to  learn  the  family  and 
order.  A  professional  economic  entomologist  would  probably 
not  have  had  our  difficulty,  but  presumably  the  publications  in 
question  are  not  intended  for  his  use  alone,  and  even  the  term 
"I'.orer"  is,  we  observe,  not  co-extensive  with  the  name  of 
any  one  order.  The  Federal  Government  should  set  us  a 
better  example  and  help  us  to  conserve  our  time  as  well  as  our 


90  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Mar.,  '22 

Notes  and   Ne\vs. 



Bird  Lice   (Mallophaga)   Attaching  Themselves  to  Bird  Flies 
(Dip.,  Hippoboscidae). 

Finding  two  instances  of  this  phenomenon  led  the  writer  to  look  up 
previous  records.  In  this  he  has  had  the  help  of  Dr.  Joseph  Becquaert. 
The  latter  and  Mr.  J.  R.  Malloch  named  the  bird  flies  concerned  in  the 
present  cases  and  Mr.  E.  A.  Chapin  the  bird  lice.  In  each  of  the  two 
instances  the  fly  was  Ornithoinyia  ai'icularia  L.  as  our  slightly  differ- 
entiated form  is  still  known,  and  it  happened  also  that  the  louse  in  each 
case  was  the  same,  namely,  Degccriclla  rotundata  Osborn.  One  collec- 
tion was  made  at  the  mouth  of  the  Macfarlane  River,  Lake  Athabaska, 
Saskatchewan,  Aug.  11,  1920,  by  Francis  Harper,  from  what  bird  is  not 
stated,  and  the  other  from  a  western  crow  (Corvus  brachyrhynchos 
hcspcris}  taken  near  Ontario,  Oregon,  Sept.  30,  1920,  by  E.  R.  Kalm- 
oach.  In  both  cases  the  mallophagan  had  attached  itself  to  the  hip- 
poboscid  by  biting  the  mandibles  into  the  upper  surface  of  the  abdomen 
near  the  hind  margin. 

References  in  the  literature  to  cognate  observations  are : 
[BANKS,  NATHAN.]     Entomological  Notes   from  the  Museum  of  Com- 
parative Zoology,  Psyche,  Vol.  27,  No.  1,  Feb.,  1920,  p.  20. 

Two  specimens  of  Mallophaga  on  an  Ornithoinyia,  one  on  each  side 
near  the  tip  of  the  abdomen. 
FORSIUS,  RUNAR.     Ueber  den  Transport  von  Mallophagen   durch   Ilip- 

pobosciden.     Meddel  af.  Soc.  pro  Fauna  et  Flora  Fennica,  38,  pp.  58- 

60,  Feb.  3,  1912. 

A  mallophagan,  probably  Nirnnts  quadratuhts  Nitzsch,  fastened  at  base 
of  wing  of  Ornithoinyia  aricularia  L.  p.  58. 

Two  mallopbaga,  one  on  the  hind  tibia,  one  on  the  abdominal  hairs  of 
an  Ornithoinyia  ai'icularia  L.,  one  of  them  being  identified  as  Nirinus 
uncinosus  Nitzsch.  p.  59. 
JACOBSON,    Enw.      Mallophaga    transported    by    Hippoboscidae.      Tijds. 

voor  Ent.  54,  1911,  pp.  168-9. 

"mallophagan  clasped  between  the  legs"  of  an  Ornithoeca  pusilla  Schiner. 
MTOBERG,   ERIC.     Studien  iiber   Mallophagen  und  Anopluren.     Arkiv.   f. 

Zoologi,  VI,  No.  13,  1910,  p.  10. 

7  Docophorus  Icontodon  Nitzsch  on  one,  3  upon  another  specimen  of 
Ornithoinyia,  firmly  attached  to  long  hairs  of  abdomen. 
[SHARP,    DAVID.]       [Mallophagan    on    Ornithomyia.]      Proc.    Ent.    Soc. 

Lond.,  1890,  p.  xxx. 

Dr.  Sharp  exhibited  a  specimen  of  O.  aricnlarc  L.,  collected  at  Dart- 
ford,  England,  "to  which  were  firmly  adhering — apparently  by  their  man- 
dibles— several  specimens  of  a  mallophagous  insect." 
WANACH,  B.    Transport  eines  Philopterus  durch  Ornithomyia  avicularia 

L.     Ent.   Rundschau,  27,  No.   17,   Sept.   1,   1910,  p.   121.    ""fest  an  den 


The  extent  to  which  the  H'ppoboscid  genus  Ornithomyia  figures  in  tin- 
above  records  is  rather  surprising,  certainly  more  than  would  be  expect- 
ed considering  the  abundance  of  flies  of  this  genus  relative  to  others  in 
the  family. — W.  L.  McAiEE,  U.  S.  Biological  Survey,  Washington,  D.  C. 

XXxiii,    '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  91 

Save  the  Zoological   Record! 

[We  reprint  the  following  note  entitled  "The  Zoological  Record' 
from  Science  for  Dec.  30,  1921.] 

"The  Zoological  Record,  which  was  founded  in  1864  by  English 
zoologists,  has  been  issued  regularly  ever  since  and  contains  each  year  a 
complete  bibliography  of  all  publications  connected  with  zoology.  It  is 
now  the  sole  work  of  the  kind,  and  is  invaluable  to  all  workers  in  every 
branch  of  zoology. 

"Previous  to  1914  The  Zoological  Record  formed  part  of  the  'hit*  •; 
national  Catalogue  of  Scientific  Literature,'  and  was  issued  under  the 
joint  responsibility  of  the  Royal  Society  and  the  Zoological  Society.  As 
the  Royal  Society  found  itself  unable  to  proceed  with  the  volumes  of  the 
'International  Catalogue'  after  the  issue  for  1914,  the  Zoological  Society 
has  undertaken  to  prepare  and  issue  the  volumes  for  1915-1920,  inclusive, 
at  its  sole  financial  risk. 

"It  is  the  wish  of  the  record  committee  of  the  Zoological  Society  to 
continue  the  publication  of  this  most  useful  work,  but  it  is  obvious  that 
they  cannot  expect  the  Society  to  undertake  the  heavy  financial  liability 
involved  in  publication  unless  they  receive  reasonable  support  from 
working  zoologists  both  at  home  and  abroad. 

"I  hope,  therefore,  that  all  working  zoologists  who  agree  with  me 
that  the  suspension  of  the  publication  of  the  Record  would  have  a  most 
disastrous  effect  on  the  progress  of  zoology,  will  either  subscribe  them- 
selves or  will  urge  the  librarians  of  the  institutions  with  which  they  are 
connected  to  do  so. 

"A  prospectus  and  form  of  subscription  either  for  the  whole  or  separ- 
ate divisions  of  the  Record  can  be  had  on  application  to  the  Zoological 
Society.  \V.  L.  SCLATER,  Editor. 

"Zoological  Society  of  London,  London,  X.  W.  8." 

The    Mulford    Biological   Exploration   of   the   Amazon    Basin. 
News   Bulletin   No.   6. 

It  is  with  greatest  regret  that  we  have  to  confirm  previous  reports 
of  the  ill  health  of  Dr.  Rusby,  the  Director  of  the  Mulford  Exploration. 
Some  of  the  earlier  messages  from  the  Exploration  party  indicated  that 
Dr.  Rusby  was  suffering  from  an  infected  tooth  and  from  neuritis  as 
early  as  last  August.  Although  his  suffering  was  continuous  and  un- 
abating  in  severity,  yet  he  could  not  be  persuaded  to  give  up  nor  to 
alter  the  plans  which  he  had  laid  down  for  himself.  He  gamely  con- 
tinued to  work  strenuously  at  his  botanical  collection  at  every  possible 
opportunity  and  he  not  only  pursued  vigorously  his  own  department  of 
the  work,  but  set  himself  grimly  to  the  task  of  directing,  controlling 
and  planning  for  the  general  work  and  progress  of  the  expedition. 
With  all  this  he  found  time  to  write  many  letters  and  to  keep  detailed 
records  and  accounts  of  many  subjects  outside  of  his  own  botanical 
work.  By  the  middle  of  November,  his  condition  had  become  so  bad 
that  he  was  compelled  to  give  up,  not  because  of  the  pain  and  .suffering, 
which  he  seems  to  have  borne  with  a  remarkable  stoicism,  but  because 
the  crippling  effect  of  his  neuritis  made  it  very  difficult  for  him  to  get 
about  and  he  decided  that  it  would  be  better  for  him  to  come  home 
rather  than  continue  as  a  drag  and  hindrance  on  the  work  of  the 
others.  He  expected  to  reach  New  York  sometime  before  March  1. 

This  decision  being  taken,  the  duties  of  the  Director  of  the  Hxpedi- 

92  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Mar.,   '22 

tion  were  turned  over  to  Dr.  W.  M.  Mann,  Assistant  Curator  in  the 
Division  of  Insects  of  the  U.  S.  National  Museum,  and  a  man  of  wide 
experience  in  tropical  travel  and  collecting.  Under  his  direction  the 
party  will  continue  its  work  in  Bolivia  and  Western  Brazil,  making 
studies  and  collections  in  the  valleys  of  the  Rio  Beni  and  some  of  its 
tributaries,  including  the  Rio  Negro  and  Rio  Ivon.  The  trip  into  Col- 
ombia as  originally  planned,  was  modified,  and  the  party  will  con- 
tinue its  work  in  Bolivia  and  Brazil  until  March  or  April.  The  botani- 
cal work  of  the  expedition  is  being  continued  by  Dr.  O.  E.  \Vhite,  a 
representative  of  the  Brooklyn  Botanical  Gardens  and  Harvard  Uni- 
versity, assisted  by  Seiior  Cardenas,  a  young  Bolivian  botanist  of  prom- 
ise, who  was  taken  on  as  a  member  of  the  party  at  the  request  of  the 
Bolivian  Department  of  Agriculture. 

In  spite  of  the  change  of  plans  for  the  Colombian  part  of  the  jour- 
ney and  the  early  termination  of  Dr.  Rusby's  active  work  in  the  field, 
we  feel  confident  that  the  results  when  ultimately  gathered  together 
will  prove  the  expedition  to  have  been  well  worth  while  and  to  have 
fully  repaid  expenditures  made  therefor.  Before  Dr.  Rusby  left  the 
party  they  had  collected  over  3000  plant  numbers  and  to  this  many 
more  will  be  added.  They  have  already  shipped  to  this  country  many 
boxes  containing  specimens  of  economic  importance.  Other  depart- 
ments of  the  work  of  the  expedition  have  been  equally  successful.  Dr. 
Mann  has  collected  over  100,000  insects,  including  125  different 
species  of  ants.  The  collection  of  fish  is  also  important  and  growing 
rapidly  as  they  descend  to  the  deeper  and  wider  rivers. 

R.  H.  HUTCHISON,  Secretary,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Entomological    Literature 


Under  the  above  head  it  is  intended  to  note  papers  received  at  the 
Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  of  Philadelphia,  pertaining  to  the  En- 
tomology of  the  Americas  (North  and  South),  including  Arachnida  and 
Myriopoda.  Articles  irrelevant  to  American  entomology  will  not  be  noted; 
but  contributions  to  anatomy,  physiology  and  embryology  of  insects, 
however,  whether  relating  to  American  or  exotic  species,  will  be  recorded. 

The  numbers  in  Heavy- Faced  Type  refer  to  the  journals,  as  numbered 
in  the  following  list,  in  which  the  papers  are  published. 

All  continued  papers,  with  few  exceptions,  are  recorded  only  at  their 
first  installments. 

The  records  of  papers  containing  new  genera  or  species  occurring  north 
of  Mexico  are  grouped  at  the  end  of  their  respective  Orders. 

For  records  of  Economic  Literature,  see  the  Experiment  Station  Record, 
Office  of  Experiment  Stations,  Washington.  Also  Review  of  Applied  En- 
tomology, Series  A,  London.  For  records  of  papers  on  Medical  Ento- 
mology, see  Review  of  Applied  Entomology,  Series  B 

The  titles  occurring   in  the  Entomological   News  are  not'  listed. 

7 Annals  of  The   Entomological   Society  of  America,   Columbus, 

Ohio.  10 — Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washing- 
ton, D.  C.  11 — Annals  and  Magazine  of  Natural  History,  London. 
12— Journal  of  Economic  Entomology,  Concord,  N.  H.  21— The 
Entomologist's  Record,  London.  24—  Annales  de  la  Societe  Ento- 
mologique  de  France,  Paris.  30 — Tijdschrift  voor  Entomologie,  The 
Hague,  Holland.  49 — Entomologische  Mitteilungen,  Berlin-Dahlem. 
50 Proceedings  of  the  United  States  National  Museum.  61 — Pro- 
ceedings of  the  California  Academy  of  Sciences,  San  Francisco. 

68 Science,    Utica,    Garrison    &    New    York.      81 — The    Journal    of 

Parasitology,    Urbana,    Illinois.      85 — The    Journal    of    Experimental 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  93 

Zoology,  Philadelphia.  89 — Zoologische  Jahrbucher,  Jena.  100 — • 
Biological  Bulletin  of  the  Marine  Biological  Laboratory,  Woods 
Hole,  Mass.  110 — Naturwissenschaftliche  Wochenschrift,  Jena. 
114 — Entomologische  Rundschau,  Stuttgart.  133 — Zoologica.  Scien- 
tific Contributions  of  the  New  York  Zoological  Society. 

GENERAL.  Andreae,  H.— Sammelgerate.  49,  x.  199-200.  Fox, 
W.  H.— Obituary.  10,  xxiii,  21 '.',.  Hoffmann,  W.  H.— Kin  denkmal 
fur  Carlos  Finlay  in  Habana.  49,  x,  104-.").  Phillips  &  Poos— A 
lamp  for  taxonomic  work  in  entomology.  12,  xiv,  504-(>.  Seaver, 
F.  J. — Some  wood-boring  insects.  (Amer.  Forestry,  xxvii.  769-78.) 

ANATOMY,  PHYSIOLOGY,  ETC.  de  Baillon,  P.  C.— Note 
sur  le  mecanisme  de  la  stridulation  chez  Meconema  varium  (Phas- 
gonuridae).  24,  xc,  69-80.  Bodine,  J.  H.— The  effect  of  light  and 
decapitation  on  the  rate  of  CO2  output  of  certain  Orthoptera.  85, 
xxxv,  47-55.  Forbes,  W.  T.  M. — The  small  primaries  of  lepidopter- 
ous  larvae.  7,  xiv,  344.  Gerhardt,  U. — Neue  studien  uber  copula- 
tion und  spermatophoren  von  Grylliden  und  Locusticlen.  (Acta 
Zool.  Stockholm,  1921,  241-327.)  Harvey,  E.  N.— The  nature  of 
animal  light.  (J.  B.  Lippincott  Company,  1920,  182  pp.)  Minnich, 
D.  E. — The  chemical  sensitivity  of  the  tarsi  of  the  red  admiral  but- 
terfly, Pyrameis  atlanta.  85,  xxxv,  57-81.  Pratje,  A.— Zur  chemie 
des  Noctiluca-zellkermes.  Zeit.  f.  Ges.  Anat.,  Ivii.  170-32.)  Riley, 
C.  F.  C. — Responses  of  the  large  water-strider,  Gerris  remigis,  to 
contact  and  light.  7,  xiv,  231-89.  Whiting,  P.  W.— Studies  on  the 
parasitic  wasp,  Hadrobracon  brevicornis.  100,  xli,  153-55. 

ARACHNIDA,  ETC.  Chamberlin,  R.  V.— The  centipeds  of  Cen- 
tral America.  50,  Ix,  Art.  7.  Welsh,  F.  R. — Poisonous  spiders.  68, 
Iv,  49.  Wickware,  A.  B. — An  unusual  form  of  scabies  in  fowls.  .81, 
viii,  90-91. 

NEUROPTERA.  Folsom,  J.  W.— A  new  Entomobrya.  133,  iii, 

HEMIPTERA.  Essig,  E.  O.— (See  under  Hymenoptera.)  Mc- 
Atee,  W.  L.— The  periodical  cicada,  1919;  brief  notes  for  the  District 
of  Columbia  region.  10,  xxiii,  211-1:5.  Osborn,  H. — Two  tachigalia 
membracids.  133,  iii,  233-4. 

Hoke,  G. — Observations  on  the  structure  of  the  Oraceratubae  and 
some  new  Lepidosaphine  scales.  7,  xiv,  337-43. 

LEPIDOPTERA.  d'Almeida,  R.  F.— Notes  sur  quelques  lepi- 
dopteres  d'Amerique  du  sud.  24,  xc,  57-C>5.  Cockayne,  E.  A. — The 
white  border  of  Euvanessa  antiopa.  21,  xxxiii,  205-10.  Fassl,  A.  H. 
— Zwei  Papilio-novitaten  aus  Brasilien.  114,  xxxix,  1.  Fox,  C.  L.— 
An  account  of  a  collecting  trip  in  the  high  Sierra.  (Lorquinia,  Los 
Angeles,  1919,  7-10.)  Kruger,  E.— Papilio  laodamas  und  verwandte 
in  Kolumbicn  und  das  weibchen  von  laodamas  laodamas.  114,  xxxix, 

94  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Mar.,  '22 

3-4.  Lathy,  P.  I. — An  account  of  the  Castniinae  in  the  collection  of 
Madame  Gaston  Fournier.  (South  American.)  11,  ix,  68-86.  Seitz, 
A. — Die  systematische  stellung  der  Zygaeniden.  114,  xxxix,  1-3. 

DIPTERA.  Duda,  Dr. —  Fiebrigella  und  Archiborborus,  zwei 
neue  sudamerikanische  Borboriden  gattungen.  30,  Ixiv,  119-146. 
Felt,  E.  P.— A  new  Diadiplosis.  133,  iii,  225-G.  Greene,  C.  T.— An 
illustrated  synopsis  of  the  puparia  of  100  Muscoid  flies.  50,  Ix,  Art. 
10.  Huckett,  H.  C. — On  the  morphology  of  the  ovipositor  of  certain 
Anthomyian  genera.  7,  xiv,  290-328.  Lundbeck,  W. — New  species 
of  Phoridae  from  Denmark,  together  with  remarks  on  Aphiochaeta 
groenlandica.  (Vidensk.  Mecldcl.,  Dansk  Naturh.  Foren.  Koben- 
haven,  Ixxii,  129-43.)  Young,  B.  P. — Attachment  of  the  abdomen 
to  the  thorax  of  Diptera.  (Cornell  Agr.  Exp.  Sta.,  Mem.  44.) 

Curran,  C.  H.- — Revision  of  the  Pipiza  group  of  the  family  Syr- 
phidac  from  north  of  Mexico.  61,  xi,  345-393.  McAtee,  W.  L.— 
Notes  on  Nearctic  Bibionid  flies.  50,  Ix,  Art.  11.  Reinhard,  H.  J.— 
Some  new  species  of  Texas  Tachinidae.  7,  xiv,  329-336. 

COLEOPTERA.  Boving,  A.  G.— The  larvae  and  pupae  of  the 
social  beetles,  Coccidotrophus  socialis,  and  Eunausibius  wheeleri, 
with  remarks  on  the  taxonomy  of  the  family  Cucujidae.  133,  iii,  197- 
224.  Champlain,  A.  B. — A  long-lived  woodborer.  68,  Iv,  49-50. 
Hauser,  G. — Die  Damaster-Coptolabrus-gruppe  der  gattung  Cara- 
bus.  89,  Abt.  f.  Syst.,  xiv,  1-389.  Heller,  K.  M. — Systematische  und 
faunistische  notizen  uber  kaefer.  49,  x,  195-8.  Schwarz  &  Barber- 
Descriptions  of  new  species  of  C.  133,  iii,  189-94.  Wheeler,  W.  M. 
—A  study  of  some  social  beetles  in  British  Guiana  and  of  their  rela- 
tions to  the  ant  -plant  Tachigalia.  Notes  on  the  habits  of  European 
and  N.  Am.  Cucujidae.  133,  iii,  35-1 3(i:  173-83. 

Fisher,  W.  S. — A  new  Cerambycid  beetle  from  California.  10, 
xxiii,  200-8.  Van  Zwaluwenburg,  R.  H. —  Melanotus  hyslopi  n.  sp. 
10,  xxiii,  210-11. 

HYMENOPTERA.  Brues.  C.  T.— A  new  Blepyrus.  133,  iii, 
229-30.  ^Claassen,  P.  W. — Typha  insects:  their  ecological  relation- 
ships. (Cornell  Agr.  Exp.  Sta..  Mem.  47.)  Essig,  E.  O.— The 
argentine  ant  builds  earthen  protections  for  mealy  bugs.  12,  xiv, 
506-8.  Friese,  H. — Ueber  die  kegelbiencn  (Coelioxys)  Brasiliens. 
89,  xliv,  Abt.  f.  Syst.,  420-86.  Heikertinger,  F.— Tauschende  ahn- 
lichkeit  mit  ameisen  (Myrmekoidie).  110,  1921,  709-13.  Wade  & 
Myers— Observations  relative  to  recent  recoveries  of  Pleurotropis 
epigonus.  10,  xxiii,  202-6.  Wheeler,  W.  M. — The  Tachigalia  ants. 
133,  iii,  137-72. 

Cushman,  R.  A. — North  American  Tchneumon-flies  of  the  genera 
Clistopyga  and  Schizopyga.  50,  Ix,  Art.  4. 

XXxiii,    '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  95 

T.  BAINBRIGGE  FLETCHER.  Calcutta.  Superintendent  of  Government 
Printing,  India.  1921.  40  pp.  11  Annas. 

This  section  of  the  proposed  catalogue  brings  up  to  date  the  list  ot 
species  of  the  Indian  Acrydiidae,  offering  several  very  important  im- 
provements over  the  last  comprehensive  catalogue  of  this  division  of 
the  Orthoptera.  The  most  important*  of  these  lies  in  giving,  on  the  page 
margins,  the  exact  localities  given  in  the  list  of  references,  referring 
these  to  each  reference  by  small  numerals.  In  this  way  the  localities 
originally  given  by  each  author  can  be  determined  at  a  glance. 

Another  decided  improvement  is  tbe  omission  of  numbers,  which  in 
Kirby's  Catalogue  were  given  even  more  than  usual  importance,  as 
they  were  used  for  genotypic  citations. 

In  the  present  Catalogue  the  genotype  is  in  every  instance  cited  and. 
if  described  from  a  locality  outside  of  India,  that  locality  is  given.  We 
believe  the  system  would  have  been  improved,  had  a  reference  to  the 
original  genotypic  designation  been  given. 

The  present  section  is  well  handled  and  the  Catalogue  should  be  of 
the  highest  value  to  students  of  Indian  Entomology. 

We  are,  as  a  rule,  not  in  favor  of  general  catalogues  and  believe 
that,  unless  thorough  and  complete  in  every  detail,  they  can  be  ot 
real  disadvantage  to  the  student,  who,  relying  on  such,  is  sure  to  miss 
the  literature  overlooked.  In  the  present  case,  however,  it  is  evident 
that  a  general  catalogue  of  Indian  insects  is  greatly  needed  and  the 
present  section  promises  well  for  a  thorough  and  satisfactory  series.— 

THE  BULLETIN  OF  THE  HILL  MUSEUM,  Vol.  1,  Xo.  1.  A  magazine 
of  Lepidopterology.  Edited  by  J.  J.  Joicey  and  G.  Talbot,  with  the 
assistance  of  L.  B.  Prout,  A.  E.  Prout  and  W.  Hawker-Smith.  Issued 
October  17th,  1921,  at  the  Hill  Museum,  Witley,  Surrey,  England. 
With  24  photographic  plates  of  Lepidoptera  and  8  photographs  of  other 
subjects.  London.  John  Bale,  Sons  and  Danielson.  Oxford  House, 
83-91  Great  Tichficld  St.,  Oxford  St.,  W.  Price  30s.  There  are  200  pages 
including  the  index. 

"Tin's  magazine  has  been  established  by  Mr.  J.  J.  Joicey  for  the  pur- 
pose of  giving  to  the  entomological  world  the  results  of  studies  car- 
ried out  at  the  Hill  Museum,  Witley."  An  interesting  account  is  given 
of  the  museum  and  the  personnel  of  the  scientific  staff,  and  the  large 
and  valuable  collections  it  contains.  A  bibliography  of  the  previous 
publications  of  the  museum  is  given.  The  first  paper  in  the  new  jour- 
nal is  by  George  Talbot  and  is  entitled,  "Euploeincs  Forming  Mimetic 
Groups  in  the  Islands  of  Key,  Aru,  Tcnimber,  Australia  and  Fiji." 
The  other  papers  arc  as  follows:  "New  Lepidoptera  Collected  by  Mr. 

*  Kirby,  Synonymic  Catalogue  of  Orthoptera,   III,  PP-  1  to  62. 

96  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Mar.,   '22 

T.  A.  Barns,  in  East  Central  Africa,"  by  G.  Talbot.  "Descriptions  of 
New  Forms  of  Lepidoptera  from  the  Island  of  Hainan,"  by  J.  J. 
Joicey  and  G.  Talbot.  Judging  from  the  first  number  this  magazine 
promises  to  be  of  great  value  and  interest  to  the  Lepidopterist  and  we 
will  look  forward  to  seeing  much  scientific  work  come  from  the  Hill 
Museum. — H.  S. 

Doings  of  Societies. 

Entomological  Workers  in   Ohio  Institutions. 

At  the  annual  state  meeting  held  in  the  Botany  and  Zoology  Building, 
Ohio  State  University,  Columbus.  Friday,  February  3,  1922,  the  fol- 
lowing papers  were  read : 

GENERAL.  A.  E.  Miller. — Problem  of  a  Collector.  R.  C.  Osburn— 
The  Tabulation  of  Specific  Characters  of  Insects.  Miss  Mary  Auten — • 
Insects  Associated  with  Spider  Nests.  T.  G.  Phillips — The  Chemistry 
of  some  Common  Insecticides.  J.  T.  Potgieter  and  T.  J.  Naude — 
Economic  Entomology  in  South  Africa.  E.  C.  Cotton — Notes  of  the 
Year  on  Inspection  Work.  J.  W.  Bulger — Control  of  some  Greenhouse 

EPHEMERIDA.  F.  H.  Krecker — Emergence  of  a  May-fly  from  its 
Nymphal  Skin  under  Pelagic  Conditions. 

ODONATA  C.  H.  Kennedy — The  Origin  of  Put-in-Bay  Dragon  Fly 

COLEOPTERA.  W .  C.  Kraatz — A  New  Feeding  Habit  of  a  Dermestid 
Larva.  W.  V.  Balduf — Parasites  of  the  Cucumber  Beetle.  J.  S. 
Houser — The  Apple  Flea  Weevil.  C.  R.  Neiswander  and  R.  F.  Chris- 
man — Hibernation  Responses  of  the  Asparagus  Beetle. 

HEMIPTERA.  C.  H.  Waid — Observations  on  the  Potato  Leafhopper. 
T.  H.  Parks — Experiments  and  Demonstrations  in  the  Control  of 
Potato  Leafhoppers  and  Hopperburn.  Herbert  Spencer — Aphid  Para- 
sites and  Hyperparasites.  C.  R.  Outright — Relative  Efficiency  of  Some 
Aphid  Predators.  D.  M.  DeLong — The  Genus  Dcltoccphalns.  Some 
Notes  on  the  Ecology  and  Distribution  of  the  North  American  Species. 
H.  L.  Dozier — Male  Genitalia  of  Delphacids.  H.  E.  Evans — Observa- 
tions on  San  Jose  Scale  in  Southwestern  Ohio. 

LEPIDOPTERA.  E.  W.  Mendenhall — Observations  on  the  European 
Corn  Borer. 

DIPTERA.  H.  A.  Gossard — Hessian  Fly  Emergence  at  Sandusky,  Ohio, 
in  1921.  M.  B.  Jimison — Three  Years  of  Hessian  Fly  Control  Work 
in  Erie  County,  Ohio.  J.  S.  Hine — Syrphidae  Common  to  Europe  and 

The  following  officers  were  elected  for  1922:  President,  T.  H.  Parks; 
Vice  President,  J.  S.  Hine;  Secretary,  W.  V.  Balduf. 

T.   H.  PARKS,  Secretary. 


Collectors    who    wish   to 
obtain    Specimens    from 

India,  Burma  and  Ceylon,  should  write  to  W.  R.  McMul- 

len,  Port  Blair,  Andaman  Isles. 


Large  Stock  of  Specimens  from  Ecuador,  Cameroon,  Celebes  and  Europe. 
To  be  sold  singly  and  in  lots  at  very  reasonable  prices. 

Lists  on  Application. 


0.  FULDA,  PROP.,  63  FIFTH  AVE..  NEW  YORK 

Tropical  African  (Uganda)  Butterflies  and  Moths,  Etc. 

Excellent  Material.  Great  Variety. 

Apply  for  particulars  and  prices. 

R.  A.  DUMMER.  Care  S.  A   Museum,  Cape  Town,  South  Africa. 



One  of  the  ranking  collections  of  Europe,  containing  over  1200  species 
and  varieties,  represented  by  more  than  8000  specimens,  collected  in  all  parts 
of  the  world. 

Owner:  —  L.  Gylek,  Wahringerstrasse  132,  Vienna  XVIII,  Austria. 
A  detailed  list  of  species  may  be  obtained  from 


a  shut-in  invalid  and  very  thankful  to  hear  fr;  m  any- 
Qne  tjiat  wjjj  piease  give,  exchange,  or  sell  one  or  more 
perfect  specimens  or  live  pupae  of  large  moths,  such  as  Luna,  Selene,  Ori- 
zaba, Jorulla,  Splendida,  Promethea,  Calletta,  Ilyperchiria  Io,  Budh- 
Incarnata,  Luecane,  Polyphemus,  Imperialis,  Cecropia,  Cynthia,  Papilio, 
etc.  Luna  pupae  and  midget  mounts  for  sale. 

WILLIAM   ENGELHART,  Cooley  Farm,  Warrensville,  Ohio 


From  Colombia,  South  America: 

Morpho  cypris  Morpho  amathonte 

sulkowskyi  Calico  spp. 

From  Cuba: 

Papilio  columbus  Urania  boisduvali 

andraemon  Erinyis  guttalaris 

celadon  Protoparce  brontes,  etc. 

"        devilliersi 

From  Venezuela : 

Over  5000  Lepidoptera 

200  Dynastes  Hercules 

From  New  Guinea 

2000  Coleoptera 
200  Orthoptera 

From  Assam,  India: 

Papilio  arcturus  Kallima  inachis 

philoxenus  Brahmaea  wallachi 

And  Many  Other  Showy  Species 

From  Tibet  (Bhutan)  : 
Annandia  lidderdalii  Parnassins  hardwicki 



If  interested  kindly  send  your  list 
of  desiderata  for  further  information  to 


Department  of  Natural  Science  New  York 

G.  Lagai,  Ph.D.  56-58  West  23d  Street 

APRIL,  1922 


Vol.  XXXIII  No.  4 


PHILIP   P.   CALVERT,   Ph.   D.,   Editor. 

E.  T.   CRESSON,  JR.,  Associate  Editor. 

HENRY   SKINNER,   M.D.,   Sc.D.,   Editor   Emeritus. 



^B^  Ai 


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MANUSCRIPTS.  Address  all  other  communications  to  the  editor.  Dr. 
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TO  CONTRIBUTORS.  All  contributions  will  be  considered  and  passed 
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ENT.  NEWS,  Vol.  XXX1I1. 

Plate  V. 








APRIL,  1922 

No.  4 


Forbes — Five  Strange  Lepidoptera 
(Oinophilidae,  Noctuidae,  Gele- 
chiidae) ....  97 

The  University  of  Michigan-William- 
son Expedition  to  Brazil 104 

Kennedy — The  Phylogeny  and  the  Geo- 
graphical Distribution  of  the  Genus 
Libellula  ( Odonata) 105 

Hall— A  Carbon-tetrachloride  Killing 
Bottle 112 

Williamson—  Enallagmas  Collected  in 
Florida  and  South  Carolina  by 
Jesse  H.  Williamson  with  Descrip- 
tions of  Two  New  Species  (Odo- 
nata, Agrionidae) 114 

Information  on  Bibliographies  and  Cat- 
alogs Wanted.  118 

Editorial — Zoological  Bibliographies..   119 

Marchand — Aphis-Lion  Attacking  Man 
(Neur. ,  Chrysopidae) 120 

McAtee — Note  on  Abundance  of  Mos- 
quitoes ( Dip.,  Culicidae)  121 

To  the  American  Subscribers  of  the 
Concilium  Bibliographicum  (Zu- 
rich)    122 

Entomological  Literature 123 

Obituary— Dr.Thomas  Algernon  Chap- 
man, Dr  Georg  von  Seidlitz,  Dr. 
George  Blundell  Longstaff,  Freder- 
ick William  Lambert  Sladen,  Rev. 
Thomas  W.  Fyles 127 

Five  Strange  Lepidoptera  (Oinophilidae,  Noctuidae, 


By  WM.  T.  M.  FORBES,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  New  York. 

(With  Plate  V) 

The  following  Lepidoptera  are  described  at  this  time  be- 
cause I  would  like  to  refer  to  them  elsewhere,  where  there  will 
not  be  room  for  a  satisfactory  description.  The  first  one  is 
thoroughly  aberrant,  but  appears  to  belong  better  in  the  family 
Oinophilidae,  which  has  not  before  been  reported  from  the 
United  States,  than  to  the  Tineidae,  to  which  it  also  shows  some 
affinity.  The  Oinophilidae  are  a  family  of  somewhat  special 
interest,  as  they  appear  lo  form  a  connecting  link  between  a 
whole  group  of  families  of  the  lower  Tineoidea,  namely,  the 
Tineidae,  Lyonetiidae,  Opostegidae  and  Gracilariidae,  with  the 
isolated  and  aberrant  genera  Ccjiiiostoina,  Rcdcllm,  Bnccula- 
tri.v,  Pliyllocnistis,  and  their  relatives.  Of  these  only  the  Graci- 
lariidae have  been  lately  revised  by  Meyrick.  In  larval  habit, 
however,  the  known  Oinophilidae  contrast  strongly  with  the 
Gracilariidae,  Lyonetiidae  and  Opostegidae.  feeding  on  decay- 
ing vegetable  matter  and  fungi,  like  many  Tineidae,  while  in 


98  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [April,  '22 

appearance  and  structure  the  images  are  closely  similar  to  the 
Lyonetiidae  and  Opostegidae.  They  are  strongly  flattened 
moths,  with  flat  coxae  closely  appressed  to  the  body,  usually 
with  smooth  heads,  rising  to  a  rounded  ridge  between  the 
antennae,  but  often  with  a  loose  tuft  on  the  vertex,  as  in  Oino- 
pJiila  itself,  and  rather  small  maxillary  palpi  of  the  folded  type. 
The  labial  palpi  have  a  well-set-off,  fusiform,  terminal  joint  as 
in  the  Tineidae,  and  are  normally  without  bristles.  The  vena- 
tion in  the  known  genera  is  more  or  less  reduced.  Besides  the 
well-known  European  and  tropical  genera  Oinof>liila  and  Opo- 
gona,  and  the  following  genus,  there  are  numerous  less  known 
tropical  forms,  gradually  grading  into  the  Lyonetiidae  and  the 
true  Tineidae.  As  a  rule  nothing  is  known  of  the  life  histories 
of  these  and  nothing  has  been  published  on  several  interesting 
points  in  their  structure,  so  that  it  is  impossible  to  say  to  which 
family  they  belong,  unless  the  families  be  combined. 
The  present  form  may  be  characterized  as  follows  : 

PHAEOSES  new  genus  (</>atds  brown;  0-775  moth). 
Head  smooth-scaled,  as  a  rule  slightly  ruffled  on  the  vertex, 
but  without  any  definite  tufting;  eyes  small,  far  apart;  ocelli 
absent ;  front  somewhat  retreating,  but  convex,  the  rounded 
ridge  between  the  antennae  less  prominent  than  in  Opogona. 
Antennae  three-fifths  as  long  as  fore  wing,  evidently  turned 
back  across  the  eye  in  repose  ;  scape  a  little  longer  than  width 
of  eye,  a  little  broadened,  but  without  eyecap  or  pecten ;  shaft 
with  a  single  whorl  of  appressed  scales  on  each  segment,  with 
a  few  weak  setae  passing  between  their  bases.  Maxillary  palpi 
small  but  folded,  and  stronger  than  in  the  Gelechiidae ;  tongue 
obsolete ;  labial  palpi  with  basal  joint  short,  second  upturned, 
smooth  and  concave  on  upper  surface,  fitting  the  face,  but  nor- 
mally drooping  in  death,  lower  edge  rough-scaled  ;  third  seg- 
ment short-fusiform,  two-thirds  as  long  as  second,  rough-scaled 
and  flattened  dorso-ventrally,  commonly  held  porrect ;  no  bris- 
tles visible.  Body  strongly  depressed,  the  abdomen  wry  flat; 
coxae  and  especially  fore  coxae  broad  and  closely  pressed  to 
body;  fore  tibia  very  short  and  stout,  with  strong  epiphysis  ; 
middle  legs  normal ;  hind  tibia  with  spurs  at  a  third  its  length, 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  99 

with  a  fringe  of  long  bristly  hairs  above ;  hind  tarsus  smooth, 
normal.     Metathorax  relatively  large,  as  in  Opogona. 

Fore  wing  (Plate  V,  figure  1)  lanceolate,  not  caudate,  but 
distinctly  curved  down  at  the  apex;  cell  narrow,  with  a  broken 
dividing  vein  from  base  to  apex,  weakly  connected  with  the 
front  edge  of  the  cell  halfway  between  the  origins  of  7^1  (  11  ) 
and  R2  (10),  probably  representing  part  of  the  base  of  media 
and  the  stem  of  R4+5;  Rl  arising  at  one-third  length  of  cell, 
R2  just  beyond  middle,  the  stem  of  R  between  them  definitely 
angled  at  the  point  of  separation  of  7^4+5;  R3  (9)  arising 
shortly  before  end  of  cell,  well  separated  from  R4-M2  (5  to  8), 
which  arise  from  a  common  stem  at  end  of  cell;  7?  4  (8)  given 
off  before  .172  (5),  and  Ml  (6)  practically  obsolete,  but  I  tli ink- 
traceable ;  R5  (7)  running  to  costa;  free  parts  of  dorsal  veins 
parallel,  but  .1/3  (4)  strongly  converging  at  origin  to  the  stem 
of  R4-M2;  .1/3  and  Cnl  (3)  separated  by  a  moderately  long 
bent  vein,  which  receives  the  dividing  vein  of  the  cell,  Cnl  and  2 
(3  and  2)  by  a  long  oblique  vein;  1st  A  (Ic)  free,  the  outer 
part  well  chitinized ;  2nd  A  (Ib)  distinctly  forked  at  base. 
Hind  wing  two-thirds  as  wide,  lanceolate,  with  the  costa  hardly 
at  all  concave  at  the  middle;  fringe  2;  5V  (8)  ending  at  two- 
thirds,  running  close  to  costal  edge;  R  (7)  moderately  sep- 
arated from  .171  (6),  running  obliquely  to  costa;  Ml  (6)  to 
apex;  .172  (5)  nearly  connate  with  it,  continuing  the  distinct 
base  of  .17;  cell  open  below  M2\  .1/3  (4)  lost;  Cnl  (3)  and  2 
(2)  forming  a  strongly  forked  free  vein;  1st  A  (Ic)  well  de- 
veloped; 2nd  A  (Ib)  short  and  obscurely  forked;  3rd  A  (la) 
practically  obsolete.  Frenulum  simple  in  both  sexes  ;  frenulum- 
hook  of  male  normal,  of  female  made  up  of  a  series  of  hooked 
hair-scales,  apparently  without  any  membranous  portion. 

Fixed  hairs  are  completely  absent,  except  for  the  usual  patch 
on  the  inner  margin  of  the  fore  wing,  even  the  small  area  over 
the  base  of  7?,  which  exists  in  Opogona  and  Opostcga,  being 
lost,  and  represented  only  by  a  group  of  weak  transverse  folds. 
The  female  ovipositor  is  membranous,  slender  and  extensile. 

The  genus  will  run  by  Meyrick's  key  (  I 'roc.  Linn.  Soc.  N.  S. 
W.  22:  298,  1897)  to  Losostoma  (Opogona),  from  which  it 
differs  in  many  particulars,  especially  the  convex  front,  and 

100  ENTOMOLOGICAL     NEWS  [April,  '22 

nearly  complete  venation.  Of  more  recent  genera  it  shows  a 
certain  resemblance  to  Hippiochaetcs  Meyrick,  which  has  a 
tufted  head,  and  to  Amath\ntis  Meyrick,  which  obviously  dif- 
fers in  the  bristled  palpi,  as  well  as  markedly  different  venation. 
In  North  America  the  flattened  body,  smooth  head  and  folded 
maxillary  palpi  will  immediately  distinguish  it,  save  perhaps 
from  a  few  Cosmopterygidae,  which  differ  in  their  smooth, 
regularly  tapering  third  palpal  segment,  and  the  sinuate  costa  of 
the  hind  wing.  In  my  family  key  it  will  run  to  the  Acro- 
lepiidae,  but  is  easily  distinguished  by  the  separate  Ml  and  2 
of  the  hind  wing,  and  completely  smooth  head.  By  Hampson's 
key  (Nov.  Zool.  25:  387,  393.  1918)  it  runs  to  the  Lyonetiadae, 
family  No.  84. 

There  is  only  the  following  species  (genotype)  : 

Phaeoses   sabinella,   new   species. 

Shining  gray-brown  (mouse  gray)  ;  ridge  between  antennae,  face  and 
under  side  much  paler,  dirty  white;  outer  side  of  fore  coxae  and  femora, 
fore  tibiae  and  tarsi,  part  of  middle  femora,  especially  toward  the  base 
and  apex,  and  on  the  outer  side,  and  shorter  spurs  of  middle  tibiae, 
brown  ;  middle  tibiae  and  shorter  spurs  of  hind  tibiae  somewhat  shaded 
with  brown.  There  is  little  variation  in  a  series  of  nearly  fifty  speci- 
mens of  varying  quality,  but  on  account  of  the  brilliant  gloss  it  is  impos- 
sible to  form  an  accurate  judgment  of  the  shades  of  color,  especially 
on  the  legs.  Expanse  9  mm. 

The  male  genitalia  (Plate  V,  figure  2)  are  not  unlike  those  of  related 
forms.  The  part  considered  to  be  the  uncus  (Un)  is  a  chitinization  on 
each  side  of  the  anal  opening,  continuous  with  the  tegtimcn  O'.rT),  which 
is  itself  continuous  with  the  vincuhtm  (i.vS}.  There  is  no  chitinization 
at  all  in  the  mid-dorsal  line,  and  the  lateral  suture  is  indicated  only  by 
the  articulation  of  the  valve  (V).  The  valves  are  ankylosed  with  the 
JM.vta  and  cannot  be  opened  beyond  the  position  figured.  The  valve  is 
provided  on  its  inner  face  with  a  mass  of  basally  directed  hair  near  the 
apex,  and  a  patch  of  spines  near  the  base,  which  are  indicated  on  the 
right  side  of  the  figure  as  visible  by  transparency. 

Sabine  River,  Louisiana,  opposite  Orange,  Texas,  June  20, 
1917:  holotypc  and  numerous  paratypes ;  Biloxi,  Mississippi, 
June  13,  1917,  paratypes;  Bay  St.  Louis,  Mississippi,  June  17, 
1917,  one  paratype.  Types  Cornell  U.,  No.  594. 

The  four  species  remaining  are  somewhat  less  aberrant  in 
character,  although  each  is  so  distinct  from  its  relatives  that 
some  would  consider  it  worthy  of  a  genus.  It  seems  best  to 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  101 

describe  the  two  Gelechiidae  in  recognized  genera,  as  the  groups 
of  the  family  to  which  they  belong  are  rather  in  need  of  revi- 
sion as  a  whole. 

XYLORMISA    new    genus    (£uAov  wood    and    Honnisa). 

Near  Honnisa.  Male  antennae  unipectinate  and  heavily 
ciliate  at  base,  and  bipectinate  beyond  the  knot,  which  is  about 
a  third  way  out  from  the  base,  larger  than  is  usual  in  Honnisa, 
and  apparently  not  provided  with  curved  spines  ;  second  seg- 
ment of  palpus  more  definitely  upcurved,  but  not  strongly  so, 
the  third  short,  and  normally  erect,  as  in  Honnisa.  Fore  wing 
with  well-marked  apex ;  accessory  cell  obscure,  very  small  and 
narrow,  with  R2  to  4  (veins  8  to  10)  stalked  from  its  apex. 

This  Noctuid  genus  is  closely  related  to  Honnisa  and  I 
might  not  separate  it,  save  for  the  fact  it  will  run  to  a  different 
point  in  Schaus's  Key  (Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.  50:  262).  It 
will  run  to  alternative  67,  where  it  is  separable  by  the  pectinate 
antennae.  In  fact  the  pectinate  antennae  witli  a  knot  hardly 
occur  save  in  Honnisa,  which  has  a  large  normal  accessory 
cell.  The  male  fore  legs  are  not  unlike  those  of  Honnisa,  with 
trochanter  very  slender,  and  much  longer  than  femur,  and 
tarsus  concealed. 

Genotype :  Xylonnisa  lonisiana  n.  sp. 

Xylormisa  lonisiana  new  species. 

Ground  light  wood-brown,  formed  of  dark  brown  dusting  on  a  clay- 
colored  base.  Head  and  thorax  paler ;  antenna  concolorous,  with  the 
swelling  somewhat  darkened  ;  palpus  with  second  segment  heavily  dusted, 
except  extreme  apex,  third  segment  dark  brown,  with  apex  more  nr 
less  distinctly  whitish ;  legs  heavily  dusted  and  shaded  with  blackish, 
especially  the  mid-tibia  and  tarsus.  Abdomen  lightly  dusted  with  pale 
gray  toward  base,  the  apical  segments  of  the  male  pale  brown-gray  with 
whitish  margins,  in  the  female  not  darkened. 

Fore  wing  becoming  darker  at  the  margin;  orbicular  and  claviiorm 
represented  by  vertically  placed  black  points,  reniform  of  two  such 
points,  with  a  third  dot  below  them  in  the  fold,  postmedian  line  repre- 
sented by  a  strongly  outcurved  series  of  four  or  five  Mack  dots  between 
the  veins,  on  the  costal  part  of  the  wing;  sttbterminal  waved,  pale,  ol  so 
lete  at  the  costa  ;  a  broken  black  terminal  line;  basal  half  of  fringe  dark 
gray,  with  pale  bars  in  it  corresponding  to  the  black  terminal  bars. 

Hind  wing  paler,  being  dusted  with  pale  gray  like  ihe  abdomen,  with 
faint  shaded  pale  postmedial  and  subterminal  bands,  parallel  to  the  outer 

102  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  |  April, '22 

margin  ;  terminal  line  black,  continuous,  followed  by  a  pale  line  in  base 
of  fringe.  In  the  allotype  the  markings  are  fainter.  Wing  expanse 
18  mm. 

Sabine  River  Ferry,  Louisiana,  June  20,  1917,  tvf>c  $  ; 
Schriever,  Louisiana,  June  17.  1917,  allotype  2  .  Types,  Cornell 
University,  No.  596.  There  is  a  female  from  Canada  in  the 
Barnes  collection,  but  I  have  no  notes  on  it. 

ARGYRACTIS   Hampson,   OXYELOPHILA,  new  subgenus. 

Similar  to  those  North  American  species  formerly  in  Elo- 
phila,  which  are  now  placed  by  Hampson  in  Argyractis  (fiili- 
calis,  bifascialis,  etc.).  Fore  wing  (Plate  V,  figure  3)  strongly 
falcate,  hind  wing  with  A/3  lost  (as  in  other  Argyractis),  M2 
and  Cn\  stalked.  Labial,  and  in  the  typical  species  maxillary, 
palpi  longer  and  more  slender  than  in  Argyractis,  the  max- 
illaries  flattened,  and  acute  only  in  side  view.  Mid  and  hind 
tibiae  and  midtarsi  flattened  and  fringed  with  hair-scales  in 
the  female,  as  in  A.  fnlicalis  and  bifascialis;  spurs  fully  devel- 
oped. Fore  wing  with  R3  typically  lost,  but  distinct  in  A. 
(O.)  meianograpta,  from  Demerara,  which  also  has  reduced 
maxillary  palpi. 

A.  harpalis,  lanccolalis,  nccomalis  and  ticonalis  also  obviously 
belong  to  this  subgenus.  None  of  the  species  have  the  ocellate 
spots  on  the  hind  wing  present  in  all  the  Northern  species  of 

Apparently  Hampson  had  an  aberrant  specimen  of  A.  bifas- 
cialis, as  he  indicates  that  it  has  M2  and  Citl  stalked;  in  a 
considerable  series  that  I  have  examined  of  both  the  type  and 
the  form  kcarfottalis,  the  veins  are  always  separate. 

Genotype:    Argyractis  (O.vyclophila)   callista  n.  sp. 

Argyractis  (Oxyelophila)  callista,  new  species. 

Similar  to  A.  harpalis  Snellen,  from  Central  America  (Tijd.  v.  Ent. 
43:  pi.  17,  f.  1).  R3  lost  (stalked  in  harpalis,  according  to  Snellen). 
White ;  front  with  a  black  dot  at  base  of  antenna ;  abdomen  with  a  black 
transverse  band  on  base  of  second  segment,  nearly  or  quite  interrupted 
in  the  middle ;  fore  coxa  and  femur  with  brown  streaks,  tibia  blackish, 
tarsus  and  middle  and  hind  legs  slightly  infuscated. 

Extreme  base  of  costa  with  a  black  point;  a  black  subbasal  dot  on 
fold,  as  well  as  the  ones  on  costa  and  near  inner  margin  ;  antemedial 
line  practically  complete,  right-angled  on  Sc  and  oblique  to  inner  margin, 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  103 

with  teeth  on  cell  and  fold ;  preceded  by  a  broad  black-brown  fascia, 
which  runs  through  to  the  costa,  obliterating  the  second  antemedial 
costal  spot;  postmedial  marks  as  in  harpalis,  but  more  suffused,  with 
the  yellow  on  the  costa  replaced  by  dull  wood  brown,  and  the  white 
circle  partly  stiff  used  with  brown ;  a  wood  brown  terminal  band,  repre- 
senting the  yellow  and  white  one  of  harpalis,  defined  inwardly  with  a 
clean-cut  black  line,  which  runs  out  into  the  apex,  and  outwardly  by  a 
blackish  shade.  Outer  half  of  fringe  white,  with  fuscous  scale-tips. 

Hind  wing  with  a  complete  irregular  antemedian  band,  starting  at  Sc. 
preceded  by  some  blackish  scaling ;  discal  spot  strong,  yclloiv,  denned 
inv/ardly  by  a  few  brown  scales,  and  outwardly  by  an  incurved  blackish 
line;  postmedian  line  black,  erect  to  discal  fold,  then  right-angled  and 
incurved  in  a  regular .  sweep  to  anal  angle,  almost  touching  the  discal 
dot ;  followed  by  a  second  weaker  line,  which  does  not  reach  the  costa, 
and  is  interrupted  at  the  angle.  Fringe  whitish,  clay  colored  or  light 
wood  brown  at  base,  with  traces  of  a  black  terminal  line.  Wing  ex- 
panse, 13  mm. 

New  Braunfels,  Texas,  June  26,  1917;  holotype,  six  para- 
types  and  three  other  specimens  in  poorer  condition,  all  females. 
Cornell  type  No.  595. 

Gelechia  arenella,  new  species. 

Clay  color;  third  joint  of  palpus  slightly  darker,  and  second  paler  on 
sides,  with  a  short,  smooth  and  slightly  divided  brush  ;  antennae  fuscous, 
tips  of  tegulae  pale.  Fore  and  middle  legs  fuscous,  the  midfemora  and 
tibiae  obscurely  mottled  and  tarsi  ringed  with  whitish. 

Fore  wing  with  darker  grayish  shading  between  the  veins,  leaving  the 
veins  contrastingly  pale  ;  inner  and  outer  discal  points  round,  and  a  point 
in  the  fold  before  the  inner  one,  all  black ;  a  few  scattered  black-tipped 
scales,  gathering  into  faint  antemedial  dots  in  cell  and  above  inner  mar- 
gin, and  along  the  outer  margin,  and  forming  a  streak  below  the  basal 
part  of  subcosta.  Fringe  concolorous.  Hind  wing  pale  pearl  gray. 
Wing  expanse  20  mm. 

Woods  Hole,  Mass.,  August,  1917;  type  and  five  paratypes 
$  ,  Cornell  type  No.  518.  Rockaway  Beach,  New  York  ;  para- 
types  in  Barnes  collection. 

This  is  apparently  the  species  on  which  the  American  records 
of  G.  pctasitis  are  based,  but  it  is  not  even  closely  related,  as 
the  figures  of  the  genitalia  (Plate  V,  f.  4,  arenella,  f.  5,  pcta- 
sitis, at  the  same  scale)  will  show.  It  is  much  more  robust, 
and  the  pale  veins  are  distinctive. 

Duvita  (?)   tahavusella,  new  species.     (Tahawus  is  the  Indian  name 
for  Mt.  Marcy.) 

104  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [April,  '22 

Scape  smooth,  as  long  as  the  eye,  with  a  single  long  bristle  near  the 
base,  representing  the  pecten.  Palpi  with  second  joint  smooth,  but  con- 
siderably thickened  with  scales,  third  noticeably  longer,  smooth  and 
acute.  Fore  wing  normal,  as  in  Duz'ita  and  Aproacrcina,  with  Ml  well 
separated  from  K4+5.  Hind  wing  with  produced  apex  as  in  Apro- 
inTcina;  R  and  Ml  stalked  a  third  way  to  apex,  .1/3  and  Cul  hardly 
stalked,  and  M2  somewhat  approximate.  Penis  a  sharply  curved  spine, 
articulated  at  the  base. 

Dark  smoky  gray,  slightly  shining,  under  a  lens  with  pale  scale-bases 
arid  dark  tips.  Palpi  concolorous ;  legs  blackish,  contrastingly  ringed 
with  clay  color,  the  hind  tibia  with  pale  bands  at  both  pairs  of  spurs ; 
the  hind  femur  and  inner  face  of  tibia  and  tarsus  contrastingly  pale. 

Fore  wing  with  pale  spots  three-quarter  way  out  on  costa  and  inner 
margin,  the  costal  one  much  larger,  and  with  an  obscure  black  ante- 
median  spot  in  the  fold,  followed  by  some  pale  scales.  Hind  wing 
gray,  paler.  Wing  expanse  11  mm. 

Uphill  Brook,  Mt.  Marcy  trail,  Adirondack^,  New  York,  July 
10,  1918,  type.  Peru,  Ad'irondacks,  New  York,  June  8,  1916, 
4  paratypes.  Cornell  U.  type  No.  519. 

The  Mt.  Marcy  specimen  is  fresher  than  the  others  in  spite 
of  its  late  date,  but  this  is  doubtless  on  account  of  the  high 
altitude  (3200  ft.).  This  species  is  the  first  really  North  Amer- 
ican Gelechiid  with  a  pecten  on  the  antenna,  as  the  genera 
Siiotroga  and  Pectinophora  are  introductions  from  the  Old 
World.  A  couple  of  European  species  of  Aproacrcina  (.-Ina- 
campsis)  are  closely  similar,  but  I  have  seen  no  specimens  of 
any  of  them  with  a  pecten,  and  all  five  of  my  specimens  of 
tahawisella  have  preserved  it. 

The   University   of    Michigan- Williamson    Expedition   to    Brazil. 

The  expedition  left  New  York  on  December  15,  1921,  as  forecast 
in  the  NEWS  for  January,  page  11.  From  letters  from  Mr.  Jesse  H. 
Williamson  to  members  of  his  family  we  are  enabled  to  give  the 
following  outline  of  the  progress  made.  On  reaching  Para  they  took 
steamer  up  the  Amazon  to  Manaos,  arriving  there  on  January  13.  Here 
they  saw  Dr.  Rusby,  of  the  Mulford  Exploration,  on  his  return  journey 
to  New  York  (see  the  March  NEWS,  page  91),  and  Herr  Fassl,  the 
well-known  collector  of  insects.  On  the  14th  they  left  Manaos  by 
steamer  and  proceeded  to  and  up  the  Rio  Madeira,  collecting  as  the 
stops  of  the  vessel  permitted,  and  disembarked  at  Porto  Velho, 
"Brazil's  third  largest  city  in  the  Amazon  basin,"  January  21.  Here 
they  "secured  fine  quarters  in  Hotel  Brazil — connecting  rooms  with 
electric  lights,  shower  baths,  cold  drinks  (iced)  of  all  kinds  available, 
etc.,  at  about  $1.75  per  day  each."  At  last  writing.  February  9,  they 
were  still  at  Porto  Velho.  Showers  and  cloudy  weather  had  been 
frequent,  the  temperture  about  78°  F.,  altitude  60  meters,  latitude 
8°  46'  South,  longitude  63°  55'  West. 

From  Porto  Velho  several  trips  into  the  surrounding  country  had 
been  made,  that  of  two  days  by  motor  car  on  the  Madeira-Mamore 
Railway  to  Guajara,  its  present  terminus,  some  350  kilometers,  being 
the  longest. 

xxxiii,'22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  105 

The  Phylogeny  and  the  Geographical  Distribution  of 
the  Genus  Libellula  (Odonata). 

By  CLARENCE  HAMILTON  KENNEDY,  Ohio   State  University, 


(Continued  from  page  70.) 

Group  8.  (a)  Composita  Hagen.  PI.  IV,  fig.  15.  Wyoming  and 
Utah  to  southeastern  California.  A  semidesert  species  of  alkali 
sloughs.  (?) 

At  Laws,  California,  August  20,  1915,  in  the  very  alkaline 
Owens  Valley,  east  of  the  Sierra,  this  species  was  found  ovi- 
positing in  a  very  alkaline  seasonal  or  temporary,  grassy  slough 
made  by  waste  irrigating  water.  No  data  were  gathered  as  to 
whether  the  species  succeeded  in  maturing  in  such  a  place. 

This  remarkable  insect,  which  has  spread  probably  from  the 
dry  areas  of  southern  California,  where  there  seems  to  have 
been  a  sanctuary  for  several  primitive  Odonates,  stands  inter- 
mediate between  Group  7  and  Group  8.  In  the  penis,  coni- 
posita  resembles  Group  8,  but  in  size  and  color  of  wings  and 
body  it  is  related  to  Group  7.  The  homologies  of  the  parts  of 
the  penis  in  Group  8  were  inexplicable  until  the  penis  of 
composita  was  examined.  In  it  all  the  parts  already  found  in 
the  generalized  sanifasciata  penis  are  recognizable.  It  is  highly 
specialized  in  the  large  lateral  lobes  and  the  arched  cornual 
base,  but  is  very  primitive  in  that  the  three  cornua  are  still 
recognizable  though  rudimentary.  The  pattern  of  the  wing 
markings  suggests  nodisticta,  Ladona  and  the  Eurasian  species 
in  which  the  wing  markings  are  reduced  or  perhaps  have  never 
been  greater.  The  insect  is  highly  specialized  in  its  pearly 
white  eyes,  the  white  costal  border  and  perhaps  in  its  curious 
habit  of  flying  about  in  tandem  with  its  mate.  Its  very  re- 
stricted and  erratic  distribution  shows  it  to  be  a  relict.  Just 
how  it  is  related  to  the  species  of  Group  8  is  a  question,  but 
there  is  no  doubt  that  it  is  associated  with  their  ancestry. 

Group  8.  (b)  Jesseana  Williamson.  PI.  IV,  fig.  1(J.  Enterprise, 
Florida,  April  22,  1921.  Known  only  from  a  single  pond,  when- 
Jesse  Williamson  found  these  mating  and  ovipositing.  (See  Ent. 
News,  xxxiii,  pp.  13-17.) 

106  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [April,  '22 

This  striking  dragonfly  has  the  coral-red  wings  of 
and  the  dark  body  of  inccsta.  The  arguments  for  its  heing  a 
good  species  and  not  a  hybrid  between  these  species  are  as 
follows  : 

1.  It  has  not  been   found  elsewhere  where  the  habitats  of 
these  species  overlap. 

2.  It  has  the  composite  type  one  would  expect  in  a  species 
surviving  from  the  Miocene  times  of  Florida. 

3.  It  is  local  in  its  distribution  as  relict  species  usually  are. 

4.  It  was  breeding  and  ovipositing. 

The  writer  is  inclined  to  classify  jcsscana  as  another  of  the 
local  Florida  species.  He  believes  that  these  originated  in  the 
Miocene  when  north  central  Florida  was  an  island.  As  evi- 
dence of  this,  all  of  the  half-dozen  local  Florida  species  are  in 
northern  genera  because  the  Island  of  Florida  was  close  to  the 
Georgia  coast  and  the  Antillean  lands  had  not  yet  appeared 
above  the  sea.  The  local  Florida  species  of  Odonata  that  the 
writer  has  examined  are  each  among  the  primitive  species  of 
its  genus,  which  again  suggests  an  early  origin  for  them.  If 
these  conclusions  are  true,  jcsscana  gives  us  a  fairly  definite 
geological  date  for  this  horizon  of  the  genus  Libellula.  Scini- 
fasciata,  foliata,  and  angclina  would  be  from  below  the  Mio- 
cene, while  Group  8  (c)  and  Group  8  (d)  would  have  devel- 
oped since  the  Miocene.  The  penis  of  jcsscana  has  more  of 
its  characters  like  those  of  the  species  of  Group  8  (d)  than  of 
Group  8  (c),  but  the  bright  red  wings  associate  it  just  as  much 
with  the  latter  group.  It  is  specialized  in  the  curious  supple- 
mentary lobe  under  the  cornual  base. 

Group  8.  (c)  Flavida  Rambur.  PI.  IV.  fig.  17.  Atlantic  and 
Gulf  Coasts.  Habits  unknown.17 

Auripennis  Burm.  PI.  IV,  fig.  17.  Atlantic  and  Gulf  Coasts  to 
Cuba  and  Mexico.  A  species  of  the  ponds  of  the  southern  ever- 
green forest,  which  has  penetrated  the  tropics  as  far  as  the  Isle  of 
Pines  and  Tabasco,  Mexico. 

Luctuosa  Burm.  PI.  IV,  fig.  19.  Maine  and  Florida  to  North 
Dakota  and  northern  Mexico.  A  pond  and  sluggish  stream  species 
of  the  deciduous  forest  and  prairie. 

[17  In  the  pine  barrens  in  New  Jersey.  —  P.  P.  CALVERT.] 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  107 

This  is  not  as  compact  a  group  as  for  instance  the  nodisticta 
group.  Lnctuosa  is  specialized  in  the  broad,  black  base  of  the 
wings  and  in  the  black  and  yellow  body-colors.  Auripcnnis  is 
equally  specialized  in  its  coral-red  color.  Flarida,  perhaps,  is 
more  generalized  in  that  it  has  the  general  color  pattern  of  the 
species  of  Group  8  (d),  but  shows  the  reddish  cast  which  is  so 
much  better  developed  in  auripennis. 

Group  8.  (d)  Axillena  Westw.  PI.  IV,  fig.  20.  Pennsylvania  to 
Florida  and  Louisiana.  A  species  of  the  southern  evergreen  forest 
usually  found  near  small  streams  in  woods.18 

Cyanea  Fabr.  PI.  IV,  fig.  21.  New  Hampshire  to  Indiana  and 
Georgia.  A  species  of  the  deciduous  forests,  usually  found  about 
inlets  or  outlets  of  ponds. 

Comanche  Calv.  PI.  IV,  fig.  22.  Montana  to  Texas,  Mexico 
and  California.  The  writer  has  seen  but  one  specimen  of  this  in  the 
field.  It  was  along  a  swampy  stream.19 

Incesta  Hagen.  PI.  IV,  fig.  23.  Maine  and  Wisconsin  to  Mis- 
souri and  Florida.  A  vigorous,  wide  flier,  over  open  ponds  and 

Vibrans  Fabr.  PI.  IV,  fig.  24.  Maine  to  Missouri  and  Florida  in 
woods  swamps.18 

Because  of  the  great  difference  between  the  penis  of  a.rillcna 
and  that  organ  in  the  other  species  of  this  group,  a.rillcna  may 
not  belong  in  the  group. 

This  group  appears  to  be  very  modern  in  that  the  species 
are  very  close.  While  the  penes  show  all  of  them  to  be  good 
and  distinct  species,  the  writer  has  been  unable  to  unscramble 
their  relationships  to  his  satisfaction.  ^l.riUciia  and  Z'ibrans, 
by  penis  characters,  are  very  different,  also  by  the  same  criteria 
inccs/a  is  closer  to  comanclic  and  cyanca  than  to  ribrans  and 
a.villcna.  Probably  they  are  a  complex  of  mutants  with  various 
combinations  of  a  limited  set  of  characters.  The  following 
four  pairs  of  characters  appear  in  the  group  : 

1.1  Dark  face  1.2  White   face 

2.1  Nodal  spot  2.2  No  nodal    spot 

3.1  Basal    spot  3.2  No  basal  spot 

4.1  Dark  stigma  4.2  Pale    stigma 

18  Jesse  and  E.  B.  Williamson  to  the  writer. 

[19  Along  the  outlet   of   the   sulphur    springs   at    Santa   Rosalia,   Chi- 
huahua, Mexico.— P.  P.  CALVERT.] 

108  ENTOMOLOGICAL     NEWS  [April,  '22 

These  combine  as  shown  in  the  following  lists  : 



incest  a 

'  1.1 

















By  this  scheme  cornanc/ie  appears  to  he  a  pale  a.rHlcna. 
The  other  species  are  various  intermediate  combinations  of 
these  paired  characters.  Comanchc20  is  also  the  only  desert 
species  of  this  group.  Probably  it  has  entered  the  desert  from 
the  east.  This  axillcna  group  represents  the  very  apex  of 
North  American  Odonate  evolution,  if  we  consider  the  Libel- 
lulidae  as  the  apical  Odonate  family. 

Group  9.  Depressa  Linn.  PI.  IV,  fig.  25.  England  to  Russia  and 
Persia,  south  to  Sicily.  Ponds.21 

This  is  definitely  a  European  offshoot  from  the  Plathemis 
stock.  It  may  have  been  traded  to  Eurasia  when  4-nmcnlata 
came  to  America,  but  the  difference  between  it  and  the  two 
species  of  Plathemis  is  great  enough  to  suggest  that  it  branched 
off  much  earlier. 

Group  10.  Quadrimaculata  Linn.  PI.  IV,  fig.  20.  England  to 
Spain,  Kashmir  and  Japan.  In  America  from  Newfoundland  to 
Alaska,  south  in  the  mountains  to  North  Carolina  and  California. 
I  cannot  trace  Muttkowski's22  Arkansas  record. 

The  nearest  relative  of  this  species  is  angelina  of  Japan. 
Qnadrimaculata  probably  entered  North  America  recently  as 
it  has  no  near  relatives  on  this  continent.  It  may  have  come 
in  when  the  very  modern  EnaHagina  cyathigerum  entered  Eur- 
asia, as  the  two  have  the  same  distribution.  It  is  very  modern 
and  highly  specialized  in  its  intense  activity. 

Group  11.  Fulva  Muell.  PI.  IV,  fig.  27.  England  to  Italy,  Den- 
mark to  Transcaucasia.  Moor  swamps  and  slow-flowing  brooks, 
more  (often  found)  in  the  mountainous  regions.23 

20  Is  it  possible  that  our  Odonata  tend  to  form  a  pale  desert   fauna  ? 
Offhand   the   writer   recalls   Ophiogomphus  ncvadcusis,   Gomphus  ncva- 
dcnsis,   Complins   intricattis,  Sympetrum  madidum,  Syinpctruiii    corntp- 
tum,  LibcIIula  composite  and  Ischnura  barbcri. 

21  Frohlich  in  Die  Odonaten  u.  Orthopteren   Deutschlands,  p.   13,  1903, 
states  that  this  species  is  found   from   May  to  July,  common  about  all 
smaller  pools,  swamp  and  peat  ponds. 

22  Catalogue  of  the  Odonata  of  North  America,  p.  140,  1910. 

-?  Frohlich,  Odonaten  u.  Orthopteren  Deutschlands,  p.   11,  Jena,  1903. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  109 

This  is  a  remnant  of  the  preglacial  fauna  of  Eurasia,  so  that 
it  lias  no  near  relatives.  It  is  remarkably  specialized  in  the 
penis  which  has  a  large  inflated  tip.  Pontia,  which  Ris  rates 
as  a  variety,  the  writer  has  not  seen. 

From  the  foregoing  discussion  the  writer  believes  that  thte 
method  of  investigation  as  a  preliminary  to  a  study  of  the  geo- 
graphical distribution  of  a  group  of  species  is  sound  and  fur- 
nishes data  as  to  relationships  not  easily  arrived  at  from  other 
methods.  The  writer  admits  that  he  has  used  other  characters 
very  little,  though  they  agree  as  far  as  he  has  checked  them. 
To  summarize : 

1.  Scinifasciata  is  the  most  generalized  living  species  and  so 
probably  the  most  primitive. 

2.  The  genus  LibcHitla  originated  in  the  eastern  hemisphere 
because  there  we  find  the  large  genus   Orthctrnni,  placed  by 
many   writers   close  to  Libcllula,   in   which   the   penis   has   the 
straight  lateral  lobes  of  the  less  specialized  Libellulas.     See  the 
figure  of   an    Orthctrnm    penis   in   the   preceding   article,   Ent. 
News,  vol.  xxxiii,  PI.  II,  fig.  14,  1922. 

3.  Our   southwestern   species,   sitbornata,   foliata,   nodisticta 
and  cowiposita,  are  the  American  species  most  nearly  related  to 
the   Eurasian   Libellulas.      This  taken   in   connection   with   the 
fact  that  the  most  primitive  species,  semifasciata,  is  in  eastern 
America,   might   mean   that  the   genus   originated    in   America 
and  spread  to  Eurasia,  later  sending  northern  species  back  to 

4.  These  southwestern  primitive  species  indicate  a  Mexico- 
California  faunal  centre,  which  with  its  long  unaltered  climate 
has  been  an  asylum  for  various  primitive  Odonates,  and  from 
which  developed  Group  4,  Group  7  and  Group  8. 

5.  The  species  with  broad  lateral  lobes  comprised  in  Groups 
3,  5,  6,  9  and   10  have  probably  been  distributed  to  America 
from   Eurasia.     This  is  indicated  by  the   fact  that  their  con- 
necting links  are  not  in  America,  that  three  of  these,  Group?  3, 
9  and  10,  are  Eurasian  to  start  with. 

6.  Depressa  and   fnli'a  are  the  most  specialized  away  from 
the  primitive  st-inifasciata  penis  of  any  of  the  Libellulas.     (The 
extreme  specialization  of  Plathcinis  and  Ladonci  suggests  that 
their  stock  may  have  been  developed  in  Eurasia.)     It  is  of  com- 

110  ENTOMOLOGICAL     NEWS  [April,  '22 

mon  knowledge  to  distributionists  that  the  Eurasian  fauna  and 
flora  are  about  one  geological  age  in  advance  of  the  American. 

7.  The  Palaearctic  species,  because  of  their  lack  of  near  rela- 
tives and  because  of  their  unrelatedness  inter  sc  are  the  rem- 
nants of  a  preglacial  fauna,  a  fauna  that  was  largely  wiped  out 
when  caught  between  the  ice  and  the  southern  mountains. 

8.  The  holarctic  4-uiaciilata  originated  in  Eurasia  as  it  has 
no  near  relatives  in  America. 

9.  The  genus   as   it  exists   in   America  today   represents   at 
least  three  levels  of  development  as  are  indicated  by  the  hori- 
zontal lines  on  Plate  IV. 

10.  The  tropical  Libellulas  have  probably  entered  the  tropics 
from  the  north  or  have  been  developed  from  northern  stock, 
also  Ladona  developed  from  the  north  to  the  south. 

11.  Orthnnis  with  a  penis  that  has  broad  lateral  lobes  may 
be  an  American  offshoot  of  the  Libellulas  with  broad  lateral 

12.  Libellula  jcsscana  gives  us  a  Miocene  date  for  its  level 
in  the  genus. 

From  the  foregoing  it  appears  that  the  genus  Libcllnla  orig- 
inated in  a  mild  climate  in  premiocene  times,  but  eventually 
developed  species  into  both  the  Transition  and  Subtropical 
Zones  ;  that  its  dominance  is  past  in  Eurasia  but  is  at  its  height 
in  North  America. 

One  point  of  general  interest  is  that  in  a  species  or  series  of 
species  of  Libelhda  extending  from  north  to  south,  the  southern 
individuals  or  species  are  small.  Ris  ( Libellulinen,  Coll.  Selys) 
states  that  in  julva  and  depressa  examples  from  the  southern 
portions  of  their  habitats  are  smaller.  The  same  author  states 
that  the  Cuban  aiiripcnnis  is  smaller  than  the  American,  that 
the  smallest  examples  of  herculca  come  from  Paraguay.  How- 
ever, in  the  last  case  the  species  is  small  in  Mexico  on  the 
northern  border  of  its  range.  In  Ladona  the  northern  species, 
jnlia,  is  largest,  the  southern  species,  dcplanata,  smallest.24 
Dr.  W.  T.  M.  Forbes  has  pointed  out  to  the  writer  that  the 
same  is  true  in  some  North  American  Lepidoptera  as  they  are 
usually  smallest  on  the  southern  edge  of  their  range.  Probably 

24  The  reverse  is  true,  according  to  Dr.  Calvert,  in  Agrion  macitlatum, 
Gomphus  dilatatus,  etc. 

xxxiii, '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  111 

it  means  that  they  have  spread  into  a  region  where  life  condi- 
tions are  not  optimum. 

The  primitive  color  in  the  genus  appears  to  have  been  brown 
because,  1.  scuiifasciata  is  brown;  2.  the  females  of  several  of 
the  species  are  brownish ;  however,  the  gray  and  yellow  color 
pattern  of  the  high  Group  8  (d)  is  found  also  in  the  genus 
Ortlietnun.  Apparently  the  bright  reds  of  auripcnnis  and  of 
saturata  have  developed  independently  of  each  other.. 

Probably  the  primitive  wing  had  three  broad  spots  or  bands, 
basal,  nodal  and  apical,  but  just  how  this  pattern  is  handed 
down  through  the  various  lines  is  baffling.  These  band?  in 
whole  or  in  part  may  disappear  in  a  series  to  reappear  in  some 
apical  species.  They  may  disappear  in  one  sex,  as  in  the  female 
of  lydia^  or  may  appear  in  individuals  of  a  species  usually 
without  them,  as  in  the  form  pracnubila  of  4-inaciilata.  Per- 
haps their  genes  are  always  present  but  are  inhibited  at  times 
by  other  factors. 

The  writer  believes  that  the  genitalia  in  this  genus  show  rela- 
tionships so  clearly  that  the  subgenera  can  be  defined  by  them. 
They  certainlv  can  be  lined  up  much  better  than  they  were  by 
ECirby.2  The  writer's  views  are  substantially  those  indicated  in 
Ris'  key  to  this  genus  in  his  Libcllnlincn  in  the  "Coll.  Zool.  du 
Selys."  The  species  fall  into  ten  subgenera,  as  follows: 

1.  EOLIBELLULA  subgen.  nov.,  type  I=  scuiifasciata. 

2.  BELOXIA  Kirby,  type  =r  foliata;  includes  also  saturata.  cro- 

ccipciinis  and  hcrcnlca. 

3.  SYNTETRUM   subgen.  nov.,  type      :   angdina. 

4.  LIBELLULA  Linn.,  type  :     4-inaculata;  includes  pracnubila 

and  probably  basilinca. 

5.  LADOXA  Needham,  type  =:  c.ritsta;  includes  also  Julia  and 


6.  PLAT  IT  EM  is  Hagen.  type  '  r  lydia;  includes  also  snbonwta. 

7.  PLATETRUM  Newman,  type  ==  dcpressa. 

8.  EUROTITEMIS  subgen.  nov.,  type  :      fitl-va;  includes,  prob- 

ably, poutica. 

9.  NEOTETRUM  subgen.  nov.,  type  :     forcnsis;  includes  also 

pulchcUa  and  nodisticta. 

10.   HOLOTANIA    Kirby,    type          a.viUcna ;    includes   also    com 
posita.  jcsscana.   flcrcida,   auripennis,    Inctnosa,    cvanca. 
couianciic,  inccsta  and  ribrans. 

25  Kennedy,  Odonata  of  Kansas,  Bull.  Kans.  Univ.,  vol.   18,  pi.  VII, 

figs.  108-110,  1917. 

26  Kirby,  Revision  of  the  Libellulinae,  1889.    Catalogue  of  the  Odonata, 



[April,  '22 


A  Carbon-tetrachloride  Killing  Bottle. 

By  GAYLORD  C.  HALL,  New  York  City. 

There  has  been  a  growing  tendency  for  some  years  past  to 
use  carbon-tetrachloride  as  a  killing  agent  for  insects.  The 
writer  began  experimenting  with  it  several  years  ago  and  dur- 
ing the  last  summer  tried  out  seriously  a  killing  bottle  using 
this  fluid.  The  apparatus,  which  is  shown  in  the  accompanying 
sketch,  consists  of  a  bottle  of  convenient  size,  in  the  bottom 
of  which  is  placed  a  piece  of  felt,  which  in  turn  is  covered 
by  a  layer  of  cotton.  Carbon-tetrachloride  is  poured  in  until 
the  felt  is  saturated  and  the  bottle  is  ready  for  use. 

The  fumes  of  the  tetrachloride 
are  very  heavy  and  therefore 
have  a  tendency  to  stay  in  the 
bottle  as  long  as  it  is  not  in- 
verted. For  this  reason  it  is  best 
to  remove  specimens  from  the 
bottle  with  forceps  which  reach 
the  cotton  and  thus  keep  the  bot- 
tle upright.  Likewise  in  getting 
the  specimens  from  the  net  into 
the  bottle  it  is  better  to  keep  it 
as  nearly  upright  as  possible. 

The  effect  of  the  tetrachloride 
upon  Lepidoptera  is  surprisingly 
quick.  Usually  the  insect  has 
ceased  struggling  and  is  lying 
inert  on  the  cotton  (alas!  with 
wings  reversed)  by  the  time  the 
cork  is  replaced,  that  is,  in  a  few 
seconds.  Should  it  be  desirable  to  bring  the  wings  back  to 
their  normal  position,  the  butterfly  can  be  taken  out,  the  wings 
reversed,  and  dropped  back  again  as  with  a  cyanide  bottle.  I 
have  found  that  fifteen  minutes  is  ample  time  for  killing  and 
prefer  to  take  the  specimens  out  after  that  period  has  elapsed. 
I  always  put  them  immediately  into  a  metal  box  kept  moist  by 
means  of  wet  blotting-paper  or  otherwise,  as  that  treatment 
seems  to  prevent  or  at  least  minimize  the  rigor  mortis.  During 
the  last  summer  I  caught  and  set  several  hundred  specimens. 

xxxiii, '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  113 

some  set  the  same  day  as  caught  and  many  at  a  later  date  after 
the  usual  relaxing  process,  and  have  had  practically  no  trouble 
from  stiff  wings. 

In  making  up  the  killing  bottle  use  a  piece  of  felt  at  least 
a  quarter  of  an  inch  thick.  It  can  be  bought  under  the  name 
of  laundry  felt  or  moulder's  cloth.  It  should  be  cut  so  as 
to  make  a  tight  fit  in  the  bottom  of  the  bottle.  This  can  be 
done  by  the  cut  and  try  method,  leaving  the  felt  slightly  larger 
than  the  inside  diameter  of  the  bottle  so  that  it  has  to  be  forced 
down  into  place.  The  felt  will  then  be  tight  and  will  not  fall 
out  Avhen  the  bottle  is  inverted.  Over  the  felt  place  a  piece 
of  cotton  to  the  depth  of  at  least  one  inch.  In  making  this 
mat  of  cotton  care  should  be  taken  that  it  makes  a  fairly  tight 
fit  against  the  sides  of  the  bottle  and  that  the  edges  are  not 
rounded  downward.  This  is  important  for  if  rounded,  small 
specimens  slide  down,  become  wet  with  the  tetrachloride  and 
stick  to  the  Hass  and  mav  be  ruined  in  trying  to  remove  them. 
The  tetrachloride  itself  does  not  seem  to  harm  the  specimens. 
In  pouring  the  tetrachloride,  slightly  part  the  cotton  from  the 
glass,  using  a  pencil,  as  one  is  usuallv  at  hand,  and  pour  the 
fluid  down  the  cide  into  the  felt  without  wetting  the  cotton, 
tipniner  the  bottle  sliehtlv  to  one  side  in  the  meantime. 

The  bottle  properly  prepared.  /.  c.,  with  the  felt  well  wet, 
will  last  at  least  one  dav  in  active  service.  I  used  to  carrv  a 
small  bottle  of  the  fluid  in  the  field  in  order  to  recharge,  but 
found  that  that  was  not  necessary.  The  bottle  when  corked, 
will  keep  for  months.  The  carbon-tetrachloride  can  be  bought 
at  any  chemist's  and  there  are  also  some  cleaning  fluids  such 
as  Carbona  which  seem  to  be  composed  largely  of  it  and 
which  answer  the  purpose  perfectly. 

The  carbon-tetrachloride  would  seem  to  lend  itself  easily  to 
other  methods  of  killing  insect  and  other  pests,  due  to  its 
extremely  heavy  vapor  and  absolute  fire-proof  quality,  and 
we  may  expect  development  along  this  line  in  the  future. 

\Notc.  Very  frequently  boys  and  girls  wish  to  collect  insects  and 
it  has  not  been  considered  safe  or  wise  to  allow  them  to  use  cyanide 
bottles.  At  present  it  is  difficult  to  purchase  small  quantities  of 
cyanide,  on  account  of  the  regulations  in  regard  to  the  sale  of  poisons. 
Carbon  tetrachloride  would  supply  a  harmless  preparation  for  both 
children  and  adults.  For  certain  insects  that  have  long  tarsal  claws. 
it  would  be  necessary  to  put  something  smooth  over  the  cotton,  with 
perforations,  if  mvrssary,  to  permit  the  gas  to  escape  into  the  bottle. 
H.  S.] 

114  ENTOMOLOGICAL     NEWS  [April.  "22 

Enallagmas  Collected  in  Florida  and  South  Carolina 
by  Jesse  H.  Williamson  with  Descriptions  of 
Two  New  Species  (Odonata,  Agrionidae). 

By  E.  B.  WILLIAMSON,  Bluffton,  Indiana. 

(Plate  VI) 

Mr.  Williamson  collected  dragonflies  in  Florida  from  March 
1  to  April  26,  1921.  Localities  visited  and  dates  are  as  fol- 
lows: Sebring,  March  1;  Fort  Myers,  March  3-7  and  10-19; 
Taxambas,  Marco  Island,  March  8;  Labelle.  March  21-27; 
Moore  Haven,  March  29  and  30,  and  April  2  ;  Palmdale,  March 
31  and  April  3-8;  enroute  Moore  Haven  to  West  Palm  Beach, 
across  Lake  Okeechobee,  April  9;  Miami,  April  12 ;  Enter- 
prise, April  15-26.  From  April  29  to  May  9  he  collected  at 
Kathwood.  Aiken  County,  South  Carolina,  but  at  this  time 
most  of  the  species  observed  were  just  emerging.  Mr.  Wil- 
liamson has  distributed  his  Florida  dragonflies  into  twenty- 
five  sets  which  he  has  donated  to  students  of  Odonata. 

Dr.  Calvert's  recent  paper,  Gundlach's  JTork  on  the  Odonata 
of  Cuba,  (Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc.,  XLV,  1919)  contains  a  care- 
ful study  of  certain  Enallagmas,  related  to  EnaUagina  tntn- 
catinn,  which  may  be  designated  as  the  pollution  group.  This 
work  of  Dr.  Calvert's  has  made  possible  the  recognition  of 
two  undescribed  species  of  the  group  from  Florida.  The 
following  descriptions  of  these  species  follow  the  form  of 
Calvert's  descriptions  and  are  supplementary  to  his  paper. 

Enallagma  sulcatum  new  species   (PI.  VI,  Figs.  1-5). 

$  .  Superior  appendages  in  profile  view  with  the  apical  margin 
suhequal  to  the  inferior  margin,  produced;  in  dorsal  view,  the  intero- 
inferior  lamella  reaching  far  beyond  the  level  of  the  supero-internal 
apical  hook. 

Nasus  shining  black,  with  a  small  pale  area  on  either  side  (similar 
to  that  of  truncatum  in  Calvert's  figure  1,  except  that  the  black  extends 
nearly  or  quite  to  the  anterior  and  lateral  margins),  to  largely  orange 
with  a  transverse  bar  across  the  base  and  another  paralleling  the 
anterior  margin,  these  bars  connected  or  not  at  their  extremities  and 
in  the  median  line,  and  the  anterior  bar  sometimes  broken  with  orange. 

Frons  :  pale  color  of  the  anterior  surface  not  reaching  the  yellow  or 
orange  spot  immediately  anterior  to  the  median  ocellus ;  in  some  speci- 
mens the  black  anteriorly  is  slightly  more  reduced  than  in  figure  4. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   XKWS  115 

Pale  postocular  spots  linear-cuneiform,  not  confluent  with  the  pale 
color  of  the  rear  of  the  head,  being  separated  therefrom  by  a  broad 
bar  of  black  across  the  rear  of  the  head  above. 

Middle  prothoracic  lobe  in  dorsal  view  predominately  black,  a  yellow 
or  orange  spot  each  side,  no  median  twin  spots  or  stripes. 

Width  of  black  middorsal  thoracic  stripe  about  .87,  of  pale  ante- 
humeral  about  .26,  of  black  humeral  about  .55  mm. 

Second  lateral  thoracic  suture  with  a  black  stripe  on  about  the 
upper  five-sixths  of  its  length,  continued  as  a  thread  of  black  to  the 
inferior  end  of  the  suture. 

Abdominal  segment  9  blue. 

9  .  Mesostigmal  lamina  largely  black,  with  a  pale  stripe  which 
includes  the  dorsal  tubercle  and  extends  downward  and  slightly  for- 
ward;  the  posterior  and  inferior  black  portion  of  the  lamina  grooved 
(hence  the  specific  name)  to  receive  the  dorsal  branch  of  the  superior 
appendage  of  the  male ;  this  groove  produced  dorsally  and  anteriorly 
across  the  pale  stripe  slightly  below  the  dorsal  tubercle,  at  which  point 
the  pale  stripe  is  more  or  less  interrupted. 

Antero-mesal  angle  of  the  pale  antehumeral  stripe  elevated  and 
prominent,  but  not  produced  into  a  tubercle. 

Width  of  the  black  middorsal  thoracic  stripe  about  .78,  of  pale 
antehumeral  about  .27,  of  black  humeral  about  .5  mm. 

Second  lateral  thoracic  suture  with  a  black  stripe  on  slightly  less 
than  the  upper  five-sixths  of  its  length,  continued  as  a  thread  of  black 
to  the  inferior  end  of  the  suture. 

Black  on  dorsum  of  abdominal  segment  9  with  the  sides  nearly 
parallel  or  narrowing  caudad,  and  extending  from  the  base  to  from 
two- thirds  to  three- fourths  the  length  of  the  segment. 

Abdomen  $  27-28,  9  26.5-29;  hind  wing  $  16.5-17.5,  9  17-19; 
stigma  front  wing  $  .6-.67,  2  -67,  of  hind  wing  $  .67,  9  .7-. 83  mm. 

Anal  bridge  separating  from  the  hind  margin  proximal  to  Cu-A 
a  distance  about  equal  to  to  slightly  greater  than  the  length  of  Cu-A. 
M2  front  wing  arising  at  or  near  the  fourth  postnodal  in  5  male  wings, 
at  or  near  the  fifth  postnodal  in  5  male  and  8  female  wings;  M2 
hind  wing  arising  at  or  near  the  fourth  postnodal  in  10  male  wings 
and  8  female  wings;  Mia  front  wing  arising  at  the  seventh  postnoda! 
in  10  male  wings  and  2  female  wings,  at  the  eighth  postnodal  in  6 
female  wings;  Mia  hind  wing  arising  at  the  seventh  postnodal  in  10 
male  wings  and  7  female  wings,  at  the  eighth  postnodal  in  1  female 

Material  examined  :  Gotha,  Florida,  June  2.\  1898,  through 
James  Tough.  £ ,  coll.  E.  B.  \Y.  ;  Enterprise,  Florida,  April 
18.  10,  21,  25  and  26.  1921,  J.  H.  Williamson.  7  3,  4  9. 
Type  £  April  26,  allotyfic  9  April  19,  coll.  E.  I',.  \V.  This 

116  ENTOMOLOGICAL     NEWS  [April,  '22 

species  was  taken  by  Mr.  Williamson  at  Gleason's  Pond. 
IHickeye  Homestead  Pond,  Quackenbos  Pond,  and  a  small 
swamp  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  east  of  Gleason's  Pond. 

The  male  of  sulcatitin  runs  out  in  Calvert's  key  to  trnncatitni 
and  poll  it  tit  in,  with  the  postocular  spots  more  linear  than 
cuneiform.  From  tntncatum  it  is  separated  at  once  by  the 
form  of  the  appendages  and  by  the  more  extensive  pale  areas 
on  the  head  in  dorsal  view.  From  pollntmn  it  is  separated  at 
once  by  having  the  ninth  segment  blue,  not  yellow  or  orange, 
and  by  the  form  of  the  appendages. 

Writing  of  the  males  of  vcspernin  and  signatinn  Dr.  Calvert 
(p.  376,  loc.  cit.)  says  he  has  found  no  constant  color  differ- 
ences. I  have  seen  many  specimens  of  both  species  and  in 
every  case  abdominal  segment  9  of  signatinn  has  been  yellow 
and  of  I'cspcrnui  blue,  but  Dr.  Calvert  writes  me  that  a  speci- 
men of  signal  it  in  from  Indiana  seen  by  him  had  9  blue.  This 
coloration  is  certainly  rare,  and  in  the  case  of  the  specimen 
seen  by  Dr.  Calvert  may  have  been  due  to  some  adventitous 
cause.  In  the  same  way,  all  the  males  of  pollutum  seen  by 
me  have  9  yellow.  The  males  of  vcspcrnm  and  sitlcatinn  are 
alike  in  having  9  blue,  and  there  is  a  superficial  resemblance 
in  the  shape  of  the  appendages.  But  sitlcahtin  is  at  once 
separated  from  vcspcrum  and  from  all  other  species  of  the 
poll  tit  nin  group,  by  having  the  pale,  less  chitinized,  intero-in- 
ferior  lamella  produced  apically  beyond  the  level  of  the  darker, 
more  chitinized,  externo-superior  branch  of  the  superior 
appendages.  In  "ccsperum  the  mesal  edge  of  the  intero-inferior 
lamella  is  emarginate ;  in  snlcatmn  it  is  entire  and  slightly 
concave  as  shown  in  figure  3. 

In  Calvert's  key  to  the  known  females  of  the  group, 
snlcatmn  runs  out  to  signatitin  and  pollntmn,  which  are  sep- 
arated in  the  key  by  the  presence  in  signattini  and  absence  in 
pollutum  of  mesepisternal  tubercles.  Sitlcatitm  seems  more 
like  pollutum,  as  contrasted  with  signatmn,  in  this  character, 
which,  however,  is  not  always  readily  recognized.  It  is  variable 
(in  vcsperum)  according  to  Calvert,  and  among  specimens  of 
all  the  known  species,  I  have  found  the  tubercle  absent  in  at 
least  some  of  the  specimens  of  all  the  species  except  signatum. 

xxxiii,  '22  j  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  117 

The   female  of  sitlcatitni  is   further  defined  in  a  brief  key  to 
the  known   females  following  the  description  of   E.  concisnni. 
Specimens  of  snlcatnm  have  been  studied  by  Dr.  Calvert  and 
in  his  opinion  the  species  is  distinct. 

Enailagma  concisum  new  species  (PL  VI,  Figs.  6-10). 

<J  .  Superior  appendage  in  profile  view  with  the  apical  margin  about 
two-thirds  as  long  as  the  inferior  margin,  oblique,  nearly  straight,  and 
not  bilobed  but  with  the  inferior  apical  angle  of  the  intero-inferior 
lamella  slightly  enlarged.  In  dorsal  view  the  intero-inferior  lamella 
reaches  the  level  or  nearly  the  level  of  the  supero-internal  subapical 
hook  but  the  dorso-apical  portion  of  the  intero-inferior  lamella  is 
produced  obliquely  apically  to  fuse  with  the  externo-superior  branch 
of  the  appendage,  so  the  distinction  between  the  externo-superior 
branch  and  the  intero-inferior  lamella  is  not  well  marked  in  the  sub- 
apical  part  of  the  appendage  as  it  is  in  corresponding  parts  of  pictuin. 
Th.'s  results  from  the  greater  length  of  the  externo-superior  branch 
of  the  appendage  in  concisum  as  compared  with  pictuin,  and  it  is  in 
concisum  that  the  supero-internal  subapical  tooth  is  relatively  more 
apical  and  therefore  more  reduced. 

Nasus  orange,  a  transverse  basal  black  stripe  and  on  either  side,  at 
mid-length,  a  small  brown  to  black  depression. 

Frons :  pale  color  of  its  anterior  surface  on  either  side  reaching 
the  level  of  the  median  ocellus,  but  the  latter  is  bordered  in  front 
with  a  small  pale  area  of  varying  size  and  an  anteriorly  projecting 
quadrangle  of  black,  the  latter  often  unsymmetrical,  and  in  one  case 
broken,  so  the  small  yellow  area  in  front  of  and  adjacent  to  the  median 
ocellus  is  joined  on  one  side  with  the  anterior  orange  color  of  the  frons. 

Pale  postocular  spots  linear  cuneiform,  widely  separated  by  black  from 
the  pale  color  on  the  rear  of  the  head  below. 

Prothorax  shining  greenish  black,  front  and  hind  lobes  broadly 
edged  with  orange;  and  sides  of  middle  lobe  paler  orange;  dorsum  of 
middle  lobe  with  a  round  orange  spot,  varying  greatly  in  size  on 
either  side,  and  with  a  median  orange  geminate  spot  of  varying  sixe. 
1  resent  or  wanting. 

Width  of  black  middorsal  thoracic  stripe  about  .67,  of  pale  ante- 
humeral  about  .33,  of  black  humeral  about  .43  mm. 

Second  lateral  suture  with  a  black  stripe  its  entire  length,  widening 
posteriorly  from  a  narrow  line  at  its  anterior  end. 

Abdominal  segment  9  orange  on  the  sides  below,  dorsum  black 
except  the  apical  membranous  ring  which  is  orange. 

9  .  Mesostigmal  lamina  largely  pale,  the  upper  half,  anterior  to 
the  pale  vertical  posterior  inflated  carina,  and  a  very  narrow  border, 
posterior  to  this  carina,  black. 

The  merest  prominence  and  no  trace  of  a  tubercle  on  the  antero- 
mesal  angle  of  the  pale  antehumeral  stripe. 

118  ENTOMOLOGICAL     NEWS  [April,  '22 

Width  of  black  middorsal  thoracic  stripe  about  .7,  of  the  ante- 
humeral  about  .35,  of  black  humeral  about  .44  mm. 

Second  lateral  thoracic  suture  with  a  black  stripe  its  entire  length, 
widening  posteriorly  from  a  narrow  line  at  its  anterior  end. 

Black  on  dorsum  of  abdominal  segment  9  of  uniform  width. 

Abdomen  $  24.5-25.5,  9  26;  hind  wing  $  14.5,  $  17;  stigma 
front  wing  $  .5-.S3,  9  .61,  of  hind  wing  $  .5-. 53,  9  .67  mm. 

Anal  bridge  in  front  wing  separating  from  the  hind  margin 
proximal  to  Cu-A  a  distance  equal  to  about  one  and  one-half  times 
the  length  of  Cu-A ;  in  the  hind  wing  a  distance  slightly  greater 
than  the  length  of  Cu-A.  M2  front  wing  arising  at  or  near  the 
fourth  postnodal  in  2  male  wings,  at  or  near  the  fifth  postnodal  in 
8  male  and  2  female  wings ;  M2  hind  wing  arising  at  or  near  the 
fourth  postnodal  in  10  male  and  2  female  wings;  Mia  front  wing 
arising  at  the  seventh  postnodal  in  6  male  and  2  female  wings,  at  the 
eighth  postnodal  in  4  male  wings;  Mia  hind  wing  arising  at  the  sixth 
postnodal  in  3  male  and  1  female  wings,  at  the  seventh  postnodal  in  7 
male  and  1  female  wings. 

Material  examined :  Buckeye  Homestead  Pond,  Enterprise, 
Florida,  April  21  and  26,  1921,  J.  H.  Williamson,  13  $,  1  9  ; 
Type  $  and  alloiypc  $  ,  April  21,  coll.  E.  B.  W. 

Mr.  Williamson  noted  of  this  species  on  April  21  ;  "Occurred 
at  Buckeye  (Homestead)  Pond.  Generally  found  resting  in 
inner  ring  of  vegetation  where  the  water  was  about  waist  deep. 
Seen  only  at  rest  and  hard  to  find.' 


(To  be  continued) 


Figs.  1-5.  Enallagma  sidcatnm  n.  sp.  Figs.  1-3,  appendages  of  the 
$  type  in  lateral,  dorsal  and  dorso-oblique  views.  Fig.  4,  dorsal  view 
of  head  of  $  type.  Fig.  5,  dorso-oblique  view  of  middle  lobe  of  pro- 
thorax  of  9  allotype. 

Figs.  6-10.  Enallagma  concision  n.  sp.  Figs.  6-8,  appendages  of  $ 
type  in  lateral,  dorsal  and  dorso-oblique  views.  Fig.  9,  dorsal  view 
of  head  of  $  type.  Fig.  10,  dorso-oblique  view  of  middle  lobe  of 

prothorax  of    9    allotype. 

— >  «•»  • — 

Information  on  Bibliographies  and  Catalogs  Wanted. 

The  Division  of  Biology  and  Agriculture  and  the  Research  Informa- 
tion Service,  National  Research  Council,  are  undertaking  a  canvas  of 
manuscript  and  published  bibliographies  on  plant  and  animal  biology, 
and  of  manuscript  of  plants  and  animals  (recent  and  fossil),  with  the 
view  of  relieving  the  needs  of  working  biologists  along  these  lines. 
Blank  forms  for  reporting  such  information  may  be  obtained  from  C. 
J.  West  of  the  Council,  1701  Massachusetts  Ave.,  Washington,  D.  C. 


Plate  VI. 

Enallagma  sulcatum  n.  sp.;  figs.  1-4,  male;  fig.  5,  female. 

Enallagma  concisum  n.  sp.;  figs.  6-9,  male;  fig.  10,  female. 




Zoological  Bibliographies 

In  the  March  number  of  the  NEWS,  page  91,  we  published  a 
note  headed  "Save  the  Zoological  Record !"  Elsewhere  in 
the  present  issue  is  a  statement  concerning  resumption  of 
publication  by  the  Concilium  Bibliographicum.  Each  of  these 
bibliographical  agencies  appears  to  have  its  partisans  who  see 
nothing  good  in  the  other.  Both  have  done  good  in  the  past 
and  the  plan  of  publication  which  each  has  followed  has  some 
advantages  lacking  in  the  other. 

For  individuals  working  in  a  limited  field  the  cards  of  the 
Concilium  are  of  very  great  assistance,*  as  they  permit  one  to 
associate  each  year's  cards  relating  to  any  given  subject,  or 
to  the  works  of  a  given  author,  with  similar  cards  of  preced- 
ing years,  according  to  the  recipient's  preferences  and  mode 
of  work.  This  obviates  the  necessity  of  examining  separate 
volumes  each  devoted  to  the  literature  of  but  a  single  yearf 
Experience,  too,  has  shown  that  the  cards  for  limited  groups 
are  distributed  at  a  shorter  interval  after  publication  of  the 
literature  than  has  been  found  practicable  with  the  volumes  of 
the  Record. 

For  an  institution  including  a  number  of  investigators  inter- 
ested in  different  divisions  of  the  animal  kingdom  and  of 
/.oology,  the  book  form  is  doubtless  the  better,  since  the  im- 
mense number  of  cards  (due  to  the  extent  of  the  whole  field 
of  this  science  and  the  quantity  of  papers  published)  demands 
constant  service  to  sort  and  interpolate  the  cards  and  few 
establishments  are  able  to  supply  this.  The  entire  series  of 
cards  for  even  one  year  necessarily  occupies  a  much  larger 
space  than  a  volume  containing  the  same  number  of  references. 
This,  too,  is  an  important  consideration.  I  Hit  even  when  the 

*See  the  NEWS   for  June,   1()21,  pages   182-3. 


120  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [April,  '22 

volume  form  is  received  by  an  institution,  the  cards  relating 
to  one  or  more  taxonomic  groups,  or  to  one  or  more  topics  as 
physiology  or  anatomy,  are  often  of  great  aid  to  an  individual 
working  therein. 

The  book  form  is  furnished  both  by  the  Zoological  Record 
and  the  Bibliographica  Zoologica  of  the  Concilium.  Opinions 
doubtless  vary  as  to  which  of  these  is  more  conveniently 
arranged.  Both  necessarily  include  many  cross-references  and 
their  usefulness  is  measured,  to  a  great  degree,  by  the  com- 
pleteness of  these.  This  also  applies  to  the  cards.  No  great 
research  is  required  to  discover,  even  in  the  latest  issues  of 
all  three  series,  that  the  cross-references  are  by  no  means 
complete  and  that  dependence  on  them  will  not  furnish  the 
reader  with  all  the  references  on  a  given  subject  that  each 
volume  or  set  of  cards  contains. 

It  is  a  great  pity  that  two  distinct  organizations  exist  for 
the  same  purpose  and  it  would  seem  to  be  true  economy, 
especially  in  these  days,  for  the  two  bodies  to  combine  their 
labors  for  the  greatest  benefit  of  workers  in  all  branches  of 
Zoology  and,  united  or  co-operating,  continue  to  issue  volumes 
(annually  or  oftener)  and  cards,  to  suit  the  different  needs 
of  institutions  and  individuals.  Happily,  we  understand, 
negotiations  with  such  an  end  in  view  are  under  way.  But 
whatever  may  be  their  outcome,  financial  support  from  all 
using  these  bibliographies  is  an  absolute  necessity  and  we  can 
not  urge  too  strongly  the  duty  of  all  Zoologists  (including* 
entomologists)  to  sustain  and  strengthen  these  publications. 

Notes  and  Ne\vs. 



Aphis-Lion  Attacking   Man   (Neur.,   Chrysopidae). 

The  following  observation  may  he  of  interest  as  a  case  of  a  preda- 
ceous  insect  attacking  man  without  provocation. 

With  the  exception  of  such  insects  which,  like  mosquitoes  and  blood- 
sucking flies,  depend  upon  blood  as  food,  insects  will  not  generally 
attack  man  unless  taken  in  the  fingers  or  perhaps  entangled  in  the 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOCICAI,   MCVYS  121 

clothing.  Under  such  conditions  practically  all  insects  with  biting 
mouthparts — beetles,  grasshoppers,  the  larger  caterpillars,  and  even 
Dipterous  larvae  (Tipulidae,  Tabanidae) — will  make  use  of  their  man- 
dibles, but  they  will  hardly  ever  attack  spontaneously. 

In  August,  "1918,  at  Princeton,  New  Jersey,  I  was  frequently  com- 
pelled, through  asthmatic  attacks,  to  sit  down  or.  certain  low  stone 
walls  forming  the  border  of  the  university  campus  and  shaded  by  maple 
and  sycamore  trees  which  were  badly  infested  with  Aphids.  On  such 
an  occasion  I  suddenly  felt  a  painful  bite  or  sting  on  the  wrist  of  the 
left  hand  which  was  on  the  stone.  Looking  for  the  cause,  1  discovered 
on  the  hand  the  larva  of  the  lace-winged  fly,  L'hrysapa  spec.,  commonly 
called  Aphis-lion,  which  insect  had  sunk  both  its  long,  hollow  mandibles 
deep  into  the  skin,  as  if  for  sucking,  and  when  being  removed,  was  not 
at  all  willing  to  give  up.  The  larva  had,  apparently,  dropped  from  one 
of  the  trees,  and  finding  itself  hungry,  proceeded,  in  the  absence  of 
aphids,  to  attack  the  next  best  living  prey  it  could  get  hold  of.  A  few 
hours  later  the  same  thing  was  experienced  a  second  time.  Again  1 
had  placed  my  hand  on  the  stone;  after  a  few  minutes  a  painful  prick 
was  felt,  the  cause  of  which  was  found  to  be  an  aphis-lion  sitting  on 
the  upper  side  of  the  hand,  the  mandibles  deeply  inserted.  Whether  it 
had  climbed  on  the  hand  or  dropped  from  the  tree  above  I  was  unable 
to  ascertain.  The  specimens  were  greenish  with  black  markings,  but 
were  not  preserved. 

This  observation  appears  to  show  that  Clirysopit  larvae  will  occa- 
sionally attack  man  spontaneously  and  thus  assume  the  role  of  a  facul- 
tative parasite. — WERNER  MARCHAND,  Mendham,  New  Jersey. 

Note  on  Abundance  of  Mosquitoes  (Dip.,  Culicidae). 

Mr.  George  C.  Shupee,  Federal  Game  Warden,  has  sent  in  an  inter- 
esting note  on  a  plague  of  mosquitoes  on  the  north  Texas  coast  which 
should  be  made  ava  lable  to  entomologists.  His  account  dated  High 
Island,  Texas,  Oct.  29,  1921,  is  substantially  as  follows  : 

Old  residents  say  they  never  were  so  bad  before,  millions  and  mil- 
lions of  them;  so  many  perched  on  the  automobile  that  one  could  not 
tell  there  was  a  glass  in  the  back  of  the  car.  They  have  killed  lots  of 
cotton-tail  rabbits,  and  every  now  and  then  meadowlarks  and  other 
birds  are  found  dead,  apparently  from  the  ravages  of  the  mosquitoes. 
The  stock  have  either  gone  to  the  high  ridges  or  come  to  the  gulf  where 
they  wade  out  deep.  A  large  boar  hog  appeared  to  go  crazy  on  account 
of  their  attacks;  he  ran  into  the  gulf  and  swam  out  about  1  '/>  miles,  and 
was  given  up;  he  disappeared  from  sight  time  and  time  again  in  the 
surf,  but  finally  he  came  back  in.  Those  hunters  who  are  going  in  after 
ducks  surely  earn  them,  wearing  heavy  leather  gloves  and  stiff  canvas 
coat,  with  mosquito  net  over  bead  ;  despite  all  that  the  pests  still  bite, 
actually  biting  through  the  glove.  I  never  experienced  them  so  bad.  Some 
days  ago  a  norther  blew  them  out  into  the  gulf;  they  were  drowned  and 
washed  into  shore,  and  from  Bolivar  to  Sabine,  about  75  miles,  a  strip 
four  inches  wide  and  two  deep  was  left  along  the  beach.  Notwithstand- 
ing this  occurrence  there  remain  apparently  just  as  many  of  the  mos- 
quitoes as  before. 

Most  of  us  have  heard  of  windrows  of  brine-flies  (Bphydra)  being 
cast  up  on  the  beaches  of  certain  western  lakes,  but  probably  few  have 
imagined  that  mosquitoes  ever  tk'.mvd  in  a  similar  phenomenon.  -W.  I.. 
MI-ATKK,  L'.  S.  I'iologiral  Survey.  Washington,  I  >.  C. 

122  ENTOMOLOGICAL     NEWS  [April,  '22 

To  the  American  Subscribers  of  the  Concilium  Bibliographicum 


The  difficulties  created  by  the  war  and  after-war  conditions  and  by 
the  death  of  Director  Dr.  H.  H.  Field  have  interrupted,  from  1917 
until  recently,  the  sending  out  of  bibliographic  cards  and  of  the 
Bibliographia  Zoologica.  During  this  time,  however,  work  has  con- 
tinued, although  in  restricted  degree,  on  preparing  references,  and  Vol. 
30  of  the  Bibliographia  Zoologica  and  certain  cards  have  recently  been 
sent  out  to  subscribers. 

The  difficulties  of  the  Concilium  Bibliographicum  caused  by  the  war, 
the  uncertainties  of  exchange  since  the  war  and,  finally,  by  the  death 
of  Dr.  Field  have  been  so  great  as  to  threaten  seriously  the  contin- 
uance of  its  existence.  But  arrangements  are  now  in  process  of  accom- 
plishment by  which  the  continued  existence  of  the  Concilium  is  assurc-d 
and  the  maintenance  and  even  gradual  expansion  of  its  bibliographic 
service  provided  for.  These  arrangements  have  been  made  possible  by 
a  co-operation  of  the  Swiss  Society  of  Natural  Sciences,  the  National 
Research  Council  (Washington)  and  the  Rockefeller  Foundation  (New 
York),  by  which  all  current  obligations  of  the  Concilium  are  paid,  a 
certain  sum  is  given  to  Mrs.  Field  in  partial  recognition  of  hitherto 
unpaid  services  of  Dr.  Field,  and  financial  provision  is  made  for  assist- 
ance in  meeting  the  current  expenses  of  the  Concilium  for  five  years. 

A  provisional  managing  committee  composed  of  representatives  of 
the  Swiss  Society  of  Natural  Sciences  and  of  the  National  Research 
Council  will  assume  the  present  control  of  the  Concilium,  with  Prof. 
Dr.  J.  Strohl  of  the  Zoological  Institute  of  the  University  of  Zurich 
as  Director.  Full  details  of  the  new  arrangements  for  the  reorgani- 
zation of  the  Concilium  and  proposed  plans  for  a  possible  extension  of 
its  work  will  be  published  as  soon  as  the  arrangements  are  formally 
and  legally  made. 

In  the  meantime  the  making  of  the  references  and  the  preparation 
and  printing  of  the  bibliographic  cards  will  be  vigorously  pushed  and 
subscribers  may  be  confident  that  they  will  again  begin  to  receive  cards 
regularly,  and  that  references  to  papers  which  appeared  during  the 
war  and  in  the  first  years  after  it  as  well  as  references  to  papers  in 
current  periodicals  will  be  sent  them.  An  energetic  campaign  for  the 
confirmation  of  old  and  for  obtaining  new  subscriptions  will  be  begun 
at  once.  The  campaign  for  American  subscriptions  will  be  undertaken 
by  the  National  Research  Council  which  will  represent  the  interests  of 
the  Concilium  in  America.  The  campaign  in  Europe  will  be  made  by 
correspondence  from  Zurich  and  by  personal  visits  to  various  countrio 
by  the  Director  of  the  Concilium.  Special  requests  for  information 
concerning  the  Concilium  may  be  made  by  American  subscribers 
directly  to  the  National  Research  Council  (Washington).  DR.  JEAN 
STROHL,  Director  of  the  Concilium  Bibliographicum.  DR.  K. 
HESCHELER,  Chairman,  Committee  on  Concilium  Bibliographicum,  Swiss 
Society  of  Natural  Sciences.  DR.  VERNON  KELLOGG,  Chairman,  Com- 
mittee on  Concilium  Bibliographicum,  National  Krsr.irrh  Council. 
Zurich,  February  1922. 

xxxiii, '22]  ENTOM<U.<H;ICAL   NI-:\VS  123 

Entomological    Literature 


Under  the  above  head  it  is  intended  to  note  papers  received  at  the 
Academy  of  Xatural  Sciences,  of  Philadelphia,  pertaining  to  the  En- 
tomology of  the  Americas  (North  and  South),  including  Arachnida  and 
Myriopoda.  Articles  irrelevant  to  American  entomology  will  not  be  noted; 
but  contributions  to  anatomy,  physiology  and  embryology  of  insects, 
however,  whether  relating  to  American  or  exotic  species,  will  be  recorded. 

The  numbers  in  Heavy -Faced  Type  refer  to  the  journals,  as  numbered 
in  the  following  list,  in  which  the  papers  are  published. 

All  continued  papers,  with  few  exceptions,  are  recorded  only  at  their 
first  installments. 

The  records  of  papers  containing  new  genera  or  species  occurring  north 
of  Mexico  are  grouped  at  the  end  of  their  respective  Orders. 

For  records  of  Economic  Literature,  see  the  Experiment  Station  Record. 
Office  of  Experiment  Stations,  Washington.  Also  Review  of  Applied  En- 
tomology, Series  A.  London.  For  records  of  papers  on  Medical  Ento- 
mology,'see  Review  of  Applied  Entomology,  Series  B 

The  titles  occurring  in  the   Entomological   News  are   not   listed. 

2 — Transactions  of  the  American  Entomological  Society,  Philadel- 
phia. 4 — Canadian  Entomologist,  London,  Canada.  6 — Journal  of 
the  New  York  Entomological  Society.  9 — The  Entomologist,  Lon- 
don. 10 — Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington, 
D.  C.  11 — Annals  and  Magazine  of  Natural  History,  London.  15— 
Insecutor  Inscitiae  Menstruus,  Washington,  D.  C.  16 — The  Lepi- 
dopterist,  Salem,  Mass.  19 — Bulletin  of  the  Brooklyn  Entomological 
Society.  20 — Bulletin  de  la  Societe  Entomologique  de  France,  Paris. 
28 — Entomologisk  Tidskrift,  Uppsala.  29 — Annual  Report  of  the 
Entomological  Society  of  Ontario,  Toronto,  Canada.  39 — The 
Florida  Entomologist.  Gainesville,  Florida.  41 — Bulletin  de  la  So- 
ciete Entomolcgique  Suisse,  Bern.  50 — Proceedings  of  the  United 
States  National  Museum.  52 — Zoologischer  Anzeiger,  Leipsic.  58— 
New  York  State  Museum  Bulletin,  Albany.  69 — Comptes  Rendus, 
des  Seances  de  1'Academie  des  Sciences,  Paris.  82 — The  Ohio  Jour- 
nal of  Science,  Columbus.  98 — Annals  of  Tropical  Medicine  and 
Parasitology,  Liverpool.  99 — Bulletin  du  Museum  National  d'His- 
toire  Naturelle,  Paris.  108 — Journal  of  Genetics,  Cambridge,  Eng- 
land. 109 — Annales  Historico-Naturales  Musei  Nationalis  Hungarici, 
Budapest.  110 — Naturwissenschaftliche  Wochenschrift,  Jena.  Ill— 
Archiv  fur  Naturgeschichte,  Berlin.  134 — Annales  de  Biologie  La- 
custre,  Brussels.  135 — Schriften  der  Physikalisch-okonomischen  Ge- 
sellschaft  zu  Konigsberg  in  Pr.  136 — Archives  da  Escola  Superior 
de  Agricultura  e  Medicina  Veterinaria,  Nictheroy  (E.  do  Rio  dr 
Janeiro).  137 — Zeitschrift  des  Osterreichischen  Kntomologen-Ver- 
eines  Wien. 

GENERAL,  da  Costa  Lima,  A. — Notas  entomologicas.  Technica 
para  a  preparacao  e  montagem  de  pequenos  insectos  para  exame 
microscopico.  136,  v,  97-121;  123-:2ti.  Fyles,  T.  W.— Obituary  by 
C.  J.  S  Bethune.  4,  liii,  :.'i;:Mi4.  Lucas,  W.  J.— The  order  Xeu- 

124  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [April,  '22 

roptera.  [Answer  to  a  question  from  G.  V.  Hudson.]  9,  19:22,  61-2. 
Metcalf,  Z.  P. — The  age  of  insects.  (Tour.  Elisha  Mitchell  Sci.  Soc.. 
xxxvii,  19-53.)  Sladen,  F.  W.  L.— Obituary.  4,  liii,  240.  Smiths. 
Inst. — Opinions  (68-77)  rendered  by  the  International  commission 
on  zoological  nomenclature.  (Smiths.  Miscel.  Coll.,  Ixxiii,  No.  1.) 
Tarbat,  J.  E. — Non-attractiveness  of  electric  light.  9,  1922,  64-5. 
Weiss  &  Dickerson — Notes  on  milkweed  insects  in  New  Jersey.  6, 
xxix,  123-45. 

ANATOMY,  PHYSIOLOGY,  ETC.  Christeller,  E.— Untersu- 
chungen  an  kunstlich  hervorgebrachten  hermaphroditen  bei  schmet- 
terlingen.  135,  lix,  1-20.  Dampf,  A. — Uber  innere  begattungszeichen 
bei  Tortriciden.  135,  Ixi,  66-8.  Feuerborn,  H. — Das  labialsegment, 
die  gliederung  des  thorax  und  die  stigmenverteilung  der  insekten  in 
neuer  beleuchtung.  52,  liv,  49-78,  97-111.  Harrison,  L. — Notes  on 
the  mouth-parts  of  lice.  (Australian  Zoologist,  i,  214-16.)  Macfie, 
J.  W.  S. — The  effect  of  saline  solutions  and  sea  water  on  Stegomyia 
fasciata.  98,  xv,  377-80.  Meyer,  R. — Die  pollensammelapparate  der 
bauchsammelnden  bienen  (Gastrilegidae).  (Jen.  Zeit.  f.  Naturw., 
Jena,  Ivii,  229-68.)  Onslow,  H. — The  inheritance  of  wing  colour  in 
lepidoptera.  108,  xi,  277-98.  Osorio  de  Almeida,  M. — Les  reflexes 
musculaires.  136,  v,  127-41.  Schweizer,  C. — Der  darmkanal  des 
maikafers.  110,  xxi,  78-81.  Speyer,  W. — Die  lokomotorischen  ex- 
tremitaten  der  larve  von  Dytiscus  marginalis.  135,  Ixi,  43-54. 
Stumper,  R. — Nouvelles  observations  sur  le  venin  des  fourmis.  69. 
clxxiv,  413-15.  Thienemann,  A. — Die  metamorphose  der  Chirono- 
midengattungen  Camptocladius,  .  .  .  mit  bemerkungen  uber  die  art- 
differenzierung  bei  den  Chironomiden  uberhatipt.  (Arch.  f.  Hydro- 
biologie,  Stuttgart,  ii,  Suppl.,  809-850.)  Zavrel  &  Thienemann— Die 
metamorphose  der  Tanypinen.  (Arch.  f.  Hydrobiologie,  Stuttgart, 
ii,  Suppl.,  655-784.) 

ARACHNIDA,  ETC.  Chamberlain,  R.  V.— On  some  Chilopods 
and  Diplopods  from  Knox  Co.,  Tennessee.  On  some  arachnids  from 
southern  Utah.  4,  liii,  230-33;  245-47. 

NEUROPTERA.  Dohler,  W.— Beitrage  zur  systematik  und  bio- 
logic der  Trichopteren.  (Sitz.  Naturf.  Gesell.,  Leipzig,  1914,  28-102.) 
Lestage,  J.  A. — Etudes  sur  la  biologic  des  Plccopteres.  134.  ix, 
257-68.  Morstatt,  H. — Zur  standischen  gliederung  und  ernahrungs- 
biologie  der  Termiten.  41,  xi,  9-16.  Tillyard,  R.  J. — Revision  of  the 
family  Eustheniidae  (Order  Perlaria)  with  descriptions  of  new  g. 
and  sps.  29,  xlvi,  221-36.  Walker,  E.  M. — The  nymph  and  breeding 
place  of  Aeshna  sitchensis.  4,  liii,  221-26. 

Davis,  W.  T. — A  new  dragonfly  from  Florida.  19,  xvi,  109-11. 
Howe,  R.  H.— A  new  dragonfly  from  New  England.  (Oc.  Tap. 
Boston  Soc.  N.  H.,  v,  19-20.) 

xxxiii, '22]  RXTOMOi.ur.ic.u.   XKYVS  125 

ORTHOPTERA.  Hebard,  M.— The  janeirensis  group  of  the 
genus  Euborellia,  with  the  description  of  a  new  species.  (Der- 
maptera.)  2,  xlvii,  319-24.  Rehn,  J.  A.  G. — Studies  in  Costa  Rican 
Dermaptera  and  Orthoptera.  I.  Two  new  genera  and  three  new 
species  of  Dermaptera.  2,  xlvii,  307-18. 

HEMIPTERA.  Correction.— Under  Hemiptera  in  the  February 
number,  the  reference  for  Porter  should  be  131,  not  111:.'.  Bergroth, 
E. — The  first  heteropteron  from  Juan  Fernandez.  28,  xlii,  41-5. 
Hempel,  A. — Tres  novos  coccideos.  136,  v,  143-46.  Horvath,  G.— 
Genera  duo  nova  Scutelleridarum.  109,  xviii,  14.")-(i.  Hussey,  R.  F.— 
Ecological  notes  on  Cymatia  americana  (Corixidae).  19,  xvi,  1.'?  1-3(1. 
Jacobi,  A. — Kritische  bemerkungen  uber  die  Cercopidae.  Ill,  1921, 
A.  12,  1-05.  Parshley,  H.  M. — New  England  Hemiptera-Heteroptera. 
II.  4,  liii,  233-39.  Poppius  und  Bergroth — Beitrage  zur  kenntnis 
der  myrmecoiden  heteropteren.  (So.  Amer.)  109,  xviii,  31-88. 
d.  1.  Torre  Bueno,  J.  R. — Food  plant  of  Cymus  discors.  19,  xvi,  136. 
Weiss,  H.  B. — A  summary  of  the  food  habits  of  N.  Am.  Hemiptera. 
19,  xvi,  116-18.  Weise,  J. —  Einige  ncue  Promecosoma  arten.  Ill, 
1921,  A,  12,  313-15. 

Drake,  C.  J. — On  some  North  and  South  American  Tingidae.  39, 
v,  37-43,  48-50. 

LEPIDOPTERA.  Bell,  E.  L.— Notes  on  parasites  of  Epargyreus 
tityrus.  19,  xvi,  129.  Busck  &  Heinrich — Life  history  of  Ethmia 
macelhosiella.  10,  xxiv,  1-9.  Dyar,  H.  G. — New  American  moths  and 
notes.  A  note  on  Bellura  gortynoides.  15,  x,  8-18;  50.  Griffiths, 
G.  C.— The  pupal  habit  of  Telea  polvphemus.  9,  Iv,  38-9.  Rebel,  H. 
—  Eine  neue  Nymphalide  ans  Brasilien.  137,  v.  (17-8. 

Cassino  &  Swett — Some  new  species  of  the  geivis  Pero.  So'ne  new 
Geometrids.  16,  iii,  135-44;  144-50.  Watson,  F.  E.— Miscellaneous 
notes  and  records  of  local  I,,  and  descriptions  of  two  new  aberra- 
tions. 6,  xxix,  108-73. 

DTPTERA.  Blacklock,  B.— Notes  on  an  apparatus  for  the  indi- 
vidual breeding  of  mosquitoes.  98.  xv,  473-77.  Bonne- Wenster  & 
Bonne — A  new  coloration  key  for  the  species  of  the  genus  Goeldia. 
15,  x,  37-S.  da  Costa  Lima,  A. —  Sobre  os  Streblideos  americanos 
(1'upipara).  136,  v,  17-34.  Ender'e'n,  G.— Uber  die  phvleMsch 
alteren  Stratiomyiiden-subfamilien  (Xylophaginae.  Chiromyzinae, 
Solvinae.  Beridjnae  und  Coeno'^viinac.)  (Mitteil.  Zool.  Mus.  Merlin. 
x,  153-21  I.)  Ev?ns,  A.  M.—  Notes  on  Culicidae  collected  in  Vene- 
zuela. 98,  xv,  4-15-54.  Levy.  L. — Contributions  a  1'etude  dcs  meta- 
morphoses aquatiques  cles  dipteres.  134,  ix,  201-28.  MacGregor, 
M.  E. — The  structural  differences  in  the  ova  of  Anopheles  maculi- 
pennis,  A.  bifurcatus  and  A.  plumbens.  98,  xv,  417-20.  Malloch, 
J.  R.  —  Exotic  Muscaridac.  V.  11,  ix,  271-80. 

Curran,  C.  H. — A  new  western  Syrphid.  A  genus  and  species  of 
Syrphidae  new  to  Canada.  4,  liii,  258-00;  200.  Dyar,  H.  G. — New 

126  ENTOMOLOGICAL     NEWS  [April,  '22 

mosquitoes  from  Alaska.  The  American  Aeries  of  the  impiger  (dec- 
ticus)  group.  Note  on  the  male  genitalia  of  Culex  coronator  and 
allied  forms.  15,  x,  1-3;  3-8;  18-19.  Felt,  E.  P. — Mycodiplosis  moz- 
nettei  n.  sp.  39,  v,  4fi.  A  study  of  gall  midges.  VII.  58,  No.  231, 
81-240.  Garrett,  C.  B.  D.— New  Tipulidae  from  British  Columbia. 
10,  xxiv,  58-64.  Parker,  R.  R. — North  Am.  Sarcophagidae :  A  new 
genus  and  several  n.  sps.  from  the  southwest  U.  S.  19,  xvi,  112-15. 

COLEOPTERA.  Boving  &  Champlain— The  larva  of  the  N. 
American  beetle  Zenodosus  sanguineus  of  the  family  Cleridae.  10, 
xxiv,  9-11.  Davis,  W.  T. —  Cicindela  tranquebarica  and  its  habits. 
Note  on  Cicindela  tascosaensis.  19,  xvi,  111;  130.  Fleutiaux,  E.— 
Descriptions  de  deux  generes  nouveaux  de  Melasidae  de  la  collection 
de  Museum  d'Histoire  Nat.  de  Paris.  99,  1921,  413-14.  Hopping,  R. 
—A  review  of  the  genus  Monochamus.  (Cerambycidae.)  4,  liii, 
252-58.  Nicolay,  A.  S — Corrections  and  additions  to  the  Leng  list 
of  Coleoptera.  Family  Buprestidae  No.  1.  6,  xxix,  173-78.  Pic,  M. 
— Coleopteres  nouveaux  de  la  famille  des  Hylophilides.  99,  1921, 
415-18.  Schwarz  &  Barber — The  specific  names  of  two  Otiorhynchid 
weevils  of  Florida.  10,  xxiv.  29-30.  Van  Zwaluwenburg,  R.  H. — 
External  anatomy  of  the  Elaterid  genus  Melanotus,  with  remarks  on 
the  taxonomic  value  of  certain  characters.  10,  xxiv,  12-29.  Weiss  & 
West — Notes  on  the  dodder  gall  weevil,  Smicronyx  sculpticollis.  82, 
xxii,  63-5.  Wilke,  S. —  Bcitrage  zur  systematik  und  geographischen 
verbreitung  ungeflugelter  Tenebrioniden.  (Asidinae.)  Ill,  1921, 
A,  12,  248-312.  Woodruff,  L.  B.— I  athridiidae  in  the  heart  of  New 
York  City.  6,  xxix,  178-79. 

Dawson,  R.  W. — New  species  of  Serica  (Scarabaeidae).  6,  xxix, 
1  (50-68.  Fall.  H.  C. — The  North  American  species  of  Gyrinus.  2, 
xlvii,  269-306.  Garnett,  R.  T.  de — Tableau  des  especes  du  genre 
Buprestis,  appartnant  a  la  faune  de  1'Amerique  du  Nord  et  descrip- 
tion d'un  varietc  nouvelle.  20,  1922.  9-13.  Loomis,  H.  F. — New 
species  of  the  coleopterous  genus  Trox.  (Jour.  Wash.  Ac.  Sc.,  xii, 
132-36.)  Notman,  H. —  Some  new  genera  and  sps.  of  C.  collected  at 
Westfield,  Chautauqua  Co.,  N.  Y.  6,  xxix,  145-60.  Wolcott,  A.  B.— 
A  new  sp.  of  Saprinus  from  Kansas.  19,  xvi,  119-20. 

HYMENOPTERA.  Cushman,  R.  A.— The  identity  of  a  hymen- 
opterous  parasite  of  the  alfalfa  leaf  weevil.  10,  xxiv,  64.  Forel,  A. — • 
Quelques  fourmis  des  cnvironsjle  Quito  (Ecuidor).  (Bui.  Soc.  Vau- 
doise  des  Sci.  Nat.,  liv,  131.)  "'Strand,  E. — Zur  kenntnis  neotropischer 
Joppinen.  137,  vi,  51-3  (cont.). 

Cocberell,  T.  D.  A. — The  fossil  saw-flies  of  Florissant.  Colorado. 
9,  1922,  49-50.  Gahan,  A.  B.  — A  list  of  phytophagous  Chalcidoidea 
with  descriptions  of  two  n.  sps.  10,  xxiv,  33-58.  Rohwer,  S.  A.— 
North  American  sawflies  of  the  subfamily  Cladiinae,  with  notes  on 
habits  and  descriptions  of  larvae.  By  W.  Middleton.  50,  Ix,  Art.  1. 

xxxiii, '22]  ENTO.MOI.OOU  AT.   NEWS  127 


DR.  THOMAS  ALGERNON  CHAPMAN  died  at  Reigate.  Surrey, 
England,  December  17,  1921.  He  was  born  at  Glasgow,  June 
2,  1842.  He  was  an  M.D.  of  the  University  of  his  native 
town  and  was  resident  physician  at  institutions  at  Glasgov/, 
Abergavenny  and  Hereford  until  his  retirement  in  1897.  His 
father.  Thomas  Chapman  (1816-1879),  was  active  in  ento- 
mology and  father  and  son  contributed  joint  papers  to  the 
English  entomological  magazines  in  the  sixties  of  the  last 
century.  Dr.  T.  A.  Chapman's  work  was  largely  on  the  life- 
history  and  genitalia  of  Lepidoptera,  especially  the  Lycaenidae 
(1910-1915),  Ercbia  (1898),  Scoparidae  (1911)  and 
.  Icronycta,  but  he  also  wrote  on  the  habits  and  transformations 
of  Diptera  (Atheri.v  1866),  Coleoptera  (Hylcsiiins,  Aphodins, 
Scolytns),  Hymenoptera  (Oviposition  O'f  Sawflies,  Chrysids 
]  arasitic  on  Odynerus,  Alnicra  and  Bouibvlins ),  etc. 

He  was  a  Fellow  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  London 
cilice  1891  and  many  times  a  Vice  President,  but  could  never 
be  induced  to  accept  the  Presidency.  He  was  elected  a  Fellow 
of  the  Zoological  Society  of  London  in  1897  and  of  the  Royal 
Society  in  1918. 

His  biographer  (\Y.  G.  Sheldon)  in  The  Entomologist  for 
February,  1922,  considers  that 

Without  doubt  the  late  Dr.  Chapman  was  one  of  the  greatest  and 
most  scientific  entomologists  we  have  ever  produced  and  one  who  in 
certa:n  departments  must  be  regarded  as  the  greatest  exponent  Britain 
has  given  the  science.  .  .  .  Foremost  among  his  remarkable  powers 
was  his  acuteness  of  observation ;  little  facts  that  others  would  not 
have  noticed  were  seized  upon,  their  significance  realized  and  important 
deductions  made  therefrom.  His  clear,  logical  mind  and  soundness  of 
judgment  were  of  the  greatest  importance  and  usually  lei  him  straight 
to  the  desired  goal.  .  .  .  His  entomological  work  was  carried  out  in  a 
thorough  manner,  and  every  detail  carefully  studied  ...  it  was  always 
illustrated  profusely  with  explanatory  plates,  many  of  them  exquisitely 
drawn  and  colored.  ...  He  was  one  of  the  strongest  exponents  of 
the  doctrine,  that  we  cannot  satisfactorily  classify  species  by  one 
character  alone,  no  matter  whether  it  is  by  the  ova,  larva  or  pupa 
stage,  or  by  the  structure  and  markings  of  the  imagine,  but  that  we 
must  take  everything  into  consideration. 

128  ENTOMOLOGICAL     NEWS  [April,  '22 

(There  is  also  an  obituary  not'ce  in  The  Entomologists'  Mnnthl\ 
Magazine  for  February,  1922.  by  Mr.  G.  C.  Champion,  accompanied 
by  a  portrait.) 

The  Entomologists'  Monthly  Magazine  for  January,  1922, 
announces  that  Entomologisehe  Rlacttcr,  XIII,  1917,  contains 
an  obituary  notice  of  DR.  GEORG  VON  SEIDLTTZ,  known  for  his 
writings  on  Palaearctic  Coleoptera.  He  was  horn  June  19, 
1840,  in  Tschornaja  Rjetschka,  near  Petrograd,  and  died  July 
15,  1917,  at  Irschenhausen,  Oherhayern. 

The  same  magazine  for  July,  1921,  contains  appreciative 
notices  of  DR.  GEORGE  BLUNDELL  LONGSTAFF,  author  of 
Butterfly  Hunting'  in  Many  Lands,  who  died  May  7,  1921,  in 
his  73rd  year,  and  who  was  a  substantial  benefactor  of  the 
Hope  Department  of  Zoology  (Entomology)  at  the  University 
of  Oxford. 

Other  entomologists  whose  deaths  have  occurred  within  the 
past  twelve  months  but  have  not  been  noted  previously  in  the 
Reverend  THOMAS  W.  FYLES,  obituaries  of  whom  have  ap- 
peared in  the  recently  issued  numbers  of  Tlic  Canadian  Ento- 
mologist for  October  and  November,  1921,  respectively.  Both 
men  were  immigrants  to  Canada,  Mr.  Sladen  in  1912,  Dr. 
Fyles  in  1861.  The  former  was  on  the  staff  of  the  Dominion 
Department  of  Agriculture,  Division  of  Entomology,  and  was 
perhaps  best  known  for  his  book,  The  Humble  Bee,  Its  Life- 
History  and  Hoiv  to  Domesticate  it  (London,  Macmillan. 
1912)  ;  he  was  drowned  off  Duck  Island  in  Lake  Ontario,  Sep- 
tember 10,  1921. 

Dr.  Fyles  was  born  at  "The  Hermitage,"  Enfield  Chase, 
England,  June  1,  1832,  and  died  at  Ottawa,  August  9,  1921. 
He  was  rector  and  Immigration  Chaplain  in  the  Province  of 
Quebec,  1864-1909.  His  collections  were  transferred  to  the 
Museum  in  the  Quebec  Parliament  buildings  in  the  latter  year. 
He  was  the  author  of  76  papers  in  the  Reports  of  the  Ento- 
mological Society  of  Ontario  and  in  other  journals  (Canadian 
Entomologist  from  1882  on),  dealing  with  various  groups  of 

I  have  a  collection  of  between  twenty  and  twenty-five 
thousand  unmounted  insects  that  I  wish  to  sell.  They  are  all 
numbered  and  marked  when  and  where  collected.  Taken  in 
California,  Florida  and  around  Lake  Superior;  also  a  collec- 
tion of  Butterflies  and  Moths. 

MRS.  F.  S.  DAGGETT,  351  Bala  Ave.,  Cynwyd,  Pa. 


Fine  perfect  specimens  of  this  grand  rare  species  are  offered  ;  also  O. 
chimaera — Zelotypia  staceyi,  superb  rarity — many  others.  Largest  stock  of 
exotic  Coleoptera,  rarities  and  unnamed  series.  Also  the  most  important 
books  on  Entomology  in  stock. 

Janson  &  Sons,  Naturalists  &  Booksellers  44,  Great  Russell  St.,  LondonJ.C.  I. 

April  1st,  my  well-known  business, 
"THE  BUTTERFLY  STORE,"  80  Fifth  Ave.,  New  York 

changed  hands.  My  experienced  assistant,  Miss  Margaret 
Scherbanm  will  run  it — I  remain  in  the  butterfly  market.  After 
doing  some  traveling  for  entomological  purpose?,  I  intend  to 
settle  at  PYRMONT,  HANOVER,  GERMANY,  and  am  always  open 
for  correspondence  regarding  purchase,  sale  and  exchange  of 
Lepidoptera.  Specialty :  supply  of  insect  pins  and  other  Euro- 
pean utensils.  Thanking  you, 

0.  FULDA,  80  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York 
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Plate  VII. 


tourney i 







MAY,  3922 

No.  5 


Jones — Two  New  Psychids,  and  Notes 
on  Other  Species  ( Lepidoptera, 
Psychidae ). 129 

Cresson  —  Descriptions  of  New  Genera 
and  Species  of  the  Dipterous  Fam- 
ily Ephydridae—V 135 

Williamson  —  Enallagmas  Collected  in 
Floiida  and  South  Carolina  by 
Jesse  H.  Williamson  with  Descrip- 
tions of  Two  New  Species  (Odo- 
nata,  Agrionidae  1 138 

Champlain  and  Knull — New  North 

American  Coleoptera 144 

Cockerel! — Some  Coccidae  found  on 
Orchids  (  Horn. ) 149 

Editorial— The  Conservation  of  Nat- 
ural Cond  itions  150 

Hutchison  The  Mulford  Biological 
Exploration  of  the  Amazon  Basin. 
Bulletin  No.  7  150 

Entomological  Literature 151 

Review  of  Carpenter's  Insect  Transfor- 
mation    153 

Doings  of  Societies — Ent.  Sec.,  Acad. 
Nat.  Sci.  Phila 155 

Obituary — Sandor  Mocsarv.  Dr.  Ernest 
Rousseau,  Sir  Patrick  Manson,  Dr. 
Joseph  Lane  Hancock 157 

Correction 160 

Two  New  Psychids,  and  Notes  on  Other  Species 
(Lepidoptera,  Psychidae.) 

By  FRANK   MORTON   JONES,  Wilmington,   Delaware. 

(Plates  VII,  VIII) 

Of  our  North  American  Psychidae.  four  species,  confed- 
crata  firt.  carbonaria  Pack.,  fragmentella  Hy.  Edw.,  and 
tnicvi  Jones  have  been  referred  to  Enrycyttants  Hampton, 
originally  created  as  a  sub-genus  of  Psyche  Schrank  for  the 
reception  of  an  insect  from  the  Nilgiri  District.  India.  In 
this  sub-genus  the  anal  vein  of  primaries  sends  a  single  branch 
to  the  inner  margin,  "vein  6"  is  absent  from  both  wings,  and 
the  anterior  tibiae  are  not  spurred;  in  the  two  species  whose 
descriptions  follow,  however,  and  in  tracyi  Jones,  the  primaries 
lack  even  the  basal  portion  of  lr  K'omstock's  1st  anal),  a 
condition  not  shown  in  Hampson's  illustrations  of  the  vena- 
tion of  I'syclie  or  of  any  of  its  sub-genera.  Since,  however, 
by  Ilampson's  table's,  and  by  that  of  Xeumoegen  &  Dyar  in 
our  own  literature,  these  insects  run  out  to  Eurycyttarus,  and 
until  a  detailed  comparison  with  the  world-species  permits 
their  more  accurate  placing,  it  seem>  best,  for  the-  present,  to 

leave  them  there. 


130  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May,  '22 

In  both  1919  and  1921  the  larval  cases  of  one  of  the  new 
species  were  found  in  considerable  numbers,  attached  to  tree- 
trunks,  at  DeFuniak  Springs.  Florida.  The  life-cycle  of  this 
insect  is  apparently  similar  to  that  of  confcderata  (irt..  for 
in  mid-May  the  larvae  creep  up  from  the  ground  and  attach 
their  cases  to  the  bark,  preliminary  to  pupation.  Where  oaks 
and  pines  grow  together,  oaks  are  preferred ;  and  the  cases 
are  rarely  found  more  than  five  feet  from  the  ground.  From 
numerous  cases  gathered  about  May  20.  forty  males  emerged, 
but  not  one  female ;  and  since  none  of  the  remaining  cases 
contained  female  pupae,  the  conclusion  seems  inevitable  that 
the  female  larvae  must  have  sought  out  other  and  different 
situations  for  the  suspension  of  their  cases.  This  habit  does 
not  seem  to  have  been  recorded  for  any  of  our  North  American 
Psychidac,  though  it  has  been  noted  at  length  (Hofman.  Berl. 
Entomol.  Zeitschr.,  IV)  of  European  species.  For  this  insect 
is  proposed  the  name  of 

Psyche  (Eurycyttarus)  celibata  n.  sp.    (Plates  VII,  VIII). 

Larval  case. — Roughly  cylindrical,  15  mm.  in  length  ;  of  coarse  texture 
externally,  the  material  overlaid  upon  the  silken  tube  consisting  of  thin 
flakes  of  pine  hark,  and  a  few  short  hits  of  dry  pine-needles  or  fine 
grass-stems  irregularly  applied  longitudinally  and  not  usually  projecting 
far  beyond  the  extremity  of  the  case. 

Larta,  just  before  pupation. — Length.  9  mm.;  width  of  head,  .9  mm. 
White;  the  chftinized  areas  of  the  thoracic  segments  dark  brown,  with 
the  usual  narrow  longitudinal  white  lines.  Head  dark  brown,  almost 
black,  with  the  front  (or  at  least  its  upper  portion)  white;  three  oblique 
white  bars  on  each  epicranium,  the  upper  and  longest  extending  to  the 
adf rental  sclerite;  the  frontal  punctures  inconspicuous,  the  frontal  setae 
opposite  them,  and  the  2nd  adfrontals  slightly  higher.  Prothoracic 
spiracle  not  regularly  oval,  almost  as  high  as  wide.  Primary  body-setae 
present,  as  indicated  in  the  illustration. 

Pupa  of  $ . — Length  6  mm. ;  dull  amber  brown,  darker  dorsally,  the 
eyes  dark  brown.  Front  smoothly  rounded.  The  mesothoracic  wings 
extend  halfway  across  the  third  abdominal  segment ;  the  prothoracic 
legs  and  the  antennae  extend  almost  to  the  caudal  margin  of  the  wings ; 
the  mesothoracic  legs  reach  the  wing-margin,  and  the  metathoracic  legs 
slightly  exceed  the  margin.  Abdominal  segments  8,  9  and  10  are  curved 
ventrad;  the  two  caudal  hooks  are  large,  each  terminating  in  a  sharp 
thorn.  The  dorso-cephalic  portions  of  the  abdominal  segments  are 
finely  striated,  and  from  the  dorso-cephalic  margin  of  segments  6,  7 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  131 

and  8  projects  a  toothed  ridge, — the  teeth  directed  caudad, — successively 
more  prominent  in  the  order  named,  and  forming  a  conspicuous  comh- 
like  projection  on  the  8th  segment.  The  usual  dorso-caudal  row  of  fine 
short  spines,  their  points  directed  cephalad,  occur  on  abdominal  seg- 
ments 3,  4  and  5.  The  spiracles  are  raised  above  the  body  surface. 

The  pupal  stage  lasts  about  four  weeks.' 

Adult  $ . — Expanse  10.5  to  12.5  mm.  Brownish  black,  the  wings 
broad  and  much  rounded.  Vestiture  of  head,  thorax  and  abdomen 
rather  long,  hairy  and  erect,  with  an  admixture  of  white  hairs.  In 
dried  examples  the  abdomen  rarely  exceeds  the  margin  of  secondaries. 
The  scaling  of  the  wings  is  uniform  and  moderately  dense,  the  costa 
of  primaries  narrowly  darker.  The  primaries  have  11  veins,  the  sec- 
ondaries 7.  The  venation  of  ten  examples  was  studied  in  detail,  the 
primaries  showing  no  significant  variation,  and  the  extreme  range  found 
in  the  secondaries  is  exhibited  on  Plate  VIII.  the  first  figure  showing 
the  more  usual  condition. 

Described  and  illustrated  from  numerous  bred  examples; 
the  type  is  in  the  collection  of  the  author,  and  paratypes  will 
be  distributed.  T\f>c  tocalitv.  DeFuniak  Springs.  Walton 
County,  Florida.  Larvae  and  cases  apparently  identical  were 
also  collected  near  Wilmington,  North  Carolina.  Dates  of 
emergence  (1921)  ranged  from  May  24  to  June  22. 

The  larval  cases  and  larvae  of  a  second  and  larger  species 
have  been  turned  up  at  intervals  throughout  the  last  few  years, 
from  localities  ranging  from  North  Carolina  to  south  and 
west  Florida,  and  by  several  collectors  including  the  author, 
who.  however,  did  not  succeed  in  breeding  the  moth  until  the 
autumn  of  1921.  It  proves  to  be  a  close  ally  of  tracyi  Jones. 
An  interesting  difference  between  the  two  species  is  in  the  size 
of  the  legs  of  the  adult  males,  shown,  at  the  same  scale,  on 
Plate  YITI.  This  seems  to  be  correlated  with  a  difference  in 
the  female  cocoons,  to  which  the  males  must  cling  in  mating. 
That  of  tracvi  (see  Entomological  News  XXII.  May,  1()11. 
Plate  VI  )  is  wide  and  blunt  at  its  extremity,  while  that  of  the 
new  species  is  more  slender, — or  rather,  the  silken  tube  is 
almost  bare  of  thatching  material  at  its  lower  end.  Because 
of  this  "weak-legged"  condition,  for  this  insect  is  proposed 
the  name  of 

Psyche  (Eurycyttarus)  cacocnemos  n.  ^p.   (  I'latrx  \  II.   VIII). 

Larval  case. — Length,  25  to  30  mm.     Similar  in  type  to  that  of  tracyi. 

132  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May,  '22 

but  the  thatching  material, — flat  bits  of  grass  or  sedge,  sometimes 
slender  rush, — is  much  less  evenly  arranged  and  the  fragments  are  less 
uniform  in  size.  Especially  on  the  case  of  the  $  ,  a  few  much  longer 
pieces,  sometimes  pine  needles,  are  attached  to  its  upper  portion,  often 
projecting  beyond  the  lower  extremity  of  the  case.  The  lower  half 
of  the  case  bears  fewer  and-  shorter  pieces,  usually  showing  the  silken 
tube  in  part ;  and  the  general  effect  is  of  a  shaggier,  more  slender  and 
tapering  case  than  that  of  tracyi. 

Larva,  last  stage. — Length,  15-20  mm.;  width  of  head,  2.1  mm.  Pale 
dull  grayish  brown ;  the  head  and  the  strongly  chitinized  portions  of 
the  thoracic  segments  are  dark  brown  with  white  markings,  which  are 
continued  less  conspicuously  on  the  setal  plates  of  the  immediately  suc- 
ceeding abdominal  segments,  fading  out  caudally.  The  pale  markings 
of  the  thoracic  segments  consist  of  the  usual  narrow  longitudinal  lines 
and  the  margins  of  the  chitinized  plates.  Though  the  proportion  of 
light  and  dark  is  variable,  the  conspicuous  head-markings  usually  con- 
sist of  three  oblique  bars  on  each  epicranium,  in  a  symmetrical  distribu- 
tion of  light  and  dark  areas  on  the  front,  and  in  a  horseshoe-shaped 
band  whose  arms  reach  the  adfrontal  sclerites  between  the  adfrontal 
setae.  The  2nd  adfrontal,  the  frontal  puncture,  and  the  frontal  seta 
are  almost  in  line,  the  latter  falling  very  slightly  below  a  line  drawn 
joining  the  other  two. 

Puf>a  of  $. — Length  10-11  mm.  Structurally  similar  to  that  of 
tracyi,  but  dark  chestnut  brown  in  color  (tracyi  is  reddish  amber), 
more  rugose  and  less  polished  than  that  species.  The  mesothoracic 
wings  overlap  a  portion  of  the  third  abdominal  segment,  ventrally;  the 
mesothoracic  legs  and  the  broad  antennae  extend  to  the  wing-margin, 
and  the  prothoracic  legs  almost  reach  the  margin.  The  cephalic  por- 
tions of  the  abdominal  segments,  especially  dorsally,  are  striately 
rugose.  A  short  spiny  dorso-cephalic  ridge,  the  teeth  directed  caudad, 
is  present  on  segments  3,  4,  5,  6,  7  and  8,  low  and  indistinct  on  3,  4  and 
5,  thence  progressively  more  prominent,  on  8  expanding  into  a  leaf-like 
appendage.  Segments  3,  4,  5,  6  and  7  each  bears  a  dorso-caudal  row 
of  fine  short  spines,  their  points  directed  cephalad.  The  caudal  seg- 
ments are  curved  ventrad,  each  caudal  hook  terminates  in  a  single 
thorn,  and  the  abdominal  spiracles  are  raised  slightly  above  the  body 

Adult  $. — Expanse,  17mm.  Blacker  (less  brown)  than  tracyi.  The 
antennae  are  broadly  bipectinate,  with  30-34  joints  (in  the  several 
species  examined  the  number  of  joints  proved  variable,  and  the  apparent 
3rd  joint  bearing  more  than  two  pectinations  was  counted  as  a  single 
joint).  As  in  cclibata  and  tracyi,  the  shaft  and  its  pectinations  are 
scaled  on  one  side  with  semi-appressed  hair-like  scales.  Compared 
with  tracyi  of  approximately  the  same  robustness  and  wing  expanse, 
the  legs  are  shorter  and  more  slender,  the  primaries  are  apically  more 


Plate  Vlll. 



xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  133 

acute,  the  secondaries  are  proportionately  longer  and  narrower.  The 
caudal  segments  of  the  abdomen  are  widely  tufted  laterally.  The  end 
of  the  cell  of  primaries  is  obscurely  marked  with  a  vertical  black  bar. 
In  both  species  (cacocncmos  and  tracyi)  the  primaries  have  11  veins, 
the  secondaries  7,  the  anal  veins  of  primaries  as  in  cclibata;  the  illus- 
trated difference  in  the  radial  veins  of  primaries  is  not  specific,  but 
occurred  in  both  species  ;  in  the  limited  number  of  examples  available 
for  detailed  study  the  differences  shown  in  venation  of  secondaries  were 
apparently  specific. 

Adult  9. — Of  the  usual  grub-like  form.  Length,  living,  11  mm.;  the 
chitinized  dorsal  portions  of  the  thoracic  segments  are  pale  straw- 
yellow,  and  the  abdominal  band  of  downy  hair  is  very  pale  dull  fawTi- 

Described  and  illustrated  from  5  males  and  1  female,  bred 
from  larvae  collected  near  Jacksonville,  Florida.  The  author 
hi!.s  collected  similar  cases,  some  of  them  containing  living- 
larvae,  near  Wilmington,  N.  C. ;  at  Summerville,  S.  C. ;  at 
DeFuniak  Springs,  Walton  Co.,  Florida  ;  other  records  include 
Tampa,  Florida  (E.  L.  Bell),  and  Lakeland,  Florida  (J.  A. 
(Irossbeck).  The  larvae  of  this  insect  are  found  feeding,  in 
open  and  sunny  places,  upon  sedges,  grasses,  rushes,  some- 
times on  low  growing  herbaceous  plants,  occasionally  on 
shrubs  growing  among  these,  and  they  reach  their  full  growth 
in  spring  or  early  summer.  Of  80  larvae  brought  from  Florida 
!•>  Delaware  in  early  June  and  confined  with  growing  plants 
nut  of  doors,  where  they  fed  intermittently  throughout  the 
summer,  only  a  few  survived  to  pupate  in  September  and 
(  Vtober.  the  moths  emerging  the  same  season.  Tracyi,  as  far 
as  we  have  records,  emerges  in  the  spring. 

The  /v/v,v  and  parqtypes  are  in  the  Collection  of  the  author. 

Oiketicus  toumeyi  Jones  (Plates  VII,  VIII). 

In  Entomological  News  XXXIII,  1()22,  page  12,  a  new 
i'sycliid  from  Arixona  was  briefly  described  as  Oiketicus 
toitinevi.  In  mid-April,  1918,  the  larvae  of  this  insect  were 
found  in  abundance  nn  locust  trees  growing  along  the  cit\ 
Greets  of  Tucson.  Some  had  already  spun  their  cases  fast 
for  pupation,  others  were  about  to  do  so,  and  no  early  stage 
larvae  were  observed.  The  foliage  showed  little  signs  of  feed- 
ing, and  these  conditions  were  interpreted  to  indicate  that  this 

134  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May,  '22 

msect  hibernates  as  a  full-grown  larva.  Emergence  of  the 
moths  took  place  from  June  15  to  July  3.  It  is  now  possible 
to  publish  illustrations  of  this  insect,  and  some  additional 
descriptive  matter : 

Larval  case. — Length  usually  from  60  to  70  mm.,  but  occasionally 
exceeding  100  mm. ;  diameter  at  widest  part  about  10  mm.  For  pupation 
usually  suspended  from  a  twig  by  a  strong  encircling  band  of  silk, 
below  which  the  case  widens  abruptly,  thence  of  almost  uniform  diam- 
eter for  about  two-fifths  of  its  length,  then  tapers  to  the  lower  extrem- 
ity. It  is  composed  of  tough  grayish-white  silk,  of  which  usually  a 
considerable  portion  is  bare  of  attached  material;  this  mav  consist  of 
bits  of  slender  sticks  or  of  leaf -stems,  applied  longitud.nally,  or  of 
dry  leaf-fragments,  or  of  both  of  these  materials  in  indiscriminate 

Last  stage  lan'ae. — Length  40-60  mm. ;  width  of  head  3.9  mm.  Dull 
brown;  the  head  and  the  chitinized  areas  of  the  thoracic  segments,  less 
conspicuously  the  setal  plates  of  the  abdominal  segments,  almost  white. 
The  head  and  the  thoracic  shields  bear  foliated  markings  of  dark 
brown,  and  most  of  the  setae  of  the  head  and  thorax  arise  from  dark- 
brown  dots.  The  markings  of  the  head  are  asymmetrical,  though  not 
always  to  the  extent  illustrated.  A  line  drawn  from  the  2nd  adfrontals 
through  the  bases  of  the  frontal  setae  also  touches  the  upper  margin  of 
the  frontal  punctures. 

Pupa  of  $ . — Length  21  mm. ;  chestnut  brown,  the  head,  thorax  and 
wings  lighter  than  the  abdomen,  which  is  more  conspicuously  and 
striatel;-  rugose,  especially  its  dorsal  portions.  The  front  terminates 
in  a  sharp  median  ridge  with  flattened  lateral  expansions  along  the 
epicranial  suture.  The  mesothoracic  wings  only  slightly  overlap  the 
third  abdominal  segment  ventrally.  The  antennae  are  broad  and  short, 
their  apices  reaching  a  point  midway  from  the  frontal  crest  to  the  caudal 
margin  of  the  wings ;  the  prothoracic  and  mesothoracic  legs  reach  points 
respectively  two-thirds  and  three-quarters  the  distance  from  the  crest 
to  the  margin  of  the  wings.  The  caudal  segments  are  curved  ventrad, 
and  the  caudal  hooks  are  heavily  chitinized,  almost  black,  and  bear 
single  thorns.  A  dorso-cephalic  spined  ridge,  its  strong  teeth  directed 
c;  ndad,  occurs  on  each  of  abdominal  segments  3,  4,  5,  6,  7  and  8;  and  a 
durso-caudal  row  of  fine  bent  spines,  their  points  directed  cephalad,  on 
each  of  segments  2,  3,  4  and  5.  The  abdominal  spiracles  are  produced 
beyond  the  surface  of  the  body. 

Adult  9 . — Length  24-30  mm.  Of  the  usual  form,  more  nearly  resem- 
bling the  9  of  abboti,  rather  than  that  of  ephemerae  formis.  The  crest- 
likt-  medio-dorsal  ridge  of  the  thoracic  segments  is  high  and  sharp,  and 
caudally  the  body  is  truncated  rather  abruptly.  The  abdominal  ring  of 
downy  hairs  is  less  abundant  in  quantity,  paler  in  color,  and  less  evenly 
distributed  than  in  abboti. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  135 

The  wing-venation  of  18  males  of  toinncyl  was  studied  in 
detail  and  the  more  significant  variations  illustrated,  together 
with  the  fore  tibia  with  its  strap-like  appendage.  The  illus- 
trations of  this  and  other  species  (Plates  VII,  VIII)  are 
almost  self-explanatory,  though  it  might  be  noted  that  no  effort 
was  made  to  indicate  the  very  inconspicuous  pupal  setae. 

The  generic  references  of  these  four  insects  are  admittedly 
unsatisfactory  ;  but  not  only  the  literature  of  exotic  species, 
but  more  complete  knowledge  and  representative  series  of  the 
insects  themselves  are  requisite  for  a  better  understanding  of 
this  puzzling  and  interesting  group.  "One  is  compelled  to 
conclude"  (Tutt,  British  Lepidoptera,  II,  127,  1900)  "that 
the  higher  Psychids  are  almost  unknown,  so  far  as  their 
relationships  to  each  other  are  concerned." 

Descriptions  of  New  Genera  and  Species  of  the 
Dipterous  Family  Ephydridae. — V.* 

By  F.ZRA  T.  CRESSON,  JR.,  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences, 

Philadelphia,    Pa. 

Plagiops  Kinei  new  species. 

Black;  antennae,  apices  of  tibiae  and  all  tarsi,  yellow.  Halteres 
black.  Win^s  yellowish-hyaline,  with  extreme  base  blackened.  Sculp- 
turing of  frons  and  face  medianly,  strongly  granulose,  that  of  meso- 
nutum  and  scutellum  in  form  of  minute  pits.  Face  with  the  broad 
parafacialia  yellowish.  Abdomen  and  face  somewhat  metallic  green. 
Length  2.3  mm. 

T\pe. —  9:  Puerto  I'.arrios,  ( luatemala.  March  ,v!4,  1905 
(J.  S.  Mine).  [Ohio  State  University  Collection.  | 

Peltcpsilopa  schwarzi   new    species. 

Black;  antennae,  including  arista,  tibiae  and  tarsi,  yellow.  Halteres 
black.  Entirely  highly  polished,  metallic  blue,  green  or  purple  Wings 
yellowish;  extreme  base  blackened.  Length  2  mm. 

Type-  '  ?;  Cayamas.  Cuba,  May  16  ( K.  A.  Scluvarz). 
IU/S.  N.  M..  No.  25309.]  Paratype.—}  £  ?;  topotypical. 

Ceropsilopa   dispar   new    species. 

Black;  apices  of  tibiae  and  all  tarsi  yellow.  Halteres  white.  Wings 
hyaline  with  pale  veins.  Shining  species;  face  polished.  Frons  with  a 
narrow  transverse  depression  above  antennae.  Face  weakly  convex, 
not  prominent  medianly.  Length  1.75  mm. 

*For  paper  IV  see  Ent.  News,  xxviii,  340-341,   1917. 

136  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May,  '22 

Type. —  9  ;  San  Diego  County,  California,  March  12,  1907. 
[Washington  State  College  Collection.]     Paratype. — 1    9  ;  San 
Diego,  California,  June  30  (M.  C.  Van  Duzee). 
Ceropsilopa  coquilletti  new  species. 

Legs,  including  coxae  and  apices  of  tarsi,  yellow.  Shining  to  polished 
with  little  or  no  metallic  tints.  Face  narrow,  strongly,  transversely 
convex,  and  transversely  sculptured,  especially  on  lower  portion,  giving 
it  a  subopaque  appearance.  Length  2.75  mm. 

T\pe. —  9?;  Pacific  Grove,  California,  October  7,   1906   (J. 
C.  Bradley).      [Cornell  University  Collection.]      Paratvpes  — 
2  specimens ;  topotypical. 

LEPTOPSILOPA  new  genus. 

This  genus  is  proposed  for  the  reception  of  those  Psilopa- 
like  species  having  a  sculptured,  more  or  less  transversely  wrin- 
kled face;  facial  bristles  high,  about  middle  of  facial  profile, 
and  the  black  fore  tarsi  noticeably  thickened. 

Genotype. — Psilopa  sliuiUs  Coquillett,   1900. 

Leptopsilopa  lineanota   new   species. 

Very  similar  to  similis  Coq.  with  its  fore  coxae,  middle  and  hind 
femora  pale,  but  differs  from  that  species  by  the  infuscation  of  the 
wings  occupying  the  first  posterior  cell  except  its  base.  The  'wings  are 
narrow,  pointed.  Length  2.25  mm. 

Type. —  $  ;  Paraiso,  Canal  Zone,  Panama,  February  7,  1911 
(A/Busck).     [U.  S.  N.  M.  Coll.,  No.  25310.]     Paratypes- 
1   $  ,2   9  ;  topotypical.     1   9  ;  Corazal.  Canal  Zone,  Panama. 

Leptopsilopa  subapicalis  new  species. 

Very  similar  to  sitnilis,  but  the  distal  infuscation  of  the  wings  is  con- 
fined to  a  narrow,  subapical  fascia  at  the  tip  of  the  second  vein ;  fore 
coxae,  middle  and  hind  femora  pale.  Length  2.5  mm. 

Type. —  9  ;  Port  of  Spain,  Trinidad  (Ujhelyi).  [  Hungarian 
National  Museum  Collection.]  Para  type. — 1  ?  ;  topotypical. 

Leptopsilopa  nigricoxa  new  species. 

Simulating  subapicalis,  but  the  fore  coxae  are  black  and  the  fore 
femora  pale;  wings  distinctly  maculate.  Length  2.5  mm. 

Type. —  $  ;  Asuncion,  Paraguay,  1905  (Vezenyi).  (Hun- 
garian National  Museum  Collection.]  Para  types. — 1  £  ,  1  9  : 

Psilopa  skinneri  new  species. 

Similar  to  fulvipennis  Hine,  but  the  head  is  not  so  broad,  and  the 
mesonotum  and  scutellum  more  convex  and  scarcely  sculptured.  Head. 
thorax  and  abdomen,  coxae,  femora  and  halteres  black.  Face  flattened. 

XXxiii,    '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  137 

rot  highly  polished,  with  a  sparsely  polliniferons  median  stripe.     Wings 
yellowish  with  dark  base.     Length  2.5  mm. 

T\pc. —  9  ?;  Guantanamo.  Cuba.  February  10,  1914  (Henry 
Skinner).  [A.  X.  S.  P.,  No.  6346.]  Paratypcs—2  9  ? :  topo- 

Psilopa  olga  new  species. 

Very  similar  to  P.  Icncoxtoniii  Meigen  of  Europe,  which  also  occurs 
in  our  fauna.  In  the  present  species  the  antennae  and  legs  except  the 
tarsi  are  black.  The  wings  have  a  distinct  fuscous  spot  at  the  tip  of  the. 
third  vein  and  a  faint  one  at  the  tip  of  the  fourth. 

Type.—  S  ;  Olga,  Washington.  Jul>"  26,  1909  (A.  L.  M dan- 
der). [Washington  State  College  Collection.]  I'.initypcs  — 

2  $,2  9  ;  topotypical. 
Psilopa   dimidiata  new   specie?. 

Very  similar  to  Psilof>a  olf/a,  but  less  polished ;  face  more  shining 
with  scarcely  noticeable  white  pollen,  and  in  profile  more  convex ; 
cheeks  narrower;  wings  at  most  with  traces  of  spots  at  tips  of  veins. 
Length  2  mm. 

Type  — 3  ;  Chalcolet,  Idaho,  August,  1915  (A.  L.  Alelan- 
der).  [Washington  State  College  Collection.]  Parutypcs.— 

3  $,6   9  ;  topotypical. 
Trimerina  adfinis  new  species. 

Black:  antennae  except  third  joint  above  and  apices  of  tarsi,  yellow. 
Middle  and  hind  femora  and  bind  tibiae  somewhat  bnmnish.  Palpi 
brownish.  Halteres  white.  Wings  brownish;  cross  veins  clouded,  and 
brown  spot  at  tip  of  submarginal  cell.  Shining,  at  most  thinly  grayish 
or  brownish  pruinose.  Face  subopaque,  grayish  white.  Moonotum 
and  scutellum  faintly  and  minutely  punctured.  Latter  noticeably 
bronzed.  Head  in  profile  flattened,  with  frons  and  face  nearly  vertical. 
Face  long;  median  area  transversely  convex,  with  two  bristles  each 
side.  Mesonotum  without  prescutellars,  but  with  setulac  distinctly  seri- 
ated. Abdomen  with  lateral  margins  revolute.  Length  2  mm. 

'r\<pc. —  9  :  Kaslo,  Hritisli  Columbia,  February  ~J.  (  R.  \\  Cur- 
rie)~  [U.  S.  N.  M.,  No.  21843.1  Paratype.--\  5  ;  topotypical. 

Discocerina  aliena  new  species. 

Black,  \vith  bases  of  tarsi  pale.  Halteres  white.  \\  ings  hyaline, 
with  dark  veins.  Shining  to  polished:  frons  more  obscured,  brownish, 
becoming  whitish  anteriorly.  Face  opaque,  silvery  or  while,  flattened 
below,  or  with  slight  median  swelling:  t'ovcae  shallow:  one  bristle 
present  at  slightly  below  middle  of  profile;  parafacials  linear.  Length 
3  mm. 

'fypc.—  -  '  ;  P.erkeley.  Alamcdn  County,  California.  l;cbru- 
ary"23,  1908  (Cresson).  [A.  X.  S.  I1..  No.  6347.]  Pani- 
tvpcs. — 2  S,  1  9  ;  topotypical. 

138  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May,  '22 

Enallagmas  Collected  in  Florida  and  South  Carolina 
by  Jesse  H.  Williamson  with  Descriptions  of 
Two  New  Species  (Odonata,  Agrionidae). 

By  E.  B.  WILLIAMSON,  Bluffton,  Indiana. 

(Continued  from  page  nS) 

The  male  of  concisitin  runs  out  in  Calvert's  key  to  pictnm, 
which  species  it  resembles  very  closely,  the  only  reliable  char- 
acter for  their  separation  I  have  detected  being  in  the  distinctly 
longer  and  differently  shaped  abdominal  appendages  of 
co.ncisuin.  A  small  color  difference  seems  to  be  constant:  in 
pic tn in  the  second  lateral  thoracic  black  stripe  is  abruptly  nar- 
rowed at  three-fourths  or  two-thirds  its  length  to  narrow  line 
for  the  anterior  fourth  or  third  of  its  length;  in  concisitin  the 
stripe  widens  almost  uniformly  from  its  most  anterior  end 
to  the  posterior  end. 

In  Calvert's  key  to  the  known  females  of  the  group, 
concisiiin  has  the  wide  black  humeral  stripe  of  his  first  divi- 
sion, but  due  to  the  shortening  of  the  mesostigmal  lamina 
(hence  the  specific  name),  the  meeting  of  the  black  stripe  and 
the  lower  end  of  the  mesostigmal  lamina  is  by  a  point  only. 
Concisiiin  would  then  run  out  to  plctum,  from  which  species 
it  is  separated  in  the  following  key  which  is  supplementary  to 
Calvert's  key. 

in  concisum  (and  pictnm)  the  pale  colored  legs  of  the 
female,  with  the  femora  conspicuously  dark  on  the  dorsum, 
are  in  marked  contrast  with  the  orange,  and  entirely  unmarked, 
legs  of  the  male.  Also  it  is  a  curious  fact  that  in  concisnin, 
where  the  male  abdominal  appendages  are  conspicuously 
longer  than  in  its  near  ally,  picinin.  the  female  mesostigmal 
laminae,  which  these  appendages  grasp,  in  concisiiin  are  much 
shorter  than  in  pictum,  but  in  the  single  female  of  concisum 
I  have  seen  there  is  on  either  mesinfraepisternum,  near  its 
upper  edge,  and  below  the  lower  edge  of  the  mesostigmal 
lamina,  a  distinct  small  round  contact  point  which,  in  all  likeli- 
hood, is  engaged,  during  mating,  by  the  supero-internal  sub- 
apical  hook  of  the  superior  appendage. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  139 

Key  to  knoicn  female  EntiUuiimas  of  the  pollutum  f/roup. 

1.  Black  humeral  stripe  imt  touching  the  lower  end  of  the  meso- 
stigmal  lamina,  pale  antehumeral  stripe  wider  than  the  black 
humeral,  second  lateral  thoracic  suture  with  a  black  stripe  on  its 
uppermost  fourth  or  fifth  only vesperum 

Y.  Black  humeral  stripe  touching  the  lower  end  of  the  mesostigmal 
lamina  2 

2(1').     Dorsum  of   segment   10  pale  colored 3 

2'.  Dorsum  of  segment  10  black;  prothoracic  dorsal  pits  small,  each 
with  a  small  pale  area  anterior  and  adjacent  to  it 5 

3  (2).     Prothoracic    pits    large,    situated   near   the    anterior    border   of 

the  middle  lobe,  a  pale  area  posterior  and  external  to  each. 
Mesostigmal  lamina  black,  a  pale  stripe  from  and  including  the 
dorsal  tubercle  downward  and  forward  across  the  lamina ;  the 
lower  end^  of  the  lamina  deeply  indenting  the  mesinfraepisternum, 


3'.  Prothoracic  pits  smaller,  situated  at  or  near  the  mid-length  of  the 
middle  lobe,  pale  color  adjacent  to  each  more  extensive  anterior  to 
it  or  to  its  level,  rather  than  posterior  to  it .  .4 

4  (3').     Mesostigmal    lamina   barely   touching   the   mesinfraepisternum. 

Anterior  end  of  the  antehumeral  pale  stripe  bordered  with  a 
broad  stripe  of  black  on  the  mesostigmal  lamina,  which  black 
widely  separates  the  antehumeral  stripe  from  the  pale  vertical 

stripe    on   the    lamina sulcatum 

4'.  Mesostigmal  lamina  slightly  but  distinctly  indenting  the  mesin- 
fraepisternum. Antero-mesal  end  of  the  antehumeral  pale  stripe 
very  narrowly  separated  by  black  from  the  extensive  pale  area  of 
the  mesostigmal  lamina pollutum 

5  (2').     Prothoracic    dorsal    pits    situated    anterior    to    the    middle    of 

the  middle  lobe.  Dorsal  tubercle  of  the  mesostigmal  lamina  pale 
colored,  from  which  a  narrow  pale  stripe  runs  downward  and 
forward  across  the  lamina ;  posterior  to  this  pale  stripe  the 
lamina  is  broadly  black,  grooved,  and  with  its  lower  end  very 
slightly  indenting  the  mesinfraepisternum;  the  extensive  black  on 
the  lamina  widely  separates  the  lower  end  of  the  pale  antehumeral 
stripe  from  the  pale  stripe  on  the  lamina,  or,  to  express  it  in 
possibly  a  better  way,  the  dorsal  and  humeral  black  stripes  are 
broadly  joined  by  a  black  bar  across  the  mesostigmal  lamina, 

pic  tu  in 

".'.  Prothoracic  dorsal  pits  situated  at  about  mid-length  of  the  middle 
lobe.  Dorsal  tubercle  of  the  mesostigmal  lamina  pale  colored, 
from  which  a  pale  line  extends  downward  to  or  nearly  to  the 
lower  end  of  the  lamina,  the  lower  half  of  this  pale  line  expanded 
to  cover  the  lamina  to  its  anterior  border;  apparently  the  meso- 
stigmal lamina,  the  ventral  mesostigmal  plate  and  the  mcscpis- 

140  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May,  '22 

ternum  converge  to  a  point  on  the  edge  of  the  mesinfraepisternum 
(see  paragraph,  middle  of  page  374,  Calvert,  loc.  cit.)  ;  dorsal  and 
humeral  black  stripes  narrowly  joined  by  a  black  stripe  on  the: 
mesepisternum-mesostigmal  lamina  suture  concisum 

Enallagma  signatum  Hagen.  Fort  Myers,  Florida,  March  4  and 
11,  1921,  3  $  ;  Enterprise,  Florida,  April  16  and  20,  1921,  25,1  9  , 
all  by  J.  H.  Williamson.  At  Fort  Myers  the  specimens  were  col- 
lected on  a  small  creek  just  west  of  a  cemetery  about  half  a  mile  east 
of  town.  At  Enterprise  the  specimen  taken  April  20  was  captured 
at  a  small  swamp  on  the  south  side  of  the  railroad  one  mile  east  of 
the  station. 

In  these  Florida  specimens  the  male  superior  appendages 
are  in  every  case  slenderer  than  in  all  other  specimens  I  have 


Enallagma  pollutum  Hagen.  Miami,  Dade  County,  Florida,  Ever- 
glades, January  23,  1899,  S.  N.  Rhoads.  3  $  ;  Fort  Myers,  Labelle, 
Moore  Haven,  Palmdale  and  Enterprise,  Florida,  for  dates  see  first 
paragraph  of  this  paper,  J.  H.  Williamson,  313  $,  104  9,  a  few 
tenerals  and  many  pairs  taken  in  copulation,  most  of  the  specimens 
taken  at  Fort  Myers,  Moore  Haven  and  Palmdale,  while  at  Labelle 
and  Enterprise  the  total  catch  for  both  stations  was  9  $  and  4  $  . 

At  Fort  Myers,  Mr.  Williamson  noted:  "Taken  along 
shady  stretches  of  a  small,  mucky-bottomed  creek  where  it 
flows  through  orange  groves.  Easily  caught  as  they  rested  on 
green  vegetation  at  the  water's  edge."  At  Moore  Haven  he 
noted :  ''Taken  in  large  numbers  along  sun-exposed  drainage 
ditches;  vegetation  in  water  and  on  ditch  banks  scanty."  And 
at  Palmdale :  "Frequented  floating,  grass-like  vegetation  in 
shallow,  running  water  at  shaded  parts  of  Fisheating  Creek." 
Generally  the  Enallagmas  of  the  pollntnui  group  are  lake  or 
pond  species;  pollutum  however  seems  to  prefer  streams. 

A  pair  taken  March  30,  1921,  at  Moore  Haven  is  preserved 
with  the  male  appendages  in  position  grasping  the  female.  In 
these  specimens,  the  apices  of  the  male  inferior  appendages 
are  just  above  the  dorsal  prothoracic  pits  of  the  female,  and 
confirm  Dr.  Calvert's  suggestion  that  the  appendages,  in  copu- 
lation, engage  the  pits.  The  externo-superior  branch  of  the 
superior  appendage  grasps  the  mesostigmal  lamina  of  the 
female,  the  anterior  raised  border  of  the  latter  fitting  in  the 
concavity  between  the  externo-superior  branch  and  the  intenio- 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  141 

inferior  lamella  of  the  superior  appendage,  the  latter  lamella  of 
which  overlaps  and  engages  the  anterior  border  of  the  mr-» 
stigmal  lamina. 

In  tenerals  of  both  sexes  the  yellow  or  orange  color  of  adults  is 
replaced  by  pale  blue,  yellowish  appearing  first  on  the  face  and  frons. 
Abdominal  segment  9  of  the  female  has  the  dorsal  black  of  nearly 
uniform  width  in  nearly  every  case,  rarely  the  apical  third  or  fourth 
is  abruptly  narrowed  and  more  rarely  the  dorsal  black  is  triangular 
in  shape,  but,  as  indicated  by  Hagen's  original  description  and  contrary 
to  Cal vert's  description  (p.  378,  loc.  cit. ),  the  black  may  not  reach  the 
apex  of  the  segment  by  a  distance  of  sometimes  as  much  as  nearly 
one-third  the  length  of  the  segment,  though  usually  the  color  is  as 
described  by  Calvert.  The  pale  postocular  spots  in  both  sexes  are  also 
not  constant  and  I  have  seen  males  in  which  the  spots  might  properly 
1>e  described  as  more  nearly  linear  than  cuneiform. 

In  Hagen's  original  description  of  the  male  pollutant,  ab- 
dominal segment  9  and  the  sides  of  10  are  blue.  This  is  tnu- 
only  of  very  teneral  specimens.  Dr.  Calvert  arrived  at  his 
determination  of  pollutant  by  sending  drawings  and  notes  to 
Mr.  Banks  for  comparison  with  the  Hagen  types.  To  further 
confirm  the  matter  I  sent  specimens  to  Mr.  Banks,  who  care- 
fully compared  the  Fort  Myers  specimens,  collected  by  Mr. 
Williamson,  with  the  seven  specimens  in  the  Hagen  collection. 
Mr.  Banks  not  only  compared  the  abdominal  appendages  hut 
carefully  checked  the  color  patterns  of  head,  thorax,  legs  and 
abdomen,  and  he  writes  that  the  two  sets  of  specimens  are 
identical,  and  that  the  "blue"  of  segment  '•  is  certainly  an 

In  a  letter  of  November  6,  1921,  Dr.  Calvert  writes:  "Laurent 
recently  sent  me  some  E.  polhttiiin  be  took  at  Gunntown,  Florida,  last 
March,  one  male  of  which  had  a  pair  of  orange  stripes,  transverse  to 
the  main  axis  of  the  body,  on  the  disk  of  the  nasus  and  orange  twin 
spots  on  the  dorsum  of  the  mid  prothoracic  lobe  as  in  the  female; 
pale  antehumeral  and  black  humeral  stripes  each  .37  wide  at  mid- 
height.  Abdomen  £  28,  9  (in  copulation  therewith)  27;  hind  wing 

<?    17.5.    9    19." 
Enallagma  vesperum  Calvert.      I'ahmlale,   Florida,   April  1,  r.i:M,    1 

9  ;    Kathwood,   Aiken   County,    South   Carolina,    May   4   and    May   .">, 
lOL'l,   2    $,  1     9  ,  all  by  J.    II.   Williamson. 

The  South  ('arolina  specimens  were  sent  to  Dr.  Calvert  who 
pronounced  them  rrx/vru;;;.  The  1'almdale  female  is  certainly 

142  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May.  '22 

identical  with  the  Kathwood  female.  Of  one  of  the  Kath- 
wood  males  Dr.  Calvert  writes :  "This  male  is  a  gynandro- 
morph  in  so  far  as  the  mid  prothoracic  Inhe  is  concerned, 
having  asymmetrical  pits." 

Enallagma  geminatum  Kellicott.  Kathwood,  Aikcn  County,  South 
Carolina,  May  5,  1921,  22  cj,  11  9  ,  J.  H.  Williamson. 

The  dorsal  prothoracic  pits  of  the  female  first  figured  by 
Carman,  but  not  mentioned  in  his  text  (Bulletin  111.  State 
Lab.  Nat.  Hist.  Vol.  XII.  1017),  and  first  discussed  by  Calvert 
( Gundlach's  Work  on  the  Odonata  of  Cuba,  191°-),  are  pres- 
ent, in  addition  to  the.  species  of  the  pollution  group,  in 
geminatum,  hagoii,  rccurrotnin  and  possibly  in  others,  cer- 
tainly, in  a  modified  form,  in  others. 

Enallagma  divagans  Selys.  Kathwood,  Aikcn  County,  South  Caro- 
lina, April  29-May  9,  1921,  J.  H.  Williamson,  35  <$  ,  7  9. 

Enallagma  exsulans  Hagen.  Enterprise,  Florida,  April  15,  1921, 
2  ^  ;  Kathwood,  Aikcn  County,  South  Carolina,  April  29  and  May 
4-7,  1921,  41  5,  19  $  ;  all  by  J.  H.  Williamson. 

Enallagma  doubledayi  Selys.  Enterprise,  Florida,  April  18,  19,  20. 
21,  22  and  25,  1921,  178  5 ,  20  9:  Kathwood,  Aiken  County,  South 
Carolina,  April  29,  1921,  1  $  ;  all  by  J.  H.  Williamson. 

At  a  five  acre  swamp,  about  three-eighths  of  a  mile  from 
Gleason's  Pond,  near  Enterprise,  Mr.  Williamson  noted :% 
"Very  abundant  in  a  swampy  tract,  water  and  muck  half -knee 
deep,  grown  up  with  scattered  bushes,  waist  to  shoulder  high. 
This  species  and  Erythrodiplax  minusciilum  were  so  numerous 
they  were  a  nuisance.  Lestcs  I'idita  was  hard  to  see."  Else- 
where in  his  notes  he  remarks  that  E.  doubledayi  was  much 
rarer  at  the  four  ponds  about  four  miles  east  of  Enterprise, 
and  from  a  quarter  to  a  half  a  mile  north  of  the  railroad,  than 
at  the  ponds  and  swamps  north  of  town. 

Enallagma  durum  Hagen.  Labelle,  Florida  March  25  and  2fi.  and 
Enterprise,  Florida,  April  16  and  20,  1921,  8  $ ,  1  9  ,  J.  H.  William- 

At  Labelle  Mr.  Williamson  noted:  "Rested  on  reed  tips  in 
the  river  or  flew  swiftly  over  the  river  close  to  the  water's 
surface."  And  at  Enterprise:  "Flies  over  Lake  Monroe,  close 
to  the  surface,  and  occasionally  alighting  on  reeds."  Crossing 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  143 

Lake  Okeechobee  on  motor  launch  on  April  9:  "Teneral>  of 
II.  durum,  II.  pnllutnw  and  Iscluiiii'a  nunburii  were  found  rest- 
ing on  railings  and  woodwork  on  the  boat." 

Enallagma  cardenium  Hagen.  Miami,  Dade  Co.,  Florida,  January 
24,  1899,  S.  N.  Rhoads,  5  $  ;  St.  Petersburg,  Florida.  April  Hi,  1908. 
Mrs.  C.  C.  Deam,  1  $  ;  Fort  Myers,  I.ahclle.  Palmdale  and  Enter- 
prise, Florida,  for  dates  see  first  paragraph  of  this  paper,  J.  II.  \Yil- 
liamson.  111  $,8  9  ;  75  $  and  6  9  of  the  above  catch  were  taken 
at  Ft.  Myers. 

The  form  of  the  male  superior  appendage  is  practically  iden- 
tical in  all  the  Florida  specimens  I  have  seen.  In  supero- 
internal  view  the  inferior  lamella  is  about  like  Calvert's  figure 
AOa.  while  the  superior  branch  is  slender,  like  his  figure  44a. 
but  apically  hooked  as  in,  figure  38a.  Males  vary  in  size  from 
abdomen  26  to  30,  and  in  some  the  wings  are  slightly  brown 

This  species  is  dull  and  quite  un-Enallagma-like  in  color.  More- 
over there  is  an  almost  universal  loss  or  obscuring  of  color  due  to 
postmortem  changes  in  preserved  material.  Mr.  Williamson  made  the 
following  notes  on  living  colors:  "Eyes  largely  black,  paler  beneath: 
postocular  spots  dull  violet  gray.  Thorax  dull  violet,  marked  with 
dark  stripes,  the  middorsal  stripe  metallic  black.  Abdominal  pale 
markings  same  shade  of  dull  violet  as  the  pale  color  of  thorax." 

At  Palmdale  Mr.  Williamson  noted:  "Frequented  floating 
water  hyacinths  in  running  water,  sandy-bottomed  stretches 
of  Fisheating  Creek." 

A  male  taken  at  Ft.  Myers  on  March  4.  1921.  has  an  ant'- 
head  firmly  attached  by  the  mandibles  to  the  left  middle  tarsus 
at  about  one-third  its  length.  This  specimen  was  sent  to  Dr. 
I1".  M.  Gaige.  who  reports  that  the  head  is  a  male  Pseudomyrwia 
species.  Dr.  Gaige  informs  me  that  the  males  are  all  winged 
and  that  most  of  the  species  are  arboreal.  It  is  possible  the 
dragonfly  may  have  seized  the  ant  in  the  air  or  the  attack^  may 
have  been  made  when  the  ant  was  running  about  over  vege- 
tation. Dr.  Gaige  has  also  identified  the  head  and  thorax  of 
another  ant  attached  to  the  legs  of  a  Hctacrina  Incsa  from 
British  Guiana.  In  this  case  the  ant  is  a  Phcidolc  species,  and 
the  head  and  thorax  belong  to  a  minor  worker.  Dr.  Gaige 
writes  that  many  species  of  Phcldole  forage  on  vegetation  to 

144  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May,  '22 

the  height  of  several  feet  and  that  they  are  "pugnacious  little 
devils."  Such  an  ant  might  conceivably  seize  a  resting  drag- 
onfly by  its  legs,  but  I  have  little  doubt  that  the  dragonfly  was 
the  aggressor  and  that  it  plucked  the  ant  from  its  perch,  and 
the  ant  retaliated  by  seizing  a  leg  in  a  death  grip.  I  have 
elsewhere  recorded  tropical  dragonflies  with  heads  of  stingless 
bees  attached  to  their  legs. 

New  North  American  Coleoptera. 

By  A.  B.  CHAMPLATN  and  J.  N.  KNULL,  Bureau  of  Plant 
Industry,  Harrisburg,  Pa. 

The  following  paper  presents  a  number  of  apparently  unde- 
scribed  species  in  our  collection.  The  specimens  were  not  taken 
in  any  particular  region,  but  represent  material  collected  and 
received  from  various  sources,  as  indicated  in  each  description. 

\Ye  are  indebted  to  Prof.  H.  C.  Fall,  who  has  been  of  great 
assistance  to  us  in  examining  specimens,  and  for  his  opinions 
in  regard  to  the  material ;  also  to  Dr.  Henry  Skinner  and  E.  T. 
Cresson,  Jr..  for  the  use  of  the  Horn  collection. 

Chrysobothris  woodgatei  n.  sp. 

Robust,  depressed,  piceous,  elevated  spaces  shining,  ventral  surface 
with  coppery  bronze  lustre.  Head  densely  punctate  and  rugose,  with 
lon<s  white  pubescence.  Clypeus  broadly  emarginate  at  middle,  arcuate 
each  side.  Antennae  coppery  bronze,  third  joint  longer  than  following 
joints,  joints  four  to  eleven,  gradually  narrowed. 

Prothorax  twice  as  wide  as  long,  widest  in  front  of  middle,  obliquely 
narrowed  in  front,  arcuately  narrowed  toward  base,  surface  convex,  a 
deep  median  densely  punctate  sulcus  ;  a  broad,  smooth,  slightly  elevated 
space  on  each  side,  a  narrower  sinuous  elevated  space  nearer  to  the  side. 
the  surface  otherwise  coarsely  and  densely  punctured,  punctures  with 
long  white  hairs.  Scutellum  small,  triangular. 

Elytra  wider  than  prothorax,  widest  back  of  middle,  sides  parallel 
near  »base,  sinuate  in  middle,  rounded  on  posterior  third  to  broadly 
rounded  apices,  lateral  margin  serrulate  along  its  entire  length,  disk 
convex,  first  costa  expanded  into  a  smooth  area  on  basal  half,  apical 
half  a  raised  line,  second  and  third  costae  somewhat  interrupted  into 
broad,  smooth  sinuate  areas,  fourth  costa  a  raised  line  parallel  to  lateral 
margin,  intervals  very  densely  and  finely  punctate. 

Prestcrnum  lobed  in  front,  pubescent,  with  median  smooth  area.  Last 
ventral  segment  of  abdomen  serrulate  along  margin,  submarginal  ridge 
not  well  marked,  abdomen  densely  and  irregularly  punctate. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  145 

Length  14  mm. 

$  .  Last  ventral  segment  with  a  semi-circular  emargination,  anterior 
tibia  arcuate,  with  a  lamina  on  the  inside  near  tip,  forming  an  abrupt 
dilation,  middle  tibia  similar  to  the  first,  but  tooth  not  as  pronounced. 
posteror  tibia  straight. 

9.  Last  ventral  segment  with  a  narrow  emargination,  anterior  tibia 
arcuate,  dilate  at  tip,  but  without  a  tooth. 

Described  from  one  male  and  two  females  collected  at  Jemex. 
Springs.  Xew  Mexico,  in  July,  by  John  \Yoodgate.  in  whose 
honor  the  species  is  named.  T\pc  material  in  authors'  collec- 

According  to  Horn's*  table,  this  species  would  come  near 
(  .  quadrilineata  Lee. 

Mastogenius  castlei  n.   sp. 

Head  and  prothorax  bright  metallic  blue,  elytra  metallic  green,  cupre- 
ous along  costal  margin,  a  piceous  spot  in  middle  which  extends  pos- 
teriorly along  suture,  ventral  surface  including  legs  aeneous.  Head  con 
vex,  impressed  in  front,  coarsely  and  densely  punctate,  eyes  small. 
coarsely  granulate.  Antennae  aeneous,  serrate  from  the  fourth  joint. 
first  and  second  joints  globose,  third  joint  narrow,  elongate,  shorter  than 
the  fifth  and  about  half  as  long  as  fourth. 

Prothorax  wider  than  long,  widest  a  little  back  of  middle,  sides  arcu- 
ate. more  strongly  rounded  anteriorly,  surface  convex,  coarsely  punctate. 

Elytra  as  wide  at  hase  as  basal  line  of  prothorax.  widest  hack  of  mid- 
dle, side  margins  parallel  at  hase,  sinuate  in  middle,  apices  rounded,  sur- 
face coarsely  punctate. 

Abdomen  sparsely  punctate.  Posterior  margin  of  hind  coxal  plate 
broadly  cmarginate. 

Length  .}  mm. 

Described  from  one  specimen  collected  at  Miami.  Florida. 
May  4,  by  Dr.  D.  M.  Castle,  in  whose  honor  the  species  is 
named.  7'v/v  in  authors'  collection. 

According  to  Schaeffer'st  key.  this  species  should  follow 
Mastogenius  puncticollis  Schaef. 

Idoemea  bicolor  n.  sp. 

Slender,  elongate,  pubescent,  testaceous;  head  orange  in  color.     Head 
wider   than   prothorax,    vertex    impressed.     Eyes   large,   coarsely    granu- 
late,   narrowly    separated    on    vertex,    deeply   cmarginate,    upper    portion 
smaller  than   lower.     Antennae  eleven-jointed,  nearly   twice   as   lonu     i 
body,  covered   with   short   dense   puhr-,cence   which    becomes    sparse   and 

*G.    II.    II.  ,i-ii     Trans.  .  \rner.    Knt.   Soc.   XIII.   ISSf,.  p.  «5. 
tChas.  SchacltV,      Jour.    X.   V.   Knt.   Soc.   Y.  _'(».   1918.  p.  J14. 

146  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May,  '22 

longer  near  base,  scape  stout,  with  small  concave  cicatrix  near  outer 
apical  margin,  second  joint  very  small,  remaining  joints  about  e<|ual  in 
length  and  gradually  tapering. 

Prothorax  cylindrical,  dilate  at  middle,  longer  than  wide,  surface 
unevenly  punctate,  and  with  long  pubescence,  on  each  side,  a  dorsal 
smooth  area,  and  two  protuberances,  one  basal  and  one  lateral. 

Elytra  wider  than  prothorax,  three- fourths  the  length  of  the  abdomen, 
narrowed  posteriorly,  apices  rounded,  surface  coarsely  and  unevenly 
punctate,  covered  with  fine  pubescence. 

Abdomen  sparsely  punctate,  with  short  pubescence.  Legs  with  long 

Length  9  mm. 

Described  from  one  specimen  collected  at  Jemez  Springs, 
New  Mexico,  in  August,  by  John  Woodgate.  Type  in  authors' 

Elaphidion  albomaculatum  n.  sp. 

Form  of  Elaphidion  irroratum  L..  brunneous,  marked  with  dense  patches 
of  white  pubescence.  Head  with  front  irregularly  punctate,  vertex 
transversely  strigate,  eyes  prominent,  coarsely  granulate,  emarginate,  a 
patch  of  dense  white  pubescence  in  emargination,  another  patch  beside 
each  eye  on  vertex.  Antennae  about  one-half  longer  than  elytra  in  male, 
only  slightly  longer  than  elytra  in  female,  eleven-jointed,  third,  fourth, 
fifth,  sixth  and  seventh  joints  bearing  a  moderate  spine  on  inside,  outer 
joints  finely  pubescent,  punctate. 

Prothorax  longer  than  wide,  cylindrical,  widened  in  the  center,  con- 
stricted at  apex  and  base,  surface  irregularly  punctate  and  pubescent, 
with  an  irregular  smooth  callus  in  center,  and  another  on  each  side  in 
front  and  to  the  rear,  also  three  similar  areas  along  each  side;  a  round 
patch  of  dense  white  pubescence  on  each  side  back  of  anterior  margin, 
another  elongate  downwardly  deflected  patch  on  each]  side  at  base, 
and  a  small  patch  in  front  of  scutellum.  Scutellum  triangular,  covered 
with  dense  white  pubescence. 

Elytra  wider  than  prothorax,  sides  nearly  parallel,  apices  truncate. 
spinose  on  the  outer  side,  surface  irregularly  punctate,  punctures  becom- 
ing obsolete  near  apex,  covered  with  short  pubescence  intermixed  with 
longer  hairs,  marked  with  irregular  patches  of  dense  white  pubescent  e. 

Sides  of  meso,  and  metathorax,  and  segments  of  abdomen  with  patches 
of  dense  white  pubescence ;  abdomen  sparsely  punctate,  pubescent. 

Length  13  mm. 

Described  from  three  males  and  one  lemnle  collected  at 
Miami,  Florida,  on  April  2.  by  J.  X.  Knull.  Type  material  in 
authors'  collection. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS    .  147 

Elaphidion   (Anepsyra)   delongi  n.   sp. 

Form  and  color  of  Elaphidion  (Aneftomorpha}  suhpnl'cscnis  Lee. 
Head  densely  and  irregularly  punctate.  Kycs  prominent,  coarsely  gran- 
ulate, emarginatc.  Antenna  about  a  third  longer  than  elytra  in  the  malr, 
slightly  longer  than  elytra  in  the  female,  eleven-jointed,  piibescent,  pubes- 
cence longer  toward  hase.  third  joint  with  a  spine  ahont  half  the  length 
of  the  fourth  joint,  fourth  joint  witli  a  shorter  spine,  fifth  with  small 

I'rothorax  cylindrical,  longer  than  wide,  surface  densely  and  inegu- 
larly  punctate,  with  a  median  smooth  callus  on  basal  half,  long  flying 
hairs  numerous.  Scutellum  densely  pubescent. 

Klylra  wider  than  prothorax,  sides  nearly  parallel,  apices  hispinose, 
surface  densely  and  regularly  punctate,  each  puncture  hearing  a  long 
white  hair,  punctures  becoming  less  prominent  posteriorly. 

Abdomen  finely  punctate,  pubescent. 

Length  U  mm. 

Described  from  a  male  and  a  female  collected  at  Miami. 
Florida,  on  April  3  and  April  12  respectively,  by  D.  M.  I  VLon^. 
in  whose  honor  the  species  is  named.  Type  material  in  author-' 

Anthophilax  quadrimaculatus  n.  sp. 

Brumicous,  elytra  ochraceous.  with  two  piceous  spots  on  each  side. 
Ib-ad  coarsely  and  irregularly  punctate  on  vertex,  more  finely  punctate 
on  front.  Kyes  finely  granulate,  emarginate.  Mandibles  long,  dark  at 
apex.  Antennae  eleven-jointed,  extending  beyond  two-thirds  the  length 
of  the  elytra,  scape  stout,  second  joint  very  small,  third  joint  shorter 
than  first,  but  longer  than  fourth,  fifth  joint  longer  than  any  preceding 
•joint,  remaining  six  joints  approximately  equal  in  length  to  the  fifth. 

Prothorax  longer  than  wide,  acute  lateral  tubercle  at  middle,  a  dec]) 
transverse  depression  near  anterior  and  posterior  margins,  base  trisinu- 
ate,  surface  deeply  and  irregularly  punctate  with  median  callus,  and  also 
a  transverse  callus  near  basal  margin.  Scutellum  small,  triangular,  finch 
and  densely  punctate. 

Elytra  wider  than  prothorax,  sides  nearly  parallel,  rounded  in  apical 
fifth  to  obliquely  truncate  apices.  Surface  densely  irregularly  punctate 
on  basal  half,  becoming  extremely  line  toward  apex.  Color  ochraceous. 
a  lateral  piceous  spot  behind  humeral  angle,  and  another  in  middle  of 

Abdomen  densely  punctate  and  pubescent. 

Length   16  mm. 

Described  from  a  female  specimen  collected  at  Kock  I'.rid^e. 
Ohio,  in  June,  hy  Robert  J.  Sim  and  C.  J.  Drake.  Y'y/v  in 
authors'  collection. 

148  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May,  '22 

According  to  Nicolay's*  key,  this  species  would  fall  next  to 
A.  subz'ittatiis  Casey. 

Atimia  huachucae   n.   sp. 

Piceous,  legs  and  antennae  brunneous,  covered  with  coarse  luteous 
pubescence,  with  some  denuded  spots  on  head,  prothorax  and  elytra. 
Head  convex,  covered  with  luteous  pubescence,  with  the  exception  of  a 
median  denuded  stripe.  Eyes  finely  granulate,  emarginate.  Antennae 
finel}'  pubescent. 

Prothorax  wider  than  long,  quadrate,  disk  convex,  irregularly  densely 
punctate,  covered  with  luteous  pubescence,  which  becomes  sparse,  form- 
ing a  fine  central  dark  area  and  two  rather  broad  dorsal  and  lateral 
vittae.  Scutellum  quadrate,  covered  with  dense  luteous  pubescence. 

Elytra  with  sides  gradually  converging  to  obliquely  truncate  apices, 
surface  irregularly  punctate,  covered  with  dense  luteous  pubescence,  with 
numerous  irregular  smooth,  round,  denuded  areas. 

Ventral  surface  and  legs  with  short  luteous  pubescence. 

Length  9  mm. 

Type  and  paratypc  collected  at  Cooney,  New  Mexico,  and 
Huachuca,  Arizona,  respectively,  in  the  collection  of  H.  W. 
Wenzel.  One  paratype  collected  at  Paradise,  Arizona,  by  H. 
H.  Kimhall.  in  authors'  collection. 

This  species  resembles  .-Itiiiw  confnsa  Say,  but  can  be  dis- 
tinguished easily  from  this  species  by  the  round  denuded  areas 
on  the  elytra. 

Leptostylus  floridanus  n.  sp. 

Resembling  Lfptostylus  arucntntits  Duv.  in  form  and  color.  Head 
clothed  with  gray  pubescence.  Eyes  coarsely  granulate,  emarginate. 
Antennae  eleven-jointed,  slightly  longer  than  elytra,  mottled  between  an- 

Prothorax  wider  than  long,  with  a  well  developed  lateral  tubeicule, 
disk  convex,  with  a  median  raised  area  on  basal  half,  and  two  similar 
areas  on  each  side,  surface  covered  with  dense  silvery-white  pubescence, 
pubescence  darker  in  front  of  scutellum,  and  a  faint  line  on  each  side. 
Scutellum  densely  clothed  with  silvery-white  pubescence. 

Elytra  wider  than  prothorax,  sides  parallel  near  base,  widened  on  basal 
half,  rounded  anteriorly  to  obliquely  emarginate  apices,  each  elytron 
with  three  somewhat  interrupted  raised  lines  bearing  tubercules,  and 
also  a  row  along  suture,  surface  deeply  and  evenly  punctate,  clothed  with 
dense  silvery-white  pubescence  on  basal  two-thirds,  apical  third  and  a 
small  patch  back  of  scutellum  darker,  a  piceous  stripe  running  parallel 
to  costal  margin  from  humeral  angle  to  apex,  deflected  obliquely  on  basal 

*  A.  S.  Nicolay— Jour.  N.  Y.  Ent.  Sue.  V.  25,  1917,  p.  38. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEW?  149 

half  toward  suture,  on  apical  third  a  second  oblique  stripe  running  par 
allel  to  the  first,   and  extending  from  costal  margin  to  suture,  a  short 
oblique  stripe  in  center  diverging  from  suture  to  first  raised  line. 

Femora  strongly  clavate. 

Length  9  mm. 

Described  from  one  specimen  collected  on  Finns  caribaea  at 
Miami,  Florida,  on  April  3,  by  J.  N.  Knull.  7  v/H1  in  authors' 

Some  Coccidae  Found  on  Orchids  (Horn.). 

The  following  Diaspine  Coccidae,  found  on  greenhouse  orchids,  are  of 
interest  on  account  of   the  locality  and,  excepting  the   first,  new  host- 
plant  record^. 
Aonidia  pseudaspidiotus   (Lindinger). 

I'arlatoria  pseudaspidiotus  Lindinger,  Insekten  Borse,  XXII  (1905). 
p.  l.U. 

Female  scale  about  1.4  mm.  diameter,  circular  or  slightly  oval,  slightly 
convex;  first  skin  a  little  to  one  side  of  middle,  strongly  green,  varying 
to  cream-color;  second  skin  concealed,  enclosing  female,  dense  and  chest- 
nut red,  but  covered  with  pale  secretion,  so  that  in  the  scale  the  area 
around  the  first  skin  is  whitish;  outer  part  of  scale  purplish-black,  but 
the  thin  margin  whittish.  No  thick  ventral  film. 

bemale  circular,  without  lateral  incisions  or  projections;  three  pairs  of 
well-formed  lobes,  and  a  fourth  small  tooth-like  one;  median  lobes 
\\idely  separated,  trilobed  :  second  and  third  lobes  bilobed,  the  outer  lobe 
in. ill  ;  spines  ordinary,  small;  squames  strongly  fimbriate,  those  beyond 
the  (bird  lobe  mostly  very  large,  subtriangular ;  large  transverse  thicken- 
ing, below  tbi'  interlobular  intervals;  no  circumgemtal  glands;  anal  ori- 
fice elongate,  with  thickened  margins;  mouth  parts  very  large. 

i  >n  stems  oi  I'ini/Li  tercs  Lindley,  found  by  Mr.  S.  Knudsen  in  a 
•-ireenbouse  at  ISoulder,  Colorado.  The  orchid  belongs  to  the  Indian  re- 
i  ii,  ami  the  scale  is  undoubtedly  an  Oriental  species. 

This  species  appears  to  be  closely  related  to  .-lunidin  ov>n</,;,',i  Green 
(  I.  cl'cn'i  "Green,"  I.eonardi),  and  in  spite  of  its  great  resemblance  to 
such  species  as  I'tirliitoritt  pcrinindci.  I  think  it  is  properly  an  .l,»iidia. 
./.  pseudaspidiotus  was  found  on  an  orchid  at  quarantine  at  the  port  of 
San  Francisco,  se\eral  wars  ago.* 

Chrysomphalus    dictyospermi    (Morgan). 

i  in  (  i>,'li></\'iic  crisliitii  Lindley,  infesting  the  leaves.  Greenhouse  at 
!  'i  ulder,  (  <  Joi  ,ido. 

Diaspis  boisduvalii  Signoret. 

( )n  Lael-iocattleya  bybr.  t'iclnr'uic  (  "Oucen  Victoria,"  hurt.)  and 
Odontoglossum  rnx.fii  l.mdiey.  Greenhouse  at  lloulder,  Colorado. — T.  1 ). 
A.  COIKKKKI.I.,  1'oulder.  Colorado. 

,*B.  11.  Whitney,  Montbly  Hull.  Calif.  Comm.  Hort.,  July,  1('U,  p. 
S.v  Parlatoria  mangiferae  Marlatt,  apparently  the  same  species  as  that 
from  /',/;;,/,/.  was  I'mmd  on  man'.'o.  not  on  orchids.  Macgillivray  places 
nnuiiiif era,'  and  pseudaspidiotus  (as  distinct  species)  in  his  genus 



The   Conservation   of   Natural   Conditions. 

The  activities  of  many  entomologists  are  directed  toward  the 
destruction  of  insects  on  as  large  a  scale  as  their  ingenuity  and 
the  material  resources  at  their  command  will  permit.  \Yhen 
the  insects  so  destroyed  are  operating  against  human  life,  health, 
food,  clothing,  shelter  and  enjoyment,  we  applaud  the  efforts 
of  our  economic  colleagues.  In  earlier  days  in  this  country 
we  generally  approved  of  the  killing  of  various  reptiles,  birds, 
mammals  and  men  who  similarly  threatened  our  lives  and  our 
property.  Later,  a  portion  at  least  of  the  American  people 
recognized  that  some  of  these  animals,  including  the  human 
species,  were,  for  various  reasons,  worth  saving,  especially  in 
those  cases  where  their  destruction  touched  our  personal  and 
financial  interests.  Similar  reasons  have  very  lately  led  to 
movements  for  the  conservation  of  forests. 

It  is  well  worth  considering  whether  many  of  our  interesting 
insects  are  not  being  threatened  with  extermination  as  a  conse- 
quence of  the  destruction  of  the  environment  on  which  their 
existence  depends.  The  fate  of  some  of  the  I'ritish  butterflies 
is  an  indication  of  what  may  happen  here.  Various  movements 
for  the  conservation  of  natural  conditions  are  under  way, 
without  respect  to  financial  or  commercial  considerations  but 
with  regard  10  our  intellectual,  recreational,  esthetic,  moral  and 
spiritual  advancement.  To  all  such  efforts,  the  support  of  ento- 
mologists should  be  forthcoming  without  delay. 

Mulford    Biological    Exploration    of   the   Amazon    Basin. 
News    Bulletin   No.    7. 

The  safe  return  on  Feb.  26th  of  Dr.  H.  H.  Rushy,  Director  of  the 
Mulford  Biological  Exploration,  was  an  occasion  for  rejoicing  on  the 
part  of  his  many  friends  throughout  the  country. 

Cable  messages  have  just  brought  the  information  that  the  other 
scientists  of  the  Mulford  Exploration,  who  have  put  in  four  months  of 
hard  work  in  the  Bolivian  and  Brazilian  forests  since  the  time  Dr. 
Rusby  left  them,  are  at  last  on  their  wav  home.  They  are  expected  vo 
arrive  on  the  Booth  Line  SS.  Justin,  at  Brooklyn,  on  April  13th. 

This   party  consists  of   Dr.   W.   M.   Mann,   assistant   entomologist  of 


XXXlli,    '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL     NEWS  1.51 

the  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture,  who  has  been  acting  as  director 
of  the  expedition  since  Dr.  Rusby  was  compelled  to  leave  them  on 
account  of  ill  health;  Dr.  O.  E.  White,  assistant  botanist  at  the  Brook- 
lyn Botanical  Gardens  and  orchidologist  of  this  expedition  for  Dr. 
Oakes  Ames  of  the  Bussey  Institution  of  Harvard  University ;  Dr. 
Everett  Pearson,  ichthyologist  of  the  University  of  Indiana,  who  has 
been  collecting  fishes  on  this  expedition  for  the  forthcoming  work  on 
the  fishes  of  South  America  by  Prof.  Eigenmann  of  Indiana  University, 
reptiles  for  Dr.  Noble  of  the  American  Museum  of  Natural  History 
nnd  batrachians  for  Prof.  Ruthven  of  the  University  of  Michigan. 

Messrs.  MacCreagh,  Brown  and  McCarty,  the  motion-picture  photog- 
raphers, who  accompanied  the  exploration,  will  remain  until  the  latter 
part  of  May.  In  addition  to  photographic  work,  they  are  at  present 
investigating  a  special  problem  for  Dr.  Rusby  concerning  the  use  of 
certain  drug  plants  among  the  Indians  of  the  lower  Uaupes  River  and  its 
tributaries  near  the  Brazilian-Colombian  frontier. 

Dr.  Mann  reports  that  all  members  of  his  party  are  in  good  health 
and  that  they  are  bringing  back  with  them  about  two  and  a  half  tons  of 
scientific  material.  In  addition  to  the  preserved  specimens,  they  have 
a  small  menagerie  of  living  animals  for  the  National  Zoological  Garden 
at  Washington. 

These  collections,  supplementing  the  very  large  amount  already 
shipped  home  and  brought  home  by  Dr.  Rusby,  will  form  a  very  notable 
contribution  to  the  scientific  investigation  of  South  America,  notwith- 
standing that  the  entire  period  between  the  time  of  leaving  and  of 
returning  to  New  York  is  less  than  eleven  months. 

Arrangements  are  being  made  for  a  reception  to  the  scientists  of  this 
exploration,  including  a  number  of  their  friends  and  many  prominent 
leaders  in  the  various  departments  of  scientific  work  represented. 

R.  H.  HUTCHISON,  Secretary,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

[The  daily  newspapers  reported  the  arrival  of  Messrs.  White,  Pearson 
and  Mann  at  New  York  on  April  1.3. — EniTOK.J 

Entomological    Literature 

COMPILED  BY  E.  T.  CRESSON,  JR.,  AND  J.  A.  G.   REHN. 

I 'mil •!•  tin-  above  head  it  is  intended  to  note  papers  received  at  the 
Acadeiii\  af  Natural  Sciences,  of  Philadelphia,  pertaining  to  the  En- 
loinology  of  the  Americas  (North  and  South),  including  Arachnida  and 
Myriopoda.  Articles  irrelevant  to  American  entomology  will  not  be  noted; 
I'Ui  coni  rihutions  to  anatomy,  physiology  and  embryology  of  inserts. 
ho\v< -ver.  \vlic-ibc-r  relating  to  American  or  exotic  species,  will  be  recorded. 

The  numbers  in  Heavy-Faced  Type  refer  to  the  journals,  as  numbered 
in  the  following  list,  in  which  the  papers  are  published. 

All  continued  papers,  with  few  except  ions,  are  recorded  only  at  their 
tirst  installments. 

The  records  of  papers  containing  new  genera  or  species  occurring  north 
•  if  Mexico  are  cronped  at  the  end  of  their  respective  Orders. 

For  records  of  Economic  Literature,  see  the  Experiment  Station  Record, 
(  iffice  of  Experiment  Stations.  Washington.  Also  11' view  of  Applied  En- 
tomology, Series  A,  London.  For  records  of  papers  on  Medical  Ejito- 
mology.  see  lleview  of  Applied  Entomology.  Series  I! 

The  titles  occurring  in  the   Entomological   News  are  not  listed. 

4 — Canadian  Entomologist,  London,  Canada.  10 — Proceedings 
of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  D.  C.  12 — Journal  of 
Economic  Entomology,  Concord,  N.  H.  21 — The  Entomologist's 

152  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May,  '22 

Record,  London.  54 — Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of 
Washington,  D.  C.  69 — Comptes  Rendus,  des  Seances  de  1'Aca- 
demie  des  Sciences,  Paris.  77 — Comptes  Rendus  des  Seances  de  la 
Societe  de  Biologic,  Paris.  82 — The  Ohio  Journal  of  Science 
Columbus.  90 — The  American  Naturalist,  Lancaster,  Pa.  100 — 
Biological  Bulletin  of  the  Marine  Biological  Laboratory,  Woods 
Hole,  Mass.  128 — Zeitschrift  fur  Induktive  Abstammungs-  und 
Vererbungslehre,  Leipzig.  138 — American  Museum  Novitates,  New 
York.  134 — Annales  de  Biologic  Lacustre,  Brussels. 

GENERAL.  Dean,  G.  A. — How  we  may  increase  the  effective- 
ness of  economic  entomology.  12,  xv,  41-53.  Kelly,  E.  G. — Co- 
operation of  agricultural  colleges  with  high  schools  and  rural  schools 
in  economic  entomology.  12,  xv,  54-02.  Robertson,  C. — The  sun- 
flower and  its  insect  visitors.  (Ecology,  iii,  17-21.) 

ANATOMY,  PHYSIOLOGY,  ETC.  Belehradek,  J.— Experi- 
ences sur  la  ccllulase  et  1'amylase  de  la  salive  chez  Dixippus  moro- 
sus.  (Arch.  Intern.  Physiologic,  xvii,  260-65.)  van  Bemmelen,  J.  F. 
—On  the  primary  character  of  the  markings  in  Lcpidoptera.  (Proc. 
Sec.  Sci.,  Konink.  Akad.  Wetensch.  Amsterdam,  xxi,  58-67.)  Bowen, 
R.  H. — Studies  on  insect  spermatogenesis.  100,  xlii,  53-84.  Bridges, 
C.  B. — The  origin  of  variation  in  sexual  and  sex  limited  characters. 
90,  Ivi,  51-6!!.  Crampton,  G.  C. — A  comparison  of  the  first  maxillae 
of  apterygotan  insects  and  Crustacea  from  the  standpoint  of  phylo- 
geny.  10,  xxiv,  65-82.  Godoelst,  L. — Le  trimorphisme  larvaire  des 
Oestrides.  77,  Ixxxvi,  501-4.  Kennedy,  C.  H. — The  homologies  of 
the  tracheal  branches  in  the  respiratory  system  of  insects.  82,  xxii, 
84-90.  Mohr,  O.  L. — Cases  of  mimic  mutations  and  secondary 
mutations  in  the  X-chromosome  of  Drosophila  melanogaster.  123, 
xxviii,  1-22.  Muller,  H.  J. — Variation  due  to  change  in  the  indi- 
vidual gene.  90,  Ivi,  32-50. 

ARACHNIDA,  ETC.  Gandara,  G.— El  piojo  bianco  del  hombre. 
(Mem.  Soc.  "Alzate,"  Mexico,  xxxv,  275-301.) 

Petrunkevitch,  A. — Tertiary  spiders  and  Opilionids  of  No.  Amer- 
ica. (Trans.  Conn.  Ac.  Arts  &  Sci.,  xxv,  211-79.) 

NEUROPTERA.  Lestage,  J.  A.— Etudes  sur  la  biologic  des 
Plecopteres.  134,  x,  2:>1-60.  Longinus  Navas,  R.  P. — Insecta  nova 
(Mem.  Ponti.  Aecad.  Romana,  Nuovi  Lincei  (2),  v,  1919,  1-29.) 

HEMIPTERA.     Knight,  H.  H. —  Nearctic  records  for  species  of 
Miridae  known  heretofore   only   from  the  palaearctic   region.     4,  liii 
2HO-8S.      Poisson,    R. — Brachypterisme    et    apterisme    dans    le    genre 
Gerris.     69,  clxxv,  947-50. 

Dozier,  H.  L. — A  synopsis  of  the  genus  Stenocranus,  and  a  new 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  153 

species   of   Mysidia.     82,   xxii.   (i'.t-s:;.     Drake,   C.   J. — A   new   species 
of  Plea   (Notonectidae.)     82,  xxii,    114-1(1. 

LEPIDOPTERA.  Cockerell,  T.  D.  A.— A  fossil  moth  from 
Florissant,  Colorado.  138,  No.  ::4.  Farm  Collection — Sale  of  the 
Farm  collection.  21,  xxxiv,  4S-51.  Warren,  B.  C.  S. — The  genus 
Hesperia. — A  correction.  21,  xxxiv,  41-2. 

Busck,  A. — Alicrolepidoptera  from  Hritish  Columbia.  4,  liii,  :>T<)-s<i. 

DIPTERA.  Riquelme  Inda,  R.— Las  moscas  llamadas  "Tse-tse" 
en  el  Africa,  no  existen  en  la  America.  (Mem.  y  Rev.,  Soc.  Cient. 
"Antonio  Alzate,"  Mexico,  xl,  47-55.) 

Curran,  C.  H. — New  species  of  Canadian  Syrphidae.     4,  liii,  :>75-f>. 

COLEOPTERA.  Dozier,  H.  L.— An  annotated  list  of  Mississippi 
Chfysomelidae.  82,  xxii,  117-24.  Riquelme  Inda,  J. —  El  "Max"  del 
henequen.  (Scyphophorus  acupunctatus.)  (Mem.  Soc.  "Alzate," 
Mexico,  xxxv,  303-18.) 

Buchanan,  L.  L. — Notes  on  Apion.  with  descriptions  of  two  n. 
sps.  (Curculionidae.)  10,  xxiv,  82-4.  Chapin,  E.  A. — New  North 
American  Hydnocera  (Cleridae).  54,  xxxv.  55-8. 

HYMENOPTERA.      Cockerell,    T.    D.    A.— Bees    of    the 
Perdita  from  the  western  United   States.     138,  No.  I',:;. 

INSECT  TRANSFORMATION,  by  GEO.  H.  CARPENTER,  D.  Sc.,  Professor  of 
Zoology,    Royal    College    of    Science,    Dublin;    Sec.    Royal    Irish 
Academy.     Methuen  and  Co.,  Ltd.,  36  Essex  Street,  W.  C.,  Lon- 
don.    282  pp.,  4  plates  and    124   illustrations   in   text. 
Professor  Carpenter's  researches  on  various  groups  of  insects  are  so 
well  known  to  entomologists  in  general  that  a  new  book  from  his  pen 
is  sure  of  a  cordial  welcome  from  them.    This  work  is,  to  use  the  words 
of  his  preface,  "designed  to   serve  as   an  introduction  to   the  study  of 
growth  and  change  in  the  life  of  insects,"  and  he  hopes  that  it  "may  be 
of  some  service  to  serious  workers  in  entomology  as  well  as  to  begin 

The  plan  of  the  book  is  a  good  one.  The  reader  is  first  introduced 
to  a  few  familiar  examples  of  the  changes  that  accompany  growth  in 
the  lives  of  insects,  and  the  morphology  of  the  adult  insect  is  fully 
explained  before  any  attempt  is  made  to  classify  the  different  types  of 
change  met  with.  Then,  by  the  use  of  the  ('.rasshopper,  Dragonfly  and 
Moth  as  examples,  the  reader  is  led  to  the  generalized  conceptions  to 
which  entomologists  have  come  to  apply  the  comparative  terms  "anieta 
bolic,"  "hemiinctaholir"  and  "lioli  unetabolic."  following  Dr.  Sharp'* 
lead,  the  phenomena  of  metamorphosis  amongst  winged  insects  is  then 
divided  into  its  two  main  sections,  the  "open"  t\pe  oi  wing-growth 
(Exopterygota)  and  the  "hidden  t\pe  (Endopterygota),  and  examples 

154  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May,  '22 

are  given  illustrating  the  metamorphosis  of  eacli  of  the  Orders  of 
Insects  that  come  under  these  two  headings.  This  leads,  in  Chapter  V, 
to  the  consideration  of  wingless  insects  and  the  effect  of  parasitism  on 
the  form  of  an  insect,  and  this  secondary  winglessness  is  then  con- 
trasted with  the  primitive  unaltered  winglessness  of  the  true  Aptery- 
gota,  the  Spring-tails  and  Bristle-tails.  The  ground  thus  covered  enable* 
the  author  to  give  in  Chapter  VI  a  concise  classification  of  the  Insecta, 
in  which  twenty-three  Orders  are  recognized.  Chapter  VII  deals  with 
the  correlation  between  the  growing  insect  and  its  surroundings,  and 
we  are  here  introduced  to  the  secondarily  aquatic  larvae  of  certain 
Diptera  (sandfly,  mosquito,  etc.),  the  habits  of  burrowing  and  sucking 
the  juices  of  plants,  the  formation  of  galls,  the  parasitism  of  one  insect 
by  another,  and  finally  the  care  of  the  helpless  young  by  the  adult,  as 
in  the  case  of  ants.  The  last  chapter  deals  with  the  general -problems 
of  insect  transformation,  and  emphasizes  the  apparent  paradox  that, 
whereas,  in  other  groups  of  animals,  low-grade  forms  are  found  to 
undergo  more  profound  changes  than  high-grade  forms,  yet  in  the  case 
of  insects  the  reverse  is  true,  metamorphosis  becoming  more  and  more 
complete  as  we  pass  upwards  to  the  more  highly  evolved  forms.  The 
reason  for  this  is  very  clearly  explained,  and  we  can  recommend  th.b 
part  (Chapter  VIII)  as  the  best  in  the  book,  particularly  the  illuminat- 
ing discussion  as  to  the  probable  primitive  type  of  insect  larva,  the 
evolution  of  the  two  types  of  wing-growth,  and  the  short  but  excellent 
summary  of  the  palaeontological  evidence. 

Any  book  dealing  with  so  large  a  subject  can  scarcely  claim  to  be 
original,  but  the  author  certainly  has  as  much  claim  as  anyone  to  be  con- 
sidered an  authority  on  his  subject.  Thus  we  note,  as  we  should  expect, 
that  he  has  introduced  illustrations  and  examples  from  a  number  of 
recent  researches  by  modern  authors,  which  greatly  enhance  the  value 
of  the  book.  While  the  general  conception  and  detail  of  the  book  are 
alike  excellent  for  the  beginner,  the  more  advanced  student  will  note 
some  omissions  of  considerable  importance.  For  example,  in  dealing 
with  the  problem  of  wing-growth,  no  mention  is  made  of  the  turning 
o\er  of  the  wing-buds  in  Odonata  and  certain  Orthoptera,  in  which  the 
hindwing  sheath  conies  to  overlie  that  of  the  forewing.  In  dealing  with 
the  evolution  of  the  pupal  state  (Chapter  II)  the  author  passes  in 
review  the  various  larval  forms  found  in  the  Hymenoptera,  but  quite 
fails  to  mention  the  praepupal  or  subpupal  stage,  which  is  the  most 
significant  of  all  facts  in  connection  with  this  problem,  and  so  misses 
the  clue  to  the  explanation  of  the  reduction  of  the  number  of  instars, 
without  which  a  true  view  of  the  meaning  of  the  pupal  state  can 
scarcely  be  attained.  Again,  much  has  been  written  in  late  years  on 
the  internal  changes  accompanying  metamorphosis,  yet  this  fascinating 
and  intricate  subject  is  dismissed  in  ten  pages  at  the  end  of  Chapter  IV. 
There  are  many  students  of  insects  at  the  present  day  who  would  be 

xxxiii.  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  155 

extremely  grateful  for  a  clear  exposition  of  the  stages  by  which  the 
"imaginal  buds"  of  Weismann  as  seen  in  the  Dipterous  maggot,  have 
been  evolved,  and  for  an  authoritative  account  of  the  definite  change- 
undergone  by  the  various  internal  organs  and  tissues  of  the  insect  body 
during  the  actual  metamorphosis.  Though  we  realize  that  these  are 
difficult  subjects  and  that  more  researches  upon  the  older  Holometabola 
are  still  needed,  we  may  be  allowed  to  feel  disappointed  that  so  little 
help  in  elucidating  these  problems  is  offered  in  the  present  volume. 

The  text  and  figures  have  been  on  the  whole  very  carefully  prepared, 
though  there  are  a  few  errors  that  need  to  be  corrected.  On  p.  \<>, 
fig.  7,  the  letters  A,  C,  M  are  made  to  point  to  the  wrong  veins.  On 
p.  106  we  are  told  that  "the  ninth  segment  has  a  pair  of  stiff,  bristly 
cerci"  ;  the  accepted  definition  of  "cerci"  makes  this  statement  inaccu- 
rate. On  p.  178  we  read  that,  in  the  Order  Orthoptera,  "the  female's 
ovipositor  is  well  and  typically  developed" ;  but  this  is  certainly  not 
true  of  the  Cockroaches  and  Mantids,  included  in  the  Order.  On  pp. 
178-9  the  definitions  of  the  Orders  Plecoptera  and  Isoptcra  leave  much 
to  be  desired,  while  the  Embioptera  or  Web-spinners  are  entirely 
omitted !  A  stereotyped  error  due  to  Alvah  Peterson  and  others,  is 
perpetuated  on  p.  185,  where  it  is  stated  that  "labial  palps  are  absent" 
in  the  Diptera  ;  the  latest  researches  go  to  show  undoubtedly  that  the 
labellum  is  formed  from  these  palps.  On  p.  269  it  is  stated  that  the 
Coleoptera  of  the  Trias  include  representatives  of  the  Chrysomelidae 
and  Weevils.  This  is  incorrect ;  the  only  families  which  can  be  shown 
to  have  existed  with  any  certainty  at  that  time  are  the  Cupesidae  and 
Hydrophilidae,  though  there  is  a  strong  probability  that  other  elytra 
belonged  to  the  Carabidae,  Tenebrionidae  and  Cerambycidae,  together 
with  a  few  more  obscure  archaic  families. 

In  concluding  this  review  we  should  like  to  congratulate  the  author 
on  this  his  latest  work,  which  is  to  be  strongly  recommended  to  all 
students  who  are  interested  in  this  fascinating  subject. — R.  J.  TILI.YAKU. 

Doings  of  Societies. 

Entomological   Section,   The   Academy   of   Natural   Sciences    of 


Meeting    of    September    22,    1('21.      Thirteen    persons    present.      \  ire 
Director    R.   C.   Williams  presided. 

( iKXF.K.M.. —  Mr.  Rehn  gave  a  brief  narrative  of  the  summer  field  excur 
sion    taken    by    Mr.    Hebard    and    himself    in    the    western    States.      Mi 
Hornig  exhibited  specimens   showing  an    Knglish   method  of   interesting 
young  people  in  nature,  in  this  case  entomology,  and  said  that  he  thought 
Midi  methods  would  be  practical  here  in  America.     The  exhibit  consisted 
of   a  box  of   twelve  micro-slides   of   parts   of   insecst,   selling    for  about 
two  or  three  shillings,  also  a  book  entitled  "Butterflies   and   Moths   at 

156  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May,  '22 

Home,"  containing  over  fifty  half-tone  illustrations  showing  the  com- 
moner species.  This,  he  said,  sold  for  about  sixpence. 

COLEOPTERA. — Dr.  Skinner  exhibited  specimens  of  a  coleopterous  insect 
which  is  reported  to  be  seriously  injuring  the  rose  bushes  about  Phila- 
delphia. It  is  a  Chrysomelid,  Typophorus  guadrinotatus  Say.  and  it 
apparently  new  as  a  rose-foliage  pest. 

HYMENOPTERA. — Dr.  Skinner  also  exhibited  a  specimen  of  a  male 
of  Pelecinus  polyturator  Dru.,  captured  by  one  of  our  contributors,  Mr. 
A.  R.  Allen,  at  Northeast  Harbor,  Maine,  August  10,  1921.  He  spoke 
about  the  scarcity  of  the  males  of  this  insect  in  the  United  States  and 
said  that  Dr.  Hagen,  while  on  a  visit  to  Philadelphia,  asked  to  see  the 
male,  stating  that  he  came  to  Philadelphia  especially  to  see  one. 

ODONATA. — Dr.  Calvert  spoke  briefly  on  the  Co~ta  Rican  species  of 
Palaemnema.  stating  that  the  six  species  which  he  had  collected  in  that 
country  differed  from  each  other  in  the  shape  of  the  abdominal  append- 
ages of  the  males,  as  well  as  in  slight  color  characters,  but  that  in 
three  species  the  penis  was  alike,  while  in  the  remaining  three  the  penis 
differed  in  the  shape  of  the  tips  of  the  terminal  filaments  from  that  of 
the  first  three.  Thus  on  penis-shape  there  were  two  groups  within  the 
genus. — E.  T.  CRESSON,  JR.,  Recorder. 

Meeting  of  December  12,  1921.  Eight  persons  present,  including 
Mr.  Theodore  H.  Prison,  of  Riverton  Japanese  beetle  laboratory.  Vice- 
Director  R.  C.  Williams  presided. 

GENERAL. — The  following  report  of  the  editors  of  the  Entomological 
News  was  read : 

The  Entomological  News  has  just  completed  a  trying  year.  The 
cost  of  printing  reached  its  maximum  this  year,  compelling  us  to  meet 
an  increase  of  about  $300  for  the  yearly  edition.  In  order  to  balance 
this  additional  expense  an  increase  in  the  subscription  price  was  con- 
templated, but  wishing  to  be  reasonably  sure  that  there  would  not  be 
a  great  falling  off  of  subscriptions,  a  vote  was  taken  in  the  latter  part 
of  1920  of  the  subscribers  as  to  their  willingness  to  continue  with  an 
increase  of  50  cents.  This  resulted  in  sufficient  votes  to  warrant  the 
trial.  The  latest  mailing  list  shows  407  subscribers,  which  is  but  slightly 
(about  15)  below  that  of  1920.  Were  it  not  for  this  increase  in  price 
and  the  loyalty  of  the  majority  of  our  subscribers,  our  present  balance, 
although  small,  would  have  been  impossible.  Of  course  the  Society' has 
extended  its  helping  hand  by  purchasing  the  copies  used  in  the  exchanges 
for  the  Library,  but  it  has  done  this  for  several  years  past  and  it  is 
seemingly  proper  that  it  should  do  so. 

The  following  officers  and  committees  were  elected  to  serve  for  W22 
Director,   Philip   Laurent;    Vice-Director.    R.    C.   Williams,   Jr.;   Secre- 
tai-v,  ).   A.   G.    Rehn;   Recorder,   E.   T.    Cresson,   Jr.;    Treasurer,   E.    T. 
Cresson:    Conservator,    Henry    Skinner,    M.D. ;    Publication    Committee. 
E.  T.  Cresson,  P.  P.  Calvert,  Ph.D.,  and  E.  T.  Cresson,  Jr. 

HYMENOPTERA. — Mr.   Prison  made  a  very  interesting  communication 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  157 

on  the  life-history  of  the  Bumblebee,  illustrated  with  excellent  lantern 
slides,  showing  the  various  stages  in  the  nesting  life,  methods  of  rear- 
ing and  establishing  of  colonies.  The  nesting  habits  were  discussed 
in  detail,  how  and  where  colonies  are  established  by  the  queen  in  the 
spring  of  the  year.  The  successive  stages  beginning  with  the  honey- 
pot,  then  the  egg  cell,  then  the  emergence  of  the  adult,  were  shown. 
The  different  forms  of  cell-making  by  several  of  the  species  observed, 
and  the  most  serious  parasites  were  also  shown.  The  speaker  then 
explained  how  experimental  colonies  are  introduced  in  the  field  and 
laboratory,  and  the  apparatus  used.  It  was  evident  that  the  speaker 
was  well  acquainted  with  his  subject,  and  that  it  must  have  taken  a 
number  of  years  of  study  in  order  to  secure  the  information  and  technic 
which  he  possesses. — E.  T.  CRESSON,  JR.,  Recorder. 


Thanks  to  Dr.  T.  Tzabo-Patay  of  the  Hungarian  National 
Museum,  I  have  recently  received  the  January-February.  1916. 
number  of  Rorartani  Lapok  which  includes  an  obituary  notice 
of  our  lamented  SANDOR  MOCSARV.  For  the  sake  of  those 
interested,  to  whom  the  facts  are  not  accessible,  I  venture  to 
introduce  the  following  free  translation  of  the  German  sum- 
mary published  in  the  same  place. 

A.  Mocsary.  1841-1915. — The  highly  meritorious  Hymen- 
opterologist,  A.  Mocsary,  Abteilungsdirektor  i.  P.  of  the 
Hungarian  National  Museum  in  Budapest,  died  suddenly 
Dec.  26.  1915,  after  a  protracted  illness.  He  was  the  Nestor 
of  the  Hungarian  entomologists,  a  generally  esteemed  scholar, 
whose  death  will  be  deeply  mourned  by  his  colleagues. 
Apropos  of  his  40  year  service  jubilee,  Roi'artani  Lapok,  Vol. 
17,  1910,  pp.  161-175.  published  a  sketch  of  his  life  ami  this 
obituary  refers  back  to  that  sketch.  To  complete,  it  remains 
to  be.  noticed  that  Mocsary  was  born  in  Nagyvarad,  Sept.  27, 
1841,  where  he  also  pursued  his  studies.  In  1870  he  was 
appointed  as  assistant  in  the  National  Museum,  to  which  insti- 
tution he  belonged  for  44  years  as  an  energetic  official.  The 
first  of  lune.  1915,  he  entered  on  his  well-earned  retirement; 
still  he  could  not  long  enjoy  this  as  his  stomach  trouble  re- 
curred and  caused  him  to  take  to  his  sick  bed.  The  burial 
took  place  December  28.  On  this  occasion  Dr.  G.  Iforvath. 
representing  the  National  Museum  and  the  I  'nganselie 
Akademie  der  Wissenschaften,  and  J.  Jablonowski,  the  Ung. 

158  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May.  '22 

Entomologischen  Gesellschaft,  took  their  leave  of  the  deceased 
in  nobly  held  funeral  orations. 

So  much  for  the  translation.  I  may  add  that  Mocsary's 
bibliography  comprises  178  titles,  mostly  devoted  to  Hymen- 
optera,  especially  Chrysidoidea.  His  contributions  to  science 
cover  approximately  2594  pages. — H.  L.  VIERECK. 

Among  those  who  have  contributed  to  entomology,  whose 
deaths  have  not  hitherto  been  noted  in  the  NEWS,  is  Dr.  ERNEST 
ROUSSEAU,  who  died  November  13,  1920.  Two  notices  of  his 
life  and  work  have  appeared,  both  by  M.  J.-A.  Lestage,  one 
in  the  Bulletin  dc  la  Socictc  Entomologique  dc  Bclglquc  (tome 
III,  pp.  35-41,  with  a  portrait),  the  later  and  longer  in  the 
Annalcs  dc  Biologic  Lacustrc  (tome  X.  pp.  261-283).  Both 
are  accompanied  by  the  same  list  of  his  biological  writings. 

He  was  born  at  Ixelles,  Belgium,  May  27,  1872,  his  father 
professor  of  physics  at  the  University  of  Brussels,  his  mother. 
born  Hannon,  a  botanist.     "Eleve  dans  un  milieu  si  hautement 
scientifique."  says  his  biographer,  "Rousseau  devait  fatalement 
venir  a  la  science;  en  effet,  il  lui  consacra  toute  sa  vie."   While 
a   medical   student   in    Brussels,   he   joined   the   Entomological 
Society  there  and  published  on  Carabidae  and  Malacoderms  of 
Belgium.     Eor  some  years  his  zoological  activities  were  turned 
to  sponges  and  to  insect  histology,  then  again  to  the  Carabidae, 
when   he  contributed   to   Wytsman's   (rcncra   Insectorutn.     In 
1906  the  Museum  of  Natural  History  at  Brussels  placed  him 
in  charge  of  those  limnological  studies   for  which   he  is  best 
known.     In  pursuance  of  these  he  established  a   fresh-water 
biological  laboratory  at  the  Lake  of  Overmeire  and  a  new  jour 
nal,  the  Annalcs  de  Biologic  Lacustrc.  which  has  reached  its 
tenth  volume.     Of  the  57  papers  (some  unpublished)  listed  in 
his  bibliography,  1  deals  with  Hydrachnids,  3  with  insect  his- 
tology  and   anatomy,   6   with   Odonate   larvae,    14   with   adult 
Coleoptera,  2  with  larvae  of  Coleoptera,  2  with  Diptera,  1  with 
aquatic  Hymenoptera.     At  the  time  of  his  death  he  had  two 
works  in  preparation,  one  on  La  l'>i<<lo</ic  dcs  cau.r  donees  tor 
the  Encyclopedic  Scientifique  of   Doin  et   fils,  Paris,  the  other 
Les  Larvcs  aquatiqucs  dcs  Inscctcs  d'Europe,  in  collaboration 
with  J.-A.  Lestage  and  H.  Schouteden.     The  first  volume  of 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  159 

the  latter  has  appeared  since  his  death,  consisting  of  987  page^ 
and  343  figures,  and  deals  with  the  aquatic  larvae  of  the  Hem- 
iptera,  Odonata,  Ephetnerida.  Plecoptera,  Megaloptera.  Plan- 
nipennia  and  Trichoptera.  According  to  a  note  on  page  32  of 
the  Bulletin  quoted,  the  second  volume  will  treat  of  the  L.epi- 
doptera,  Coleoptera.  Diptcra  and  technique. 

His  biographer,  writing  of  him  as  an  intimate  friend,  de- 
clares him  to  have  been  a  man  thoroughly  good,  generous, 
enthusiastic  over  his  work,  who  irresistibly  attracted  the  sym- 
pathies of  all. — P.  P.  CAIAT.RT. 

The  daily  newspapers  announced  the  death  of  Sir  PATRICK 
MANSON,  in  London,  April  8,  1922.  fie  rendered  two  import- 
ant services  in  ascertaining  the  mode  of  transmission  of  human 
diseases.  The  first  was  in  1878,  when  he  discovered  the  man- 
ner of  carriage  of  Filaria  from  man  to  man  by  mosquitoes.* 
thus,  as  Howard.  Dyar  and  Knab  state,  becoming  "the  dis- 
coverer of  the  first  recognized  transfer  of  a  disease  organism 
by  mosquitoes."  The  second  was  when  he  "first  clearly  for- 
mulated the  hypothesis  fof  the  role  of  carrier  of  malaria  by 
mosquitoes]  t.  and  it  was  largely  due  to  his  suggestion  that 
Ross  in  Indian  undertook  to  solve  the  problem"  (Riley  and 
Johannsen) . 

He  was  the  son  of  fohn  Manson.  of  Fingask,  Aberdeen. 
was  born  October  3,  1844,  was  educated  as  a  physician, 
and  contributed  to  the  literature  of  parasitology  and  tropical 
medicine.  He  was  a  fellow  of  the  Royal  Society,  an 
honorary  LL.D.  of  Aberdeen  and  of  Hongkong,  and  an  hon- 
orary Sc.D.  of  Oxford.  In  recent  years  he  lived  at  The 
5iheiling,  Clonbur,  County  Galway,  Ireland. 

His  son,  Dr.  P.  Thurburn  Manson,  was  one  of  two  who 
offered  to  be  bitten  by  malaria-infected  mosquitoes  from  Rome, 
in  testing  the  malaria-mosquito  theory,  and  who  developed 
characteristic  malaria  as  a  result. --P.  P.  CALVFKT. 

*The  development  of  I'ilaria  sanaitinis  hnniinis.  Medical  limes  and 
Gazette,  London,  II,  p.  731,  1878.  On  the  development  of  I<~  Ini-in 
sani/iiinis  hominis  and  on  the  mosquito  considered  as  a  nurse.  Journ. 
Linn.  Soc.  London,  Zool.,  xiv,  pp.  304-311,  1S7S. 

tHypothesis  as  to  the  life  history  of  the  malarial  parasite  outside  tin- 
human  hody.  Lancet,  London,  1896,  ii,  pp.  1715-1710. 

160  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [May,  '22 

Dr.  JOSEPH  LANE  HANCOCK,  one  of  the  leading  American 
authorities  on  Orthoptera,  died  of  heart  disease  in  Chicago, 
March  12,  1922.  Born  in  that  city  on  April  12.  1864,  it  is  said 
that  he  "had  attained  almost  equal  distinction  as  a  physician, 
naturalist,  landscape  artist  and  as  an  author." 

In  the  study  of  Orthoptera.  Dr.  Hancock  specialized  on  the 
Tettiginae  (Acrydiinae)  or  "Grouse  Locusts."  His  work  on 
this  group  was  equal  in  volume  to,  if  not  more  extensive  than, 
that  of  any  other  authority  on  the  suhject.  His  scientific  pub- 
lications, begun  in  1895,  continued  until  1918.  when  press  of 
work  as  a  practicing  physician  forced  him  to  abandon  the 

His  largest  publications  in  chronological  order,  are :  The 
Tettiyidac  of  North  America,  The  Tcttigidae  of  Ceylon,  a 
series  of  Studies  of  the  Tefriginac  in  the  Oxford  University 
Museum  and  Indian  Tetriginae.  His  collection  of  Acrydiinae. 
one  of  the  largest  in  the  world,  has  been  kept  in  an  exception- 
ally good  state  of  preservation,  and  now  forms  a  portion  of 
the  Hebard  Collection,  deposited  at  the  Academy  of  Natural 
Sciences  of  Philadelphia,  having  been  acquired  by  purchase. 

He  was  also  the  author  of  Nature  Sketches  in  Temperate 
America  (Chicago,  McClurg  &  Co.,  1911),  "a  popular  account 
of  insects  birds  and  plants,  treated  from  some  aspects  of  their 
evolution  and  ecological  relations,"  the  last  chapter  being  an 
"interpretation  of  environment  as  exemplified  in  the  Orthop- 

Dr.  Hancock  was  at  one  time  Curator  of  the  Chicago  Ento- 
mological Society  and  Editor  of  its  Occasional  Memoirs.  He 
was  a  Fellow  of  the  American  Association  for  the  Advance- 
ment of  Science  and  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  London. 

Always  kind  and  liberal  in  co-operation  with  other  students 
of  the  Orthoptcra,  it  is  our  regret  that  we  knew  Dr.  Hancock 
only  through  infrequent  correspondence. — MORGAN  HEBARD. 


Insert  the  word  "catalogs"  after  "manuscript,"  page  118,  4th  line  from 
the  bottom. 


Fine  perfect  specimens  of  this  grand  rare  species  are  offered  ;  also  O. 
chimaera — Zelotypia  staceyi,  superb  rarity — many  others.  Largest  stock  of 
exotic  Coleoptera,  rarities  and  unnamed  series.  Also  the  most  important 
books  on  Entomology  in  stock. 

Janson  &  Sons,  Naturalists  &  Booksellers  44,  Great  Russell  St.,  London, W.C. I. 

CA1    17     A  large  collection  of  butterflies — Papilios 


only — from  all  parts  of  the  world.     All 
mounted  and  classified  in  three  large  cabinets. 

C.  F.  GROTri 

14  Poplar  Place,  New  Rochelle,  N.  Y, 



Published  quarterly.  Containing  original  articles  on  Economic  Entomology  (illustrated ).  Ann- 
ual Subscription  in  advance  for  Vol.  xiii  ( 1922),  155.  post  free  ;  separate  parts  55.  each,  pest 
free.  Prices  of  back  parts  on  application. 


Published  monthly.  Containing  reviews  of  current  works  on  Economic  Entomology  throughout 
the  world.  Published  in  two  series,  "A"  dealing  with  insect  pests  of  cultivated  plants,  and 
"B'1  dealing  with  insects  conveying  disease  or  otherwise  injurious  to  man  and  animals 
Annual  Subscription  in  advance  for  Vol.  x  (  1922),  Series  "A"  izs.;  Series  "B"  6s.  post  fret . 
Prices  of  back  parts  on  application. 

Publication  Office :  41  Queen's  Gate,  London,  S.  W.  7. 

The  Entomologist  s  Monthly  Magazine. — A  journal  devoted 
to  general  Entomology,  started  in  1864,  and  now  edited  by  G.  C. 
Cbampion.J.  E.  Collin,  W.  W.  Fowler,  R.  W.  Lloyd,  G.  T.  Porritt 
and  J.  J.  Walker. 

It  contains  descriptions  of  new  genera  and  species  in  all  orders 
(British  and  foreign) ,  life  histories,  reviews  of  new  works,  etc.  Vol. 
LVIII  (VIII  of  the  3d  Series)  was  commenced  in  January,  1922 
The  subscription  for  the  12  numbers  is  15  shillings  per  annum,  post 
free,  to  be  sent  to  R.  W.  Lloyd,  I,  5,  Albany,  Piccadilly,  London, 
W. ,  England.  For  terms  for  advertisements  apply  to  him  also. 


From  Colombia,  South  America: 

Morpho  cypris  Morpho  amathonte 

sulkowskyi  Caligo  spp. 

From  Cuba: 

Papilio  columbus  Urania  boisduvali 

andraemon  Erinyis  guttalaris 

celadon  Protoparce  brontes,  etc. 

"       devilliersi 

From  Venezuela : 

Over  5000  Lepidoptera 

200  Dynastes  Hercules 

From  New  Guinea 

2000  Coleoptera 
200  Orthoptera 

From  Assam,  India: 

Papilio  arcturus  Kallima  inachis 

philoxenus  Brahmaea  wallachi 

And  Many  Other  Showy  Species 

From  Tibet  (Bhutan)  : 
Arrnandia  Hdderdalii  Parnassius  hardwicki 



If  interested  kindly  send  your  list 
of  desiderata  for  further  information  to 


Department  of  Natural  Science  New  York 

G.  Lagai,  Ph.D.  56-58  West  23d  Street 

JUNE,  1922 


Vol.  XXXIII  No.  6 


PHILIP  P.  CALVERT,   Ph.   D.,   Editor. 

E.  T.   CRESSON,  JR.,  Associate   Editor. 

HENRY   SKINNER,   M.D.,   Sc.D.,   Editor   Emeritus. 


EZRA  T.  CRESSON,  J.  A.  G.  REHN, 



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VOL.  XXXIII  JUNEL_1922  No.  (i 


Fall— Notes  on  Clivina,  with  Descrip- 
tion of  a  New  Species  from  the 
Pacific  Coast  (  Col.,  Carabidae). ...  161 

Cliamberlin — A    new    Milliped  of   the 

Rosewall— Insects  of  the  Yellow  Thistle 
(  Hem.,  Col.,  Lepid.,  Dip.,  Hvm.).  176 

Weiss  and  West — Notes  on  ihe  Desmo- 
dium  Leaf  Miner,  Pachyschelus  lae- 

Genus  Polyxenus  from  the  Florida  vigatus  (Say)  (Col.:  Buprestidae)  180 

Keys 165    ;    Nakahara — On    Anomalit-s   in    Wing 

Felt — A  new  Gall  Midge  on  Rushes 
(Dipt.,  Cecidomyiidae) 166 

Holland — A  few  Notes  on  Distribution 
(Lepid.,  Orth.,  Blattidae) 168 

Cabrera — Observations  on  Dibelona  cu- 
bensis  Brunner.a  liitle-knownCuban 
Gryllacrid  (Orth.,  Tettigoniidae)..  169 

Hough— Observations  on  Two  Mealy 
Bugs.  Trionymustrifolii  Forbes  and 
Pseudococcus  maritimus  Ehrh. 
(Horn.,  Coccidae) 171 

Markings  of   Basilarchia  astyanax 

Kab.  (  Lepid.,  Rhop.:  Nymphalidae)  183 
Editorial—  Collect  Data  First,  Speci- 

mens Second  ......................   185 

The  University  of  Michigan-William- 

son Expedition  to  Brazil  ...........    186 

A  Request  for  Exchanges  with  Russia.  186 
Entomological  Literature  ..............   187 

Doings  of  Societies  —  The  American  En- 

tomological Society 

Notes  on  Clivina,  with  Description  of  a  New  Species 
from  the  Pacific  Coast  (Col.,  Carabidae). 

By  H.  C.  FALL,  Tyngsboro,  Massachusetts. 

In  rearranging  parts  of  my  collection  to  conform  to  the 
order  in  the  new  list,  it  became  necessary  to  transfer  my  Cli- 
vinae  to  a  new  box.  In  so  doing  the  species  were  examined 
somewhat  critically,  and  certain  errors  in  the  last  published 
table  (by  LeConte)  were  noted,  to  which  it  may  be  well  to 
call  attention. 

The  genus  Clii'ina,  fortunately  perhaps,  has  long  escaped 
the  attention  of  systematists,  and  except  for  the  placing  of 
collaris  Hbst.  as  a  synonym  of  fossor  L.,  the  species  stand  in 
the  Leng  List  just  as  left  by  Dr.  LeConte  in  the  table  pre- 
pared with  others  for  the  Brooklyn  Bulletin  in  1879.  As  for 
collaris  and  fossor,  these  two  introduced  forms,  though  closely 
allied  are  now  considered  distinct  by  the  best  European  author- 
ities and  are  so  recorded  in  the  latest  European  Check  List. 
Ganglbauer,  in  his  Co1cof->tcni  mn  Mittclcuropa,  gives  the  dis- 
tinguishing characters,  of  which  the  rufous  c-lytra  with  black 
suture  in  collnris  is  an  all-sufficient  criterion.  I'ossor  is  not 
so  colored,  the  elytra  being  of  nearly  uniform  tint,  usually 


162  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [June.  '22 

piceous,  but  varying  to  rufous.  I  have  seen  numerous  exam- 
ples of  collaris  from  Massachusetts,  and  a  few  of  fossor  from 

Briefly,  the  errors  in  the  LeConte  table  are  these — collaris 
(and  also  fossor}  has  a  spur  near  the  outer  tip  of  the  middle 
tibia  and  should  therefore  have  been  tabulated  with  the  species 
possessing  that  character.  Striatopunctata  has  the  clypeal  out- 
line as  well  as  the  other  characters  of  fcrrca,,  etc., 
and  should  be  included  in  the  same  group  with  them.  Rnfa 
should  stand  between  amcricana  and  month.  It  is  interme- 
diate in  size  between  these  two,  and  differs  in  no  way  except 
color  from  black  examples  of  like  size  which  may  be  placed 
either  with  amcricana  or  month,  according  to  personal  judg- 
ment or  caprice.  Tt  is  highly  probable  that  month,  ntfa,  amcri- 
cana and  cordata  represent  nothing  more  than  size  and  color 
variations  of  a  single  species. 

Of  the  characters  used  by  LeConte  in  the  table  referred  to, 
that  of  the  spur  near  the  outer  tip  of  the  middle  tibia  is  of  im- 
portance and  is  correctly  used  except  in  the  case  of  collaris 
alluded  to  above.  The  meaning  of  the  next  leading  character 
used  in  the  table—  -"clypeus  with  lateral  lobes"  or  "clypeus 
rounded  at  sides"-— is  not  quite  so  easily  interpreted.  There 
are  in  reality  three  types  of  clypeal  outline.  In  the  first,  rep- 
resented by  dentipcs  alone,  the  clypeus  is  bi-emarginate  or 
bilobed  at  sides.  In  the  species  impressifrons  to  cordata  inclu- 
sive the  sides  of  the  clypeus  are  uni  emarginate,  the  posterior 
convex  outline  defining  the  lateral  lobe.  In  the  remaining 
species  the  structure  differs  from  the  preceding  in  that  the 
anterior  margin  is  but  slightly  advanced,  leaving  a  very  small 
notch  or  emargination  at  the  angles,  the  lateral  lobe  thus  occu- 
pying almost  the  entire  side  of  the  clypeus. 

Certain  other  characters,  not  mentioned  or  only  vaguely 
alluded  to  by  LeConte,  are  so  definite  and  simple  in  their  appli- 
cation as  to  make  them  well  worthy  of  consideration.  Classified 
according  to  the  dorsal  setigerous  punctures  of  the  elytra  the 
species  separate  as  follows : 

Elytra   with   five  dorsal    punctures .  .  dcnfipes 

Elytra  with  four  dorsal  punctures imt>rcssifnnis  to  cordata 

Elytra  with  two  dorsal  punctures striatopunctata  to 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  163 

Or,  the  species  may  be  grouped  with  equal  definiteness  by 
the  anal  ventral  setigerous  punctures.  There  are  always  four 
such  punctures  (two  each  side)  regardless  of  sex,  arranged  as 
follows : 

Intermediate  anal  punctures  mutually  twice  as  distant  as  from  the 
lateral  ones  dcntipes 

Anal  punctures  very  nearly  equally  spaced.  ...  impressifrons  to  fossor 

Intermediate  anal  punctures  widely  distant  and  close  to  the  lateral 
ones  rnfa  to  cordata 

Intermediate  anal  punctures  close  together  at  the  middle  of  the  apical 
margin  striatopunctata  to  stic/inulu 

The  last  group— beginning  with  striatopunctata — is  again 
sharply  delimited  by  a  character  of  such  importance  that  the 
failure  of  LeConte  to  mention  it  is  difficult  to  explain.  The 
lateral  marginal  line  of  the  thorax  here  fails  to  attain  the  true 
base,  but  turning  inward  forms  a  pseudobasal  margin  at  the 
summit  of  an  abrupt  declivity  very  much  as  in  certain  genera 
of  Anthribidae. 

I  would  then  divide  our  species  of  Clh'ina  into  four  groups, 
giving  each  the  name  of  its  best  known  representative,  as  fol- 
lows : 

DENTIPES  GROUP. — Middle  tibia  with  subapical  external  spur ;  clypeus 
bi-emarginate  at  sides ;  front  thighs  acutely  dentate  beneath  apically : 
elytra  5-punctate ;  intermediate  anal  setae  twice  as  distant  from  each 
other  as  from  the  outer  setae.  Represented  by  dcntipes  only. 

IMPRF.SSIFRONS  GROUP. — Middle  tibia  with  subapical  external  spur; 
clypeus  uni-emarginate  at  sides ;  elytra  4-punctate ;  intermediate  anal 
setae  approximate  to  the  lateral  ones.  Includes  impressifrons,  tcxana, 
planicollis,  pia'Ctulata,  punctiticra.  rubicunda,  pallida,  collaris,  fossor. 

Of  these,  collaris  and  fossor  may  be  recognized  by  their 
color  :  pallida  by  having  the  ventral  surface  in  great  part  pol- 
ished (reticulato-alutaceous  in  all  others)  ;  rubicunda  by  the 
very  thick  frnnt  thighs,  which  are  convex  both  above  and  be- 
neath and  rather  deeply  sinuate  apically  beneath,  also  by  the 
presence  of  diverging  raised  lines  at  the  middle  of  the  first  ven- 
tral segment,  these  being  otherwise  present  only  in  the  aincn- 
cana  group.  The  remaining  species  are  closely  allied  and  diffi- 
cult to  distinguish,  and  it  is  rather  probable  that  tr.vaiuis  does 
not  differ  specifically  from  planicollis. 

164  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [June,  '22 

AMERICANA  GROUP. — Middle  tibia  without  subapical  external  spur ; 
clypeus  uni-emarginate  at  sides ;  elytra  4-punctate ;  intermediate  anal 
setae  approximate  and  distant  from  the  lateral  ones  ;  first  ventral  seg- 
ment with  diverging  raised  lines  at  middle.  Includes  analis,  amcricana, 
tufa,  morula  and  cordata. 

Analis  is  not  known  to  me  ;  the  remaining  forms  are  appar- 
ently identical  in  all  respects  except  color  and  size  and  may  be 
varieties  of  a  single  species. 

BIPUSTULATA  GROUP. — Middle  tibia  without  subapical  spur;  clypeus 
rounded  at  sides  almost  throughout ;  prothorax  with  pseudobasal  mar- 
ginal line  continuing  the  side  margins  which  do  not  attain  the  extreme, 
base ;  elytra  2-punctate ;  intermediate  anal  setae  approximate.  Includes 
stnatopunctata,  fcrrca,  conrc.ra,  bipustitlata,  marginipennis,  fostica, 

Putzey's  species  are  practically  unknown  to  us.  They  may 
perhaps  be  recognized  by  LeConte's  table,  but  I  suspect  will  in 
part  prove  not  to  be  valid. 

The  following  species  in  my  collection  is  undescribed : 

C.  oregona  new  species. 

Similar  in  form,  size  and  general  characters  to  punctulata,  from 
which  it  differs  as  follows:  The  color  is  dark  reddish  brown  to 
piceous  brown,  the  prothoracic  punctuation  sparse,  and  so  fine  as  to  be 
barely  perceptible;  mentum  strongly  longitudinally  carinate,  the  trans- 
verse posterior  tumidity  rectilinear;  basal  joint  of  protarsus  without 
external  dentiform  prominence.  In  punctulata  the  color  is  bright  red 
brown,  prothorax  distinctly  punctulate,  longitudinal  carina  of  mentum 
feeble,  the  posterior  transverse  tumidity  Insinuate  behind,  basal  joint 
of  protarsus  with  an  external  dentiform  angulation. 

Six  examples  of  oregona  are  before  me,  the  length  varying 
from  4.8  to  5.5  mm.  The  t\pc  is  from  Corvallis.  Oregon. 
Other  examples  are  from  Seattle,  Wash.  (Prof.  O.  B.  John- 
son). All  in  my  collection. 

The  dentiform  angulation  on  the  outer  side  of  the  basal 
protarsal  joint  is  a  quite  persistent  feature  peculiar  to  the  spe- 
cies of  the  iinpressifrons  group  ;  its  absence  in  orcyoua  is  there- 
fore notable.  Oregona  may  probably  be  safely  determined  by 
its  locality  label;  the  Calif ornian  punctulata  is  the  only  other 
species  known  from  the  Pacific  Coast  region  and  is  rare  at 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  165 

A  New  Milliped  of  the  Genus  Polyxenus  from  the 

Florida  Keys. 

By  RALPH  V.  CHAMBERLIN,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts. 
In  January,  1919,  Dr.  Paul  Bartsch  took  a  Poly.vcnus  either 
emerging   from  or  taking  refuge   in   the  breathing  pore  of   a 
Cerion  on   the  Tortugas.    Florida.     The   specimen   apparently 
represents  a  new  species  which  is  here  described. 

Polyxenus  bartschi,  sp.  nov. 

The  type  specimen  is  not  fully  adult,  being  in  the  stage  pos- 
sessing eight  pairs  of  fascicles  of  lateral  setae.  It  is  in  the 
Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts. 

The  dorsum  is  marked  with  a  hroad  longitudinal  stripe  along  each 
side  and  a  narrow  median  pale  stripe.  Setae  of  caudal  pencil  white  as 

The  eight  articles  of  the  antennae  present  and  apparently  fully  devel- 
oped;  the  third,  fourth,  fifth,  sixth,  seventh  and  eighth  articles  respec- 
tively .04,  .058,  .05,  .1,  .05  and  .02  mm.  long,  with  the  corresponding 
widths  being  .046,  .05,  .05,  .058,  .05  and  .03  mm.  The  precise  number  of 
ocelli  in  the  patch  on  each  side  of  head  was  not  determined  because  of 
the  obscuring  pigment. 

The  major  and  more  numerous  setae  of  the  head  are  relatively  slender 
and  flexible  with  the  teeth  long,  slender  and  numerous,  subdensely 
appressed ;  the  naked  terminal  lobe  distally  a  little  rounded.  There 
are  fewer  short  scales  which  are  only  four  times,  or  less,  as  long  as 
thick  and  are  half  or  less  the  length  of  the  long  setae;  their  teeth  are 
coarser  and  fewer  in  number. 

The  setae  of  the  lateral  fascicles  are  similar  to  the  major  ones  of 
the  head,  hut  are  mostly  less  flexible  and  with  the  lateral  teeth  usually 

The  setae  across  the  tergitcs  are  in  general  similar  to  the  shorter 
setae  or  scales  of  the  head  ;  mostly  with  seven  or  eight  teeth  in  each 
lateral  series,  the  terminal  lobe  with  distal  margin  convex;  mostly 
between  four  and  five  times  longer  than  wide. 

In  the  caudal  pencils  there  are  two  principal  types  of  setae.  There 
arc,  firstly,  the  mostly  peripheral  setae  very  similar  to  those  of  the  lateral 
fascicles  excepting  for  their  greater  length.  The  greater  portion  of 
the  pencils,  however,  is  composed  of  much  finer  setae  of  \arying  length 
which  have  subspatulate  distal  ends  which  are  usually  a  little  Ix-nt. 
X'one  of  the  characteristic  hooked  setae,  such  as  occur  in  /'.  liuinnis 
and  /'.  fiisciciilutus.  are  present. 

Length,  without  caudal  pencil.  2  mm.  Length  of  caudal  pencil,  .66 
mm.  Length  of  maximum  setae  of  head,  .2  mm.;  of  setae  m'  anterior 
paired  fascicles,  .23  mm.;  of  posterior  paired  fascicles,  .28  mm.;  of  the 
dorsal  setae  or  scales  up  to  about  .1  mm. 

166  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [June,  '22 

A  New  Gall  Midge  on  Rushes  (Dipt.,  Cecidomyiidae). 

By  E.  P.  FELT,  Albany,  New  York. 

Very  little  is  known  of  the  host  relations  existing  between 
gall  midges  and  rushes,  though  the  writer  found  a  midge  larva 
in  the  deformed  fruit  of  a  rush  some  years  ago,  but  was  unable 
to  obtain  the  adult.  The  record  given  below  is  the  first  Amer- 
ican species  reared  from  Jinicits.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that 
Houard  in  his  monograph  on  The  Plant  Galls  of  Europe  fails 
to  list  even  one  species  from  the  Juncaceae.  He  records  a 
number  of  species  as  having  been  reared  from  the  Cyperaceae 
and  in  our  tabulation  of  American  species,1  it  will  be  noted  that 
several  species  (4)  have  been  obtained  from  plants  in  this 
family,  while  33  have  been  reared  from  the  grasses,  Gramineae. 
The  fauna  of  the  last  named  is  by  no  means  thoroughly  worked 
up  and  the  probabilities  are  that  careful  collecting  and  rearing 
would  result  in  material  additions  to  our  sedge-inhabiting  forms 
and  very  likely  some  increase  in  the  number  of  species  occur- 
ring in  rushes. 

Procystiphora  junci  n.  sp. 

A  series  of  these  interesting  midges  was  forwarded  by  Mr. 
W.  H.  Larrimer.  West  Lafayette,  Indiana,  accompanied  by 
the  statement  that  they  resemble  somewhat  the  Hessian  Fly,  as 
to  appearance,  the  effect  on  the  host  plant  and  the  two  genera- 
tions annually  occurring  at  about  the  same  time  as  in  the  case 
of  this  wheat  pest.  The  specimens  were  labeled,  "reared  from 
Jnncits  dudlcyi,  Centralia,  111.,  October  6,  1921,  W.  1'..  Cart- 
wright,  Collector,  Centralia,  No.  2111." 

In  spite  of  the  general  resemblance  of  these  midges  to  the 
Hessian  Fly,  there  is  a  striking  chitinization  and  infuscation 
of  the  basal  segments  of  the  ovipositor,  likewise  apparent  in 
the  type  of  the  genus,  namely  P.  coloradcnsis  Felt.  The  above 
food  habit  record  tends  to  confirm  the  opinion  of  Prof.  Cock- 
erell  to  the  effect  that  the  host  plant  of  the  type  of  this  genus 
is  Carc.r.  It  would  not  be  surprising  if  both  species  had  a 
somewhat  similar  effect  upon  the  host  plant. 

$. — Length  2  mm.     Antennae   (possibly  of  this  sex,  though  not  cer- 
1  1918,  N.  Y.  State  Mus.  Bui.,  200,  p.  216. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  167 

tainly),  about  three-fourths  the  length  of  the  body,  sparsely  haired,  dark 
brown ;  sixteen  and  possibly  eighteen  segments,  the  fifth  with  a  stem 
about  three-fourths  the  length  of  the  basal  enlargement,  the  latter  with 
a  length  about  twice  its  diameter,  and  a  sparse  subbasal  whorl  of  short, 
stout  setae,  and  a  median  whorl  of  much  longer,  curved  setae;  terminal 
segment  compound,  produced,  with  a  length  over  three  times  its  diam- 
eter, a  distinct  constriction  near  the  distal  third  and  a  short,  broadly 
triangular  process  apically.  Palpi :  first  segment  short,  irregularly 
quadrate,  the  second  smaller  than  the  first,  the  third  a  little  longer  than 
llu-  second,  somewhat  swollen  distally,  and  the  fourth  one-half  longer 
than  the  third,  more  slender. 

Mesonotum  dark  brown,  the  sub-median  lines  sparsely  haired ;  scu- 
tellum  and  postscutellum  dark  brown,  sparsely  haired,  reddish  brown; 
the  distal  segments  distinctly  swollen:  genitalia  dark  brown;  wings 
hyaline,  sub-costa  uniting  with  the  margin  at  the  basal  half,  the  third 
vein  just  before  the  apex  of  the  wing,  the  fifth  at  the  basal  third,  its 
branch  near  the  basal  half;  halteres  reddish  brown,  pale  yellow  basally ; 
legs  a  nearly  uniform  dark  brown ;  claws  moderately  long,  slender, 
strongly  curved,  minutely  unidentate  ;  the  pulvilli  nearly  as  long  as  the 

Genitalia :  basal  clasp  segment  moderately  long,  stout ;  terminal  clasp 
segment  as  long  as  the  basal  clasp  segment,  rather  stout ;  dorsal  plate 
long,  deeply  and  triangularly  emarginate,  the  lobes  broadly  rounded ; 
ventral  plate  rather  long,  somewhat  deeply  and  narrowly  emarginate, 
the  lobes  broadly  rounded ;  style  rather  long,  stout,  narrowly  rounded 


$  . — Length  2.5  mm.  Antennae  extending  to  the  base  of  the  abdomen, 
sparsely  haired,  very  dark  brown;  17  subsessile  segments,  the  fifth  with 
a  length  nearly  twice  its  diameter,  the  subbasal  whorl  of  setae  rather 
short,  weak ;  the  suhapical  whorl  somewhat  long ;  terminal  segment  pro- 
duced, with  a  length  about  four  times  its  diameter  and  terminating  in 
a  somewhat  slender,  irregular  apex.  Palpi:  first  segment  short,  irregu- 
lar, the  second  quadrate,  with  a  length  about  one-half  greater  than  its 
width,  the  third  nearh  twice  the  length  of  the  second,  more  slender, 
distinctly  enlarged  apically,  the  fourth  twice  the  length  of  the  second 
and  more  slender. 

Mr  onotum  very  dark  brown:  scutellum,  postscutellum  and  abdomen 
dark  reddish  brown,  the  last  almost  black  at  its  extremity  (really  the 
basal  segment  of  the  ovipositor),  the  tip  of  the  ovipositor  honey  yellow; 
uings  hyaline;  c<>sta  dark  brown,  the  third  vein  uniting  with  the  margin 
a  little  before  the  apex  of  the  wing,  the  fifth  at  the  basal  fourth,  its 
branch  near  the  basal  half;  halteres  reddisli  brown,  yellowish  basally 
and  apically;  leu-  a  nearly  uniform  dark  brown;  the  claws  rather  long, 
moderately  heavy,  strongly  curved,  finely  though  distinctly  unidentate; 
the  pulvilli  as  long  as  the  clawv 

Ovipositor  when  extended  probably  about  as  long  as  the  abdomen,  the 

168  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  |  June. '22 

basal  segment  apparently  rather  heavily  chitinized  and  distinctly  infus- 
rated,  the  seventh  abdominal  segment  with  irregular  fuscous,  mesal 
thickenings  dorsally  and  ventrally,  the  posterior  margins  of  these  dis- 
tinctly produced  laterally. 

Type  Cecid.  A.  3209,  N.  Y.  State  Museum. 

Described  from  a  series  of  females  and  one  broken  male. 

A  few  Notes  on  Distribution  (Lepid. ;  Orth.,  Blattidae). 

By  W.  J.  HOLLAND,  Carnegie  Museum,  Pittsburgh, 


As  the  author  of  a  couple  of  manuals,  which  have  had  wide 
circulation,  I  am  in  constant  receipt  of  letters  from  all  over 
the  country  informing  me  of  the  discovery  of  insects  at  places 
beyond  the  limits  of  distribution  given  in  The  Butterfly  Book 
and  The  ]\loth  Book.  Some  of  these  notes  made  by  corre- 
spondents are  of  interest.  I  regret  that  in  past  years  I  have 
not  always  preserved  them  and  cannot,  therefore,  refer  to  them 
at  this  moment.  It  has  occurred  to  me,  however,  that  it  might 
be  worth  while  to  mention  a  few  of  those,  which  during  the 
past  twelve  months  have  been  brought  to  my  attention,  and 
which  I  find  upon  my  desk. 


Euptoieta  Claudia  (Cramer)  has  been  reported  to  me  as  found  in 
Minnesota,  the  Dakotas  and  Alberta. 

Argynnis  idalia  (Drury)  was  formerly  regarded  as  a  rarity  in  the 
vicinity  of  Pittsburgh.  The  species  has  been  taken  rather  commonly 
in  recent  years  in  Allegheny  and  Washington  Counties,  in  south- 
western Pennsylvania. 

Vanessa  j-album  Boisduval  and  LeConte.  This  insect  has  recently 
been  found  quite  abundantly  in  western  Pennsylvania  in  the  vicinity 
of  Pittsburgh. 

Junonia  coenia  Hiibner.  This  species  is  reported,  to  me  as  occur- 
ring as  far  north  as  Minnesota  and  Dakota. 

Charis  borealis  (Grote  &  Robinson).  This  insect  has  been  taken 
abundantly  in  the  vicinity  of  Columbus,  Ohio.  It  has  never  been 
taken,  so  far  as  I  know,  in  western  Pennsylvania  in  the  same  lati- 
tude as  Columbus,  which  is  rather  remarkable. 

Nathalis  iole  Boisduval.  This  species  ranges  as  far  north  as 
Davenport,  Iowa. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  169 


Erebus  odora  (Linnaeus).  The  capture  of  specimens  of  this  spe- 
cies has  been  reported  to  me  from  Boston,  Mass.;  Toronto,  Ontario; 
Central  Wisconsin,  Minnesota,  and  Alberta. 

Thysania  zenobia  (Cramer).  The  capture  of  this  moth  has  been 
reported  to  me  recently  from  McPherson,  Kansas. 

It  is  possible  that  the  presence  of  these  moths  in  northern 
localities,  far  removed  from  their  southern  metropolis,  may  in 
part  be  accounted  for  by  transfer  by  railroads.  The  moths, 
hiding  in  freight  cars  beginning  their  run  in  southern  Texas 
and  Florida,  may  be  carried  far  north,  and  then,  escaping,  be 
captured.  I  have  an  Ercbits  odora  taken  at  Leadville,  Colorado, 
on  July  4,  in  a  snowstorm.  It  was  sent  me  years  ago  by  one 
of  my  correspondents. 


Panchlora  cubensis  Saussure.  The  Green  Cuban  Roach  has  been 
recorded  from  Indiana,  Massachusetts,  Vermont,  Florida,  and  Texas. 
It  is  well  established  at  Brownsville,  Texas.  It  has  been  reported 
from  Philadelphia  (Rehn,  Hebard)  and  Pittsburgh  (Riky).  It 
appears  to  have  been  introduced  with  bananas  and  other  tropical 
fruit.  My  cook  brought  me  a  specimen  the  other  day  found  to  her 
horror  in  the  kitchen.  It  probably  found  its  way  into  the  house  from 
a  fruit-store.  This  is  the  second  record  for  Pittsburgh.  The  speci- 
men was  promptly  consigned  to  a  cyanide  bottle.  It  is  unlikely  that 
this  species  will  become  established  in  this  locality. 

Observations  on  Dibelona  cubensis  Brunner,  a  little- 
known  Cuban  Gryllacrid  (Orth.,  Tettigoniidae). 

By  JOSE  CABRERA,  Cotorro,   Cuba. 

The  first  time  I  found  Dibcltuia  cubensis  was  eight  years 
ago,  in  Camoa,  Havana  Province.  It  was  a  very  young  speci- 
men hidden  under  a  leaf  fastened  to  a  palm  tree  trunk.  Later 
in  opening  some  leaves  fastened  together,  and  which  1  believed 
contained  a  chrysalid,  I  was  surprised  to  find  a  cricket-like 
insect  in  them.  T  remembered  at  once  what  Dr.  Gundlacli  said 
in  his  work  on  Cuban  ( )rthoptera.  about  a  locustid  he  found 
under  leaves  fastened  to  tree  trunks  in  Yateras,  <  )riental  De- 
partment of  the  island. 

The  specimens  found  by  me  were  young,  so  1  kept  searching 
for  a  while  and  found,  in  a  hollow  twig,  a  fully  mature  female. 

170  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [June,  '22 

This  I  brought  home,  and  put  it  in  a  glass  jar  with  some  leaves 
and  fruit.  Next  day  it  appeared  neatly  enclosed  in  three  leaves 
it  had  united.  Then  I  knew  I  had  Dibdona  cnbcnsis  I'runner, 
a  very  rare  species  with  this  curious  habit. 

Sometimes  the  species  is  found  a  foot  from  the  ground,  at 
others  high  up  in  tall  trees.  It  is  very  voracious,  as  once  one 
of  them  ate  a  young  Haplopns  cnbcnsis  Saussure  and  a  Dcllia 
insulana  Stal,  which  I  had  in  the  same  jar  with  it.  Sometimes 
the  insect  stayed  enclosed  in  its  house  as  long  as  six  to  seven 
days,  but  when  disturbed  it  would  move  continuously  up  and 
down  in  the  jar,  jumping  from  side  to  side,  and  not  falling  to 
the  bottom.  Most  of  the  young  specimens  I  kept  died  during 
the  moults. 

A  mature  specimen,  found  September  11,  1921,  gave  me 
opportunity  for  these  notes.  In  making  its  house  it  began  In- 
cutting  the  leaf  to  the  required  size,  from  the  margin  to  the 
stem.  The  leaf  was  too  long  and  the  insect  did  not  use  two  or 
three  leaves  as  others  did.  Then  it  stood  on  the  uncut  side  of 
the  leaf,  holding  both  sides  of  the  leaf  with  the  fore  legs,  by 
means  of  the  tarsal  claws  ;  the  holding  is  done  from  the  center 
of  the  leaf,  not  from  the  margin.  When  using  two  or  three 
leaves  the  insect  stands  on  the  stronger  one.  Then  one  sees  it 
act  as  if  chewing  something;  it  is  making  the  mucilaginous 
paste.  After  a  few  seconds  the  mouth  is  applied  to  the  margin, 
and  a  thread-like  fluid  is  seen  to  issue  therefrom.  This  thread 
is  attached  to  the  opposite  margin  and  the  operation  is  con- 
tinued, the  labial  palpi  touching  the  threads  and  searching  for 
openings  and  weak  spots  in  the  weaving.  These  are  covered 
by  forcing  the  leaf  into  position,  where  it  is  held  by  the  threads. 
The  insect's  head  goes  regularly  to  and  fro,  stopping  a  while 
now  and  then  to  make  more  paste,  then  adjusting  the  margins 
again  until  the  work  is  finished.  When  the  leaf  cover  is  com- 
pleted the  insect's  body  (21  millimeters  long)  is  hidden,  but 
not  its  antennae,  which  are  very  long  (110  to  115  millimeters). 
By  turning  two  or  three  times  around  inside  the  house,  the 
antennae  are  rolled  around  its  body. 

Dibdona  has  an  enemy,  a  hymenopterous  parasite  of  the 
Microgastrine  group,  the  larva  of  which  feeds  upon  its  body. 
With  so  many  precautions  jt  is  often  a  victim  of  a  tiny  an- 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  171 

Observations  on  Two  Mealy  Bugs,  Trionymus  trifolii 

Forbes  and  Pseudococcus  maritimus  Ehrh. 

(Horn.,  Coccidae). 

By  W.  S.  HOUGH,  State  Crop  Pest  Commission,  Winchester, 


There  was  a  time  not  long-  since  when  all  mealy  bugs  were 
thought  to  he  restricted  feeders,  that  is,  each  species  was 
thought  to  be  limited  to  a  single  host  plant  or  at  most  to  very- 
few.  Likewise,  a  single  host  plant  harbored  but  one  species. 
With  this  belief  prevalent  it  is  quite  natural  that  when  different 
mealy  bugs  were  found  on  the  same  host  they  were  considered 
different  forms  of  the  same  species.  As  a  result,  cases  of  sea- 
sonal forms  or  seasonal  dimorphism  appeared  in  literature 
from  time  to  time  and  were  not  openly  questioned  until  Ferris 
(1918  a  &  b)  presented  evidence  that  probably  all  such  cases 
involved  two  or  more  species.  The  history  and  literature  of 
several  typical  cases  is  reviewed  by  Ferris  in  the  articles  re- 
ferred to. 

The  first  case  of  seasonal  dimorphism  was  established  by 
Davis  (1894)  in  connection  with  his  observations  on  the  clover 
root  mealy  bug  (Trionymus  trifolii.  Forbes).  He  observed  a 
"winter  form"  which  was  an  "oval,  plump,  mealy,  egg-like 
object"  and  a  "summer  form"  having  "white  waxy  filaments 
which  project  out  from  the  body."  Both  of  these  "forms" 
were  studied  by  the  writer  at  Columbus,  Ohio,  and  were  kept 
under  observation  from  October,  1920.  until  June,  1921.  A 
summary  of  the  information  obtained  follows.  The  study  was 
made  under  the  direction  of  Dr.  Herbert  Osborn.  (i.  F.  Fer- 
ris, of  Stanford  University,  and  Harold  Morrison,  of  the 
Bureau  of  Entomology,  examined  specimens  of  Pscitciococcns 
maritimus  Ehrh.,  the  so-called  "summer  form."  The  ants 
were  identified  by  Dr.  W.  M.  Wheeler. 

Trionymus   trifolii    Forbes. 

In  life  the  adults  vary  from  2  mm.  to  3  mm.  in  length,  are  oval, 
plump,  and  when  viewed  laterally  appear  somewhat  cylindrical.  Tin- 
flesh-colored  body  is  covered  1>y  a  white  wax  powder.  There  is  but 
a  single  pair  of  white  caudal  tassels  which  usually  vary  from  one-eighth 
to  one-fifth  of  the  length  of  the  ho<ly.  TlitM'  tassels  are  frequently 

172  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [June, '22 

curled  and  lie  so  close  to  the  body  as  to  be  easily  overlooked.  The  short 
antennae  are  inconspicuous,  about  .15  mm.  long,  seven-segmented  and 
straw-yellow  in  color.  The  legs  are  very  short  and  straw-colored. 
Although  the  adults  are  sluggish  the  young  are  active  and  move 
from  one  part  of  the  plant  to  another.  At  birth  the  young  are  .4  mm. 
long,  a  bright  pale  yellow,  flat  rather  than  plump  and  cylindrical,  have 
six-segmented  antennae  and  legs  which  in  proportion  to  the  body  are 
much  more  conspicuous  than  the  legs  of  the  adult. 

Adult  specimens  were  placed  on  the  roots  of  small  clover 
plants  which  had  been  transplanted  into  straight-edged  vials. 
A  single  specimen  was  placed  in  each  vial  and  the  vial  wrapped 
with  black  paper.  Water  was  introduced  from  one  to  three 
times  daily  as  the  needs  of  the  plant  required.  Eight  adults 
brought  from  a  clover  field  on  February  14  began  giving  birth 
to  young  one  month  later,  March  12  to  15.  The  total  number 
of  young  produced  was  recorded  daily  for  two  individuals, 
one  produced  131  larvae  in  23  days  and  the  other  162  larvae  in 
17  days.  The  other  six  adults  gave  birth  to  young  over  a 
period  averaging  17.8  days  and  all  died  within  three  or  four 
days  after  the  last  young  appeared. 

Within  a  short  time,  a  few  hours  to  a  day,  after  birth  the 
young  left  the  flimsy  cottony  mass  beneath  the  body  of  the 
mother  and  migrated  to  the  stems  and  leaves  where  feeding 
began.  About  one  week  (20  individuals  averaged  7.7  days) 
later  the  first  molt  occurred  and  within  another  week  (28  indi- 
viduals averaged  6.8  days)  the  second  molt  occurred,  after 
which  most  of  the  larvae  migrated  down  to  the  upper  roots, 
on  the  crown  and  beneath  the  bracts  around  the  base  of  the 
stems.  Because  of  this  migration  it  was  with  difficulty  that 
only  four  individuals  were  followed  through  the  third  larval 
stage  which  averaged  12.2  days.  These  were  kept  under  obser- 
vation for  five  weeks  after  the  third  molt,  when  the  writer  left 
Columbus.  During  this  time  they  had  assumed  the  appearance 
of  adults  except  for  reduced  size,  being  only  1.7  mm.  long. 
Overwintering  adults  were  from  2  mm.  to  2.5  mm.  in  length 
and  before  young  were  produced  in  the  spring  the  average 
length  was  increased  to  3  mm.  No  males  were  observed. 

In  October  adults,  but  no  young,  were  common  on  the  roots 
of  clover  two  years  old  or   older.     They   were  always  asso- 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  173 

dated  with  the  brown  garden  ant  (I.asius  ni</cr  Linn.  var. 
americouns  Emery)  wliich  had  mined  tunnels  along  all  of  the 
roots  on  which  the  mealy  bugs  were  feeding.  December  13 
was  the  last  fall  date  when  any  were  found  on  the  roots,  and 
not  until  early  in  March  did  they  again  appear  on  the  roots. 
By  the  last  of  March  they  were  easily  found  within  an  inch 
of  the  surface  and  during  the  first  week  in  May  they  began  to 
produce  young,  which  within  a  few  hours'  time  deserted  the 
subterranean  life  to  pass  the  first  larval  stage,  and  in  some 
cases  the  second  larval  stage,  on  the  stems  and  leaves.  Con- 
tinual search  throughout  the  winter  revealed  the  fact  that  all 
of  the  adults  had  been  collected  by  the  ants  and  placed  in  spe- 
cially constructed  chambers  from  10  inches  to  12  inches  below 
the  surface.  As  spring  approached  the  ants  replaced  them  on 
the  roots,  bringing  them  nearer  the  surface  as  the  weather  be- 
came warmer.  Not  only  did  the  ants  extend  their  numerous 
tunnels  along  the  roots  of  clover  but  sometimes  included  in 
their  tunnel  system  the  roots  of  dandelion,  plantain  and  blue 
grass,  on  all  of  which  the  mealy  bugs  were  found  feeding. 
Mr.  P.  R.  Lowery  informs  me  he  found  this  same  species  on 
sunflower  roots. 

In  order  to  more  closely  observe  the  relationship  existing 
between  the  ants  and  the  mealy  bugs  three  ant  colonies,  whose 
nests  were  about  the  roots  of  clover,  were  transferred  to  the 
insectary.  The  plants  in  two  of  the  nests  were  then  killed  by 
keeping  them  very  closely  clipped.  In  both  instances  the  ants 
tunneled  to  the  living  roots  of  surrounding  clover  plants,  which 
were  not  less  than  eight  inches  away,  and  transferred  their 
mealy  bugs  to  the  living  roots.  At  the  same  time  ten  mealy 
bugs  were  placed  on  the  roots  of  a  living  clover  plant,  which 
was  then  kept  closely  clipped.  Although  this  dying  plant  was 
entirely  surrounded  by  living  plants  not  over  eight  inches  away, 
all  of  the  mealy  bugs  died  with  the  dying  plant.  \  repetition 
of  this  gave  the  same  result  and  in  both  tests  nothing  but  loose 
earth  was  between  the  living  and  dying  rooN.  The  mealy  bui^ 
have  never  been  found  unattended  by  ants  and  it  seems  they 
have  ceased  foraging  for  themselves.  (  )n  the  other  hand,  the 
ants  depend  on  the  profuse  honey  dew  as  one  of  their  chief 

174  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [June,  '22 

Honey  dew  is  produced  freely.  After  the  third  molt  it  was 
necessary  to  remove  the  colorless  liquor  daily  from  the  speci- 
mens which  had  been  placed  in  vials.  Some  of  the  adults  from 
which  the  honey  dew  was  not  removed  finally  perished  in  the 
viscous  mass. 

Certain  factors  as  humidity  and  temperature  no  doubt  deter- 
mine the  movements  of  the  ants  with  their  mealy  bugs.  One 
cloudy  morning  in  November  the  ants  in  the  third  nest,  which 
had  been  transferred  from  a  clover  field  several  weeks  before, 
moved  their  24  mealy  bugs  over  a  surface  path  from  the  nest 
in  a  flower  pot  to  a  newly  constructed  tunnel  in  a  bean  bed  two 
feet  away.  After  watching  this  transfer  a  careful  examina- 
tion of  the  new  tunnel  revealed  all  of  the  mealy  bugs  stored  in 
three  cells.  Three  days  later  the  sun  was  shining  and  the  ants 
carrying  their  mealy  bugs  returned  over  the  same  path  to  the 
clover  roots  in  the  flower  pot.  Both  movements  took  place  at 
8  A.  M. 

Pseudococcus  maritimus   Ehrh. 

At  various  times  during  the  fall  months  and  frequently  dur- 
ing the  spring  months  the  "flat"  mealy  bug  with  lateral  "fila- 
ments which  project  out  from  the  body"  was  found  associated 
with  the  clover  root  mealy  bug.  As  already  stated,  this  "sum- 
mer form"  proved  to  be  none  other  than  the  Baker  mealy  bug 
(Pseudococcus  I'lai'itiiiuts  Ehrh.)  which  Ferris  has  reported 
from  the  Pacific  coast  (1918).  New  York  (1918),  Florida 
(1919).  England  (1919)  and  Lower  California  (1921). 

During  the  progress  of  this  study  in  Ohio  it  was  taken  from 
sycamore,  elder,  osage  orange  and  the  roots  of  clover  and  in 
Virginia  it  has  since  been  found  ovipositing  on  the  green  bark 
of  apple  trees.  On  two  occasions  it  was  ovipositing  in  the  stem 
end  of  apples.  Mr.  P.  R.  T.owerv,  who  has  collected  mealy 
bugs  in  Ohio  for  several  years,  informs  me  that  he  has  collected 
it  from  the  following  additional  hosts:  Flowering  dogwood, 
roots  of  goldenrod,  hackberry,  hazelnut.  hickory,  maple.  Rho- 
dodendron maximum  and  wild  cherry.  In  the  botanical  green- 
house at  Ohio  State  University  it  ranks  second  to  Psendococcns 
citri  Risso  as  a  mealy  bug  pest.  Tn  this  greenhouse  it  was 
found  on  26  different  host  plants.  The  common  name,  "omni- 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  175 

vorous  mealy  bug,"  which  was  once  aplly  applied  to  this  insect, 
is  not  a  misnomer.  It  is  now  recorded  from  80  hosts  and  the 
list  is  far  from  complete.  In  the  Shenandoah  valley  of  Vir- 
ginia it  far  outnumbers  the  clover  root  mealy  bug  on  the  roots 
of  clover,  but  in  central  Ohio  the  latter  was  more  abundant. 

In  life  this  species  is  very  easily  distinguished  from  the  clover  root 
mealy  bug.  The  adults  vary  from  2  mm.  to  6  mm.  in  length,  width 
approximately  half  the  body  length,  elongate  oval  when  viewed  dorsally 
and  somewhat  flattened  from  a  lateral  view.  The  reddish -brown  body 
is  covered  with  a  white  wax  powder  and  around  the  body  margin  are 
17  pairs  of  lateral  tassels  or  filaments,  which  increase  in  length  toward 
the  posterior  end,  the  caudal  pair  being  from  one-half  to  two-thirds  as 
long  as  the  body.  The  eight-segmented  antennae  are  about  one-fifth  as 
long  as  the  body  and  similar  in  color.  The  legs  are  slightly  lighter. 

Immature  forms  have  the  general  appearance  of  the  adults.  First 
and  second  stage  larvae  have  six-segmented  antennae  and  larvae  of  the 
third  stage  have  seven-segmented  antennae.  The  caudal  tassels  make 
their  appearance  in  the  first  larval  stage  and  late  in  the  second  stage  are 
nearly  as  long  as  those  of  the  adult.  Except  for  reduced  size  third 
stage  larvae  are  similar  to  the  adults. 

The    males    are    minute   winged    forms,    1.3    mm.    in    length,    with    ? 
white  pair  of  caudal  tassels  equal  to  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  body 
They   are   active   fliers,   without    functional   mouthparts,   and   live    for   a 
few  days  only. 

Since  the  life  history  has  been  studied  in  California  (Clausen, 
1915)  a  brief  summary  of  observations  made  under  Ohio  con- 
ditions is  given  here.  Specimens  and  eggs  transferred  from 
sycamore  to  clover  were  reared  on  the  latter  in  the  insectarv, 
where  the  temperature  fluctuated  from  45  degrees  to  90  degrees 
Fahrenheit.  The  complete  life  cycle  from  egg  to  egg  averaged 
85.5  days  for  six  individuals.  As  spring  approached  this  time 
was  shortened.  Winter  was  passed  in  every  stage  of  develop- 
ment. As  cold  weather  approached  every  stage  of  development 
was  retarded,  the  immature  forms  and  adults  alike  became  very 
sluggish  and  inactive.  None  were  ever  found  stored  in  ant 
nests.  Kggs  collected  on  December  1  and  kept  in  a  shaded 
place  outdoors  did  not  hatch  until  the  middle  of  March. 

Although  found  associated  with  the  clover  root  mealy  bug 
on  the  roots  of  clover,  the  ants  rarely  carried  this  species  about. 
\Yhcn  a  colony  was  disturbed  the  ants  lust  no  time  in  carrying 
the  clover  root  mealy  bug  to  a  place  of  safety,  but  the  Baker 

176  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [June,  '22 

mealy  bug  was  usually  left  to  shift  fur  itself.     The  latter  does 
not  produce  honey  dew  as  profusely  as  the  former. 

When  disturbed  or  handled  rather  roughly  both  species  would 
eject  from  one  to  four  dorsal  globules  over  the  location  of  the 
dorsal  ostioles.  When  the  ants  touched  these  liquid  globules 
they  were  invariably  repelled  while  at  the  same  time  the  anal 
secretion  of  honey  dew  was  always  eagerly  accepted.  As  a 
rule  honey  dew  was  ejected  in  response  to  a  gentle  stroke  of  a 
stiff  hair  or'  needle,  but  when  the  treatment  became  too  severe 
the  dorsal  globules  were  suddenly  ejected,  the  ostiole  nearest  ttvj 
point  of  disturbance  being  the  first  to  respond. 

CLAUSEN,  C.   B. — 1915.     The   Mealy   Bugs   of   Citrus  Trees.     Univ.   of 

Cal.  Exp.  Sta.  Bull.  238,  pp.  26-30. 
D.wis,   G.    E.— 1804.     Mealy    Bugs    and    Their   Allies.      Insect    Life   7: 

1804.     Insects    That    Are    Common    But    Xot    Destructive.      Mich. 

Agric.  Exp.  Sta.  Bull.  116,  pp.  58-60. 
FERRIS,    G.    F. — 1918.      (a)     The    California    Species    of    Mealy    Bugs. 

Stanford  Univ.   Publication,  Univ.   Series,  pp.  48-40. 
1918.     (b)     The  Alleged  Occurrence  of  a   Seasonal  Dimorphism   in 
the  Females  of  Certain   Species   of   Mealy   Bugs.     Entomological 
News,  20:349-352. 

1910.    Observations  on  Some  Mealy  Bugs.    Jour.  Econ   Ent.  12:293. 

1921.    Report  of  a   Collection  of   Coccidae   from  Lower  California. 

Stanford  Univ.    Publication,   Biological   Sciences,   1.   No.  2,  p.  83. 

Insects  of  the  Yellow  Thistle  (Hem.,  Col.,  Lepid., 

Dip.,  Hym.). 

By  O.  W.  ROSEWALL,  Louisiana  State  University. 

Baton  Rouge,  La. 

Practically  throughout  the  entire  state  of  Louisiana  one  can 
find  the  plants  of  the  Yellow  Thistle  (Caniitits  spinosissiimis 
Walt..)  growing  at  some  time  during  the  year,  and  in  the  south- 
ern part  of  the  state  the  prickly  green  leaves  may  be  found 
during  the  whole  year,  except  when  heavy  frosts  destroy  them. 
In  the  spring,  during  the  flowering  season,  the}-  are  very  notice- 
able, especially  in  pastures  and  along  the  roadside  where  they 
stand  as  sentinels  because  the  cattle  have  eaten  the  surrounding 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  177 

vegetation.  The  following  statements  taken  from  I'.ritton  and 
Brown's  Illustrated  Flora  of  the  Northern  States  and  Canada 
give  the  technical  description  of  the  plant : 

Biennial  or  perennial,  somewhat  wooly  when  young,  but  becoming1 
glabrate ;  stem  branched,  leafy.  2  ft.  to  5  ft.  high.  Leaves  green 
both  sides,  lanceolate  or  oblong  in  outline,  sessile  and  clasping  or  the 
basal  ones  short-petioled  and  somewhat  spatulate  pinnatifid  into  tri- 
angular or  broader,  spinulose-margined  and  prickle-tipped,  entire  or 
dentate  lobes  ;  heads  involucrate  by  the  upper  leaves,  2  to  4  inches  broad, 
\1A  to  \l/2  inches  high;  bracts  of  the  involucre  narrowly  lanceolate, 
roughish  and  ciliate,  long-acuminate,  unarmed ;  flowers  pale  yellow, 
yellowish,  or  occasionally  purple. 

In  moist  or  sandy  soil,  Maine  to  Pennsylvania,  Florida  and  Texas. 
Abundant  along  the  edges  of  salt-meadows  in  New  York  and  New 
Jersey.  May-August,  or  earlier  in  the  South. 

In  Louisiana  this  plant  is  attractive  to  very  few  animals; 
however,  certain  insects  may  be  found  feeding  on  or  visiting 
this  plant.  The  collections  of  these  insects*  were  made  by  the 
author  in  the  vicinity  of  Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana,  including  the 
levee  along  the  Mississippi  River,  and  all  dates  in  this  paper 

ai'e  of  the  year  1920. 


Acanthocephala  declivis  Say.  (Coreidae.)  Mar.  29.  Several  speci- 
mens taken  on  leaves.  May  4.  Numerous. 

Agallia   constricta   Van    D.      (Cicadellidae.)      Mar.   29.     Few. 

Euschistus  bifibulus  P.   B.     (Pentatomidae.)      Mar.  29.     Common. 

Euschistus  ictericus   L.     Mar.  29.     One  specimen  taken. 

Euschistus  servus  Say.  Alar.  28.  Common.  April  20.  Numerous, 
copulating.  May  4  and  20.  Common.  Specimens  practically 
on  every  plant. 

Euschistus  tristigmus   Say.     Alar.   28.     Two   specimens. 

Entylia  concisa   \Yalk.      (Alembracidae.)      Mar.   29.      Common. 

Leptoglossus  phyllopus  Linn.  (Coreidae.)  Alar.  28  and  29.  Nu- 
merous all  over  plants. 

Myzus  braggii  Gillette.  (Aphididae.)  April  8.  Some  of  the  plants 
almost  covered  with  this  aphid. 

Nezara  viridula  L.  (Pentatomidae.)  Mar.  29.  Few.  April  8. 

Phymata  wolfii  Stal.  ( Phymatidae.)  April  8.  Occasional  specimen- 
found  in  (lowers. 

Repipta  taurus  Fab.    (Reduviidae.)     April  20.     One  specimen. 

*  The  author   is   indebted   to   the   following   for   some   identifications: 
Dr.  J.  M.  Aldrich,  Dr.  H.  G.  Dyar,  W.  L.  McAtee,  H.  L.  Viereck, 

178  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [June,  '22 


Acmaeodera  tubulus  Fabr.  (Buprestidac.)  April  29.  One  speci- 
men in  flower. 

Anthonomus  suturalis  Lee.  (Curculionidae.)  April  20.  One  speci- 
men in  flower. 

Aphelogenia  vittata  Fab.     (Carabidae.)     Mar.  29.     In  axil  of  leaf. 

Baris  dicipula  Csy.  (Curculionidae.)  Mar.  29.  Few  in  axil  of 

Bruchus  obtectus  Say.  (Bruchidae.)  Mar.  29.  Single  specimen 
on  leaf. 

Calandra  oryzae  L.  (Curculionidae.)  April  8.    Few  in  axil  of  leaves. 

Chalcodermus  aeneus  Bob.  (Curculionidae.)  Mar.  29.  One  speci- 
men in  axil  of  leaf. 

Chariessa  pilosa  Forst.  (Lampyridae.)  Mar.  29.  Several  speci- 
mens on  leaves. 

Chauliognathus  marginatus  Fab.  (Lampyridae.)  Mar.  29.  One  or 
two  specimens  on  each  plant.  April  1.  Very  numerous  and 

Coccinella  sanguinea  L.  (Coccinellidae.)  Mar.  28,  Alay  4  and  April 
1.  Occasionally  seen  on  all  plants  and  numerous  on  those  in- 
fested with  aphids. 

Diabrotica  balteata  Lee.  (Chrysomelidae.)  April  1.  Few.  Feed- 
ing on  leaves. 

Diabrotica  12-punctata  Oliv.  Feb.  4.  Two  specimens  feeding  on 
leaves.  April  8.  One  or  more  specimens  on  every  plant  in- 

Disonycha  glabrata  Fab.  (ChrysomeHdae.)  April  8.  One  speci- 
men taken  in  axil  of  leaf. 

Disonycha  quinquevittata  Say.     April    1.     One  specimen  on  leaf. 

Drasterius  elegans  Fab.      (Elateridae.)      Mar.  29.     Few. 

Euphoria  sepulchralis  Fab.  (Scarabaeidae.)  April  20.  This  beetle 
is  found  in  practically  all  mature  flowers  and  occasionally  two 
or  three  specimens  may  be  removed  from  one  head.  They  bur- 
row deep  in  the  flowers. 

Lebia  marginicollis  Dej.      (Carabidae.)      April  8.     One  specimen  on 


Lebia  viridis  Say.     April  8.     One  specimen  on  leaf. 
Lema   sayi   Crotch.      (Chrysomelidae.)      April   8.      One   specimen    in 

axil  of  leaf. 
Limonius  auripilis  Say.     (Elateridae.)      April  20.     One  specimen   on 


Lina  scripta  Fab.  (Chrysomelidae.)  Mar.  29.  Occasional  speci- 
mens found  in  axils  of  leaves. 

Megilla  maculata  Dej.      (Coccinellidae.)      Mar.  28.     Common. 
Myochrous  denticollis  Say.      (Chrysomelidae.)      Mar.  29.     Common 
in  axil  of  leaves. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  179 

Pyropyga   decipiens    Harr.     (Lampyridae.)      May   4.      Several   speci- 
mens taken  in  flowers. 
Statira   gagatina    Mels.     (Lagriidae.)      April    '20.      One    specimen    in 

Uloma  mentalis   Horn.      (Tenebrioniclae.)      Mar.  29.     One  specimen 

on  leaf. 

Autographa  biloba  Stephens.     (Noctuidae.)     Caterpillar  collected  on 

April   8   while   feeding  on   the   leaves.     Reared  in  insectary  and 

moth  emerged  April  20. 
Homoeosoma  electellum   Hulst.      (Pyralidae.)      Caterpillar   collected 

on   May  21   while  feeding  in  base  of  bud.     Reared  in   insectary 

and  moth  emerged  June  2. 
Phlyctaenia     ferrugalis     Hbn.      (Pyralidae.)       Caterpillar     collected 

April  8  while  feeding  on  leaves.     Reared  in  insectary  and  moth 

emerged  April  23. 


Carphotricha   culta    Wd.      (Trypetidae.)      When    present    they    may 

be   found   resting   on    the   various   parts   of   the   plant.      April   8. 

Common.      May   17.      Reared   several   adults   from   pupae   which 

had  been   taken   from   the   interior  of   the  base   of   the  dried   up 

Chrysops    flavidus    Wd.      (Tabanidac.)      April    30.      One    specimen 

taken  on   flower. 
Eutreta  sparsa  Wd.     (Trypetidae.)     May  21.     Occasional  specimens 

on  flowers. 
Dilophus   orbatus   Say.     (Bibionidae.)      April   8   and   20.      Numerous 

on  all  parts  of  plant. 

Hydrotaea  houghi  Malloch.     (Anthomyidae.)     April  20.     One  speci- 
men taken  on   flower. 
Lucilia  sericata  Meig.     (Muscidae.)     April  8  and  20.     Common  on 


Phormia  regina  Meig.     (Muscidae.)     April  8.     Common  on  flowers. 
Pseudopyrellia  caesariana  Meig.     (Muscidae.)     April  20.     Common 

on  flowers. 
Rhamphidia    flavipes    Macquart.     (Tipulidae.)      Mar.   29.      Very    nu- 

nu-rous.     Ofter   .10-7.1   individuals  on   a   single  plant  would   have 

a  synchronic  motion,  moving  the  bodies  up  and  down  as  if  the 

legs   were    springs. 
Sarcophaga    quadrisetosa    Coq.      (Sarcophagidae.)      April    20.      One 

specimen  taken  on   flower. 
Tipula  sp.   ?    (Tipulidae.)     Mar.  29.     A  few  specimens  taken  among 

the  numerous   R.   fltirifics. 
Trypeta  palposa   I.oew.     (Trypetidae.)     April  20  and  22.     Common. 

Reared  adults  from   pupae  collected   with  the  pupae  of  C.  ciiltn 

Wd.  from  interior  of  mature  flower  buds. 

180  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [  June,  '22 

Apis  mellifica  Linn.     (Apiclae.)     April   i.     An  occasional  bee  in  the 

flowers,  but  at  no  time  have  they  been  numerous. 
Agapostemon  virescens  Fab.     (Halictidae.)     April  20.     Common  on 


Bremus   pennsylvanicus   DeGeer.      (Apidae.)      April    1.      Occasional. 
Camponotus  pennsylvanicus  DeGeer.      (Formicidae.)      April   20.     A 

single   winged   specimen   taken   on   leaf. 

Halictus  ligatus  Say.     (Halictidae.)      April   20.     Occasional. 
Iridomyrmex  humilis   Mayr.      (Formicidae.)      Common   at  all   times 

on   plants   along   river. 

Megachile  brevis  Say.    (Megachilidae.)     Mar.  29.     Occasional. 
Oxystoglossa    sp    ?     (Halictidae.)     April    20.      Three    specimens    on 

Xylocopa  micans  LeP.     (Xylocopidae.)     April   1.     Occasional. 

No  doubt  there  are  many  more  insect  visitors  and  insect 
enemies  of  this  plant  than  are  listed  in  this  paper  for  this  local- 
ity, and  the  list  would  increase  with  the  inclusion  of  more  ter- 
ritory, but  the  author  feels  that  this  list  may  lead  others  to 
watch  this  plant  more  carefully. 

In  concluding  it  is  well  to  state  that  there  are  other  animals 
who  visit  or  live  in  the  vicinity  of  this  plant,  c.  g.,  under  the 
decaying  leaves  at  the  base  are  usually  to  be  found  sow-bugs, 
millipedes,  centipedes  and  snails.  The  snails  are  often  numer- 
ous on  the  plants  near  the  river. 

Notes  on  the  Desmodium  Leaf  Miner,  Pachyschelus 
laevigatus  (Say)  (Col.  :  Buprestidae). 

By  HARRY   B.   WEISS  and   ERDMAN   WEST.   New   Brunswick. 

New  Jersey. 

This  member  of  the  Buprestidae  which  ranges  from  south- 
eastern Canada  to  Florida  and  west  to  Iowa  is  common 
throughout  New  Jersey  and  can  be  found  from  the  last  of 
May  until  the  first  week  of  July  on  and  in  the  vicinity  of 
Mciboinia  canadcnsis  (L.)  (Desmodium  canadcnse).  Blatch- 
ley  records  the  adults  on  the  foliage  of  black  gum  and  the 
flowers  of  black  haw,  milkweed,  etc.,  and  Chambers  records  it 
as  mining  Dcsmodhim.  At  Rutherford,  New  Jersey,  we  found 
it  mining  the  leaves  of  Desmodium  pendula.  At  Fairlawn. 
New  Jersey,  adults  were  numerous  on  Lcspcdcza  capitata,  and 

xxxiii,  '22] 



at  Boonton,  New  Jersey,  mines  were  noted  on  Lespedcza  bi- 
color,  but  it  is  not  known  definitely  if  they  were  the  mines  of 
laevigatus.  At  Monmouth  Junction.  New  Jersey,  several  clumps 
of  Meibomia  canadcnsis  growing  along  a  railroad  embankment 
were  heavily  infested  by  P.  laevigatus  (Say)  and  the  following 
notes  are  the  results  of  observations  made  for  the  most  part  at 
this  place  during  1921. 

Adults  appear  about  the  last  week  of  May  and  first  week  of 
June  and  feed  on  the  upper  surfaces  of  the  leaves,  leaving 
nothing  but  the  lower  epidermis  which  becomes  reddish  and 
in  the  course  of  time  somewhat  ragged  due  to  the  tissue  drying 
and  breaking.  Copulation  takes  place  during  the  last  half  of 
June,  and' by  the  first  week  of  July  small  larvae  can  be  found. 
The  eggs  are  inserted  in  a  little  pocket  made  usually  in  the 
lower  surface  near  the  edge  of  the  leaf.  The  subcircular, 
nearly  flat,  jelly-like  egg  is  deposited  under  a  thin  layer  of 
tissue.  Both  the  tissue  above  and  below  the  egg  are  pushed 
out  slightly  and  this  results  in  somewhat  flat,  oval-like  blister 
or  swelling  which  is  visible  on  both  leaf  surfaces.  The  tissue 
over  the  egg  on  the  lower  leaf  surface  becomes  dry  and  whitish, 
while  the  upper  surface  of  the  blister  becomes  somewhat  red- 





182  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  IJuilC,  '22 

The  mine  is  started  from  the  egg  pocket  and  later  extended 
in  a  somewhat  irregular  and  linear  manner.  By  the  middle  of 
July  most  of  the  larvae  are  nearly  three-quarters  grown  and 
by  the  last  of  July  many  are  full  grown  and  the  mines  are  com- 
pleted. On  the  upper  leaf  surface  the  mines  appear  as  dry, 
brown,  irregularly  linear  areas.  A  few  are  blotch-like.  The 
number  of  mines  in  a  leaf  varies  from  one  to  three,  but  is 
usually  only  one. 

When  the  greenish  larva  is  full  grown  it  hollows  out  a  cir- 
cular cavity  at  the  end  of  the  mine.  Such  cavities  are  about 
five  or  six  millimeters  in  diameter.  In  this  place  it  constructs 
a  circular,  somewhat  flat,  thin,  tough,  parchment-like  cocoon 
about  four  millimeters  in  diameter.  These  cocoons  push  out 
the  upper  and  lo\ver  leaf  tissues  somewhat  into  comparatively 
large  blister-like  swellings.  By  the  first  week  cf  August  all 
of  the  larvae  are  in  these  cocoons.  At  this  time  the  tissue  over 
the  linear  mines  starts  to  break  up  and  this,  together  with  the 
feeding  which  took  place  earlier  in  the  season,  cause  the  leaves 
to  turn  entirely  brown  and  start  to  curl  up  toward  the  midrib. 

After  the  larva  enters  its  cocoon  it  shrinks  longitudinally 
into  a  semiquiescent,  compact,  prepupal  stage,  in  which  it  re- 
mains until  the  following  spring,  when  it  transforms  to  a  pupa. 
The  prepupal  stage  is  long  and  lasts  almost  from  the  first  of 
August  until  the  following  May.  By  the  first  week  in  Sep- 
tember the  cocoon  with  the  dried  leaf  tissue  over  it  somewhat 
resembles  a  Dcsmodhun  seed  in  color  and  shape.  Later  the 
leaves  containing  the  cocoons  and  in  fact  all  of  the  leaves  fall 
to  the  ground  and  here  the  prepupa  passes  the  winter. 

Egg. — Width,  0.5  mm.  Subcircular,  flat,  sides  slightly  convex ; 
chorion  apparently  smooth ;  transparent  when  first  laid,  later  becoming 
translucent  and  whitish.  The  egg  resembles  a  flattened  globule  of 
water,  but  of  thicker  consistency. 

Larva. — Length  6  to  7  mm.  Width  across  middle  of  body  about 
1.7  mm.  Flattened,  spindle-shaped,  tapering  both  ways  from  about 
the  middle,  more  acutely  posteriorly;  each  segment  slightly  convex 
dorsally  and  ventrally ;  body  deeply  notched,  composed  of  thirteen 
well-defined  segments;  legs  absent;  ocelli  absent;  color  light  green, 
contents  of  alimentary  canal  sometimes  showing  as  median  dark  green 
line ;  first  segment  narrower  than  second ;  first  segment  with  well- 
defined,  large,  subquadrate  plate  on  dorsal  and  ventral  surfaces,  dorsal 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  183 

plate  apparently  smooth,  ventral  plate  bearing  transverse  rugosities ; 
head  small,  retracted  into  first  segment;  antennae  three-jointed;  labrum 
comparatively  large,  protruded ;  mandibles  short,  strong,  somewhat 
spoon-shaped,  bifid  at  apex;  maxillary  palpi  two-jointed;  labium  some- 
what protruded ;  spiracles,  one  large  one  on  each  side  of  second  seg- 
ment and  a  smaller  one  on  each  anterior  dorso-lateral  surface  of  seg- 
ments four  to  eleven.  The  embryonic  larva  appears  to  be  more 
characteristically  "buprestid"  in  shape.  Viewed  through  the  transparent 
•nvering,  the  anterior  third  of  the  body  is  wide  and  flat  and  the 
remaining  two-thirds  narrow  and  tail-like,  folded  against  anterior 
third.  After  hatching  it  becomes  oval. 

Pupa. — Length  about  3  mm.  Width  about  1.6  mm.  Color  whitish; 
shape  oval,  like  that  of  adult.  Abdomen  terminated  by  a  pair  of 
minute  tubercles ;  remainder  of  body  apparently  devoid  of  hairs  or 

Adult. — Pachyschclus  lacrifiatus.  This  was  described  by  Say  in 
1836  (Trans.  Am.  Phil.  Soc.,  vol.  vi,  p.  164).  The  original  description 
was  recently  published  by  Nicolay  and  Weiss  in  their  review  of  the 
igenus  Pachyschelus  (Jour.  N.  Y.  Ent.  Soc.,  vol.  xxviii,  p.  140,  1920) 
;>nd  need  not  be  repeated  here. 

On  Anomalies  in  Wing  Markings  of  Basilarchia 
astyanax  Fab.  (Lepid.,  Rhop.  :  Nymphalidae). 

By  WARO   NAKAHARA,   New   York   City. 

Among  some  fifty  specimens  of  Basilarchia  astyancix  Fab. 
(=-  Limcnitis  Ursula  Godt.)  collected  by  me  at  Elmhurst,  Long 
Island  (near  New  York  City)  during  the  early  part  of  August, 
1921,  two  interesting  aberrant  specimens  have  been  found. 
In  one  there  is  a  complete  submarginal  row  of  red  spots  to  the 
hindwing,  upperside,  exactly  as  in  B.  arthcmis  Dru.  The  speci- 
men is  a  male  with  appearance  entirely  typical  of  astyana.v. 
excepting  the  character  just  mentioned.  In  the  other,  a  female 
specimen,  there  are  elongated  conspicuous  red  patches,  one  in 
each  interspace,  on  the  underside  of  the  hindwing.  This  speci- 
men appears  typical  of  astyana.v,  as  far  as  the  upperside  is  con- 
cerned. Needless  to  say  that  almost  every  intergradation  has 
been  found  between  the  typical  astyana.v  and  the  two  extremes 
here  described. 

It  is  well  known  that  in  form  proscrpina  Kdw.  of  arthcmis 
the  white  bands  are  often  completely  obsolete,  thus  closely  re- 
sembling ast  \ana.\-.  The  only  difference  between  the  two  spe- 
cies then  consists  of  the  presence  in  arthcmis  and  the  absence 

184  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [June,  '22 

m  astyana.v  of  the  red  spots  on  the  upperside  of  the  hindwing. 
Therefore  I  would  have  referred  the  first  specimen  described 
above  to  R.  arthcmis  f.  proscrpina  Edw.,  if  it  were  not  -for  the 
fact  that  the  specimen  was  found  in  company  with  numerous 
examples  of  astyana.v  and  not  of  arthcmis.  Besides,  as  far  as 
I  am  aware,  arthemis  has  not  been  found  to  occur  in  the  vicin- 
ity of  New  York  City. 

The  occurrence  of  a  proscrpina-like  form  within  a  popula- 
tion of  astyana.v,  which  is  not  mixed  with  arthcmis,  is  rather 
interesting.  This  fact,  coupled  with  the  well-known  variability 
of  arthcmis  itself  and  the  geographical  distribution  of  the  two 
butterflies,  seems  to  suggest  that  they  represent  two  local  races 
( sub-species)  of  a  single  species :  B.  arthemis  arthcmis,  the 
northern,  and  B.  arthemis  astyanax,  the  southern  race. 

Another  point  that  might  be  brought  up  in  connection  with 
the  variability  of  the  reddish  markings  in  astyana.v  is  the  ques- 
tion of   mimicry  in  the  genus  Basilarchia.      The  well-known 
resemblance  of   B.  ar  chip  pus  to  Danais    (Anosia)    plc.vippus, 
long  believed  to  be  a  case  of  mimicry,  has  come  in  recent  years 
to  be  looked  upon  with  much  skepticism.     There  has  been  no 
positive  ground  for  the  hypothesis  of  mimicry  to  begin  with, 
and  in  the  case  of  archippus  especially  it  has  been  shown  that 
in  the  ancestral   form,  B.  arthcmis,   which  archippus  is   sup- 
posed  to  have  sprung   from,   the  reddish  markings   show   no 
such  wide  variability  as  called  for  by  the  hypothesis  of  gradual 
change  by  natural  selection.     That  astyana.v  shows  much  varia- 
tion in  its  reddish  markings  would  seem  to  open  a  path  for  the 
hypothesis,  which,  however,  does  not  seem  to  meet  the  condi- 
tion.    For  the  past  three  years,  in  the  vicinity  of  New  York 
City,  archipp-us  has  been  observed  more  commonly  than  plcx- 
ippus.     The  time  of  appearance,  too,  seems  to  be  different  in 
the  two  species,  they  being  seldom  seen  flying  at  the  same  time. 
MoreO'ver,   of   the  two   Basilarchias   occurring   in   this   region, 
the  "unprotected"  astyana.v  is  by  far  commoner  than  the  sup- 
posedly protected  archippus,     A  question  arises :  Does  archip- 
pus  derive   any   benefit    from    its    resemblance   to    plc.vippus? 
With  these  facts  at  hand,  it  might  be  well  to  consider  if  ar- 
chippus is  so  different  in  the  markings  from  other  congeneric 
forms  as  to  require  some  special  explanation.     Is  not  Vanessa 
antiopa,   for   instance,   different  enough   from  other   Vanessas 
to  demand  a  special  hypothesis  to  account  for  its  unique  color- 
ation ? 

It  is  not  within  the  scope  of  this  short  note  to  go  into  this 
question  any  deeper.  Suffice  it  to  say  that,  while  astyana.v 
shows  wide  range  of  variability  in  the  reddish  element  of  its 
wing  markings,  this  fact  by  itself  offers  no  argument  for  the 
supposed  mimetic  nature  of  the  coloration  of  archippus. 



Collect  Data  First,  Specimens  Second. 

When  this  number  of  the  NEWS  reaches  its  readers  the  col- 
lecting season  will  already  have  been  under  way  for  some 
weeks.  Indeed  some  kind  of  entomological  collecting  is  pos- 
sible at  almost  all  seasons  of  the  year.  It  is,  therefore,  never 
too  late  to  remind  collectors  that  in  most  cases  the  data  which 
they  may  obtain  with  their  specimens  (if  they  will)  are  more 
important  and  more  valuable  than  the  animals  (insects)  them- 
selves. To  be  sure,  as  an  illustration  of  morphology  or  of  a 
taxonomic  unit  of  some  sort,  a  specimen,  unaccompanied  by 
any  data  as  to  its  habitat,  its  time  of  occurrence,  its  relations 
to  its  surroundings,  has  a  certain  value,  but  from  any  other 
viewpoint  such  a  naked  object  is  useless.  All  of  the  most  in- 
teresting sides  of  entomology,  of  biology,  are  based  upon  the 
observations  made  in  connection  with  the  living  thing  and  its 
surroundings,  and  the  more  completely  these  are  recorded  in 
connection  with  the  specimens  the  better. 

Dr.  A.  G.  Ruth ven,  in  his  Report  of  the  Director  of  The 
Museum  of  Zoology  of  the  University  of  Michigan,  for  the 
year  ending  June  30,  1921.  makes  a  strong  and  interesting 
appeal  for  "Geography  in  Museums  of  Zoology,"  saying  among 
other  things : 

Specimens  accompanied  by  geographic  data  are  more  valuable  for 
taxonomic  investigations  than  those  without  this  information,  .  .  such 
data  arc  indispensable  for  geographic  studies,  ...  it  is  an  anachronous 
practice  to  continue  the  piling  up  of  records  of  a  kind  once  thought  to 
be  adequate  but  now  known  to  be  inadequate  for  the  purposes  which 
they  should  serve. 


186  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [June,  '22 

The    University   of    Michigan- Williamson    Expedition   to    Brazil. 

Mr.  Jesse  H.  Williamson's  letters  from  February  13  to  March  1 
state  that  Captain  Strohm  and  he  were  still  at  Porto  Velho,  Brazil 
(see  the  NEWS  for  April,  page  104).  There  was  much  rain  and  the 
opinion  was  expressed  that  there  would  be  no  collecting  along  or  near 
the  big  rivers  till  they  dropped  30  or  40  feet.  On  March  1  they  esti- 
mated their  collections  of  insects  as  comprising  2000  specimens  of 
Odonata  of  S3  species  and  a  few  ants,  beetles,  grass-hoppers,  crane- 
flies  and  cicadas;  also  a  few  spiders. 

On  March  5  they  left  Porto  Velho  by  the  Madeira-Mamore  Railway 
for  Abuna,  220  kilometers  to  the  southwest,  in  the  State  of  Matto 
Grosso.  This  place  is  given  as  Abunan  on  the  National  Geographic 
Society's  map ;  its  official  name  is  Presidente  Marquez ;  it  likewise  is 
on  the  Madeira  River.  At  first  there  were  only  light  showers  here, 
but  after  a  week  heavy  rains  fell  putting  even  the  woods  trails  a  foot 
or  more  under  water. 

On  March  15,  Drs.  Mann,  Pierson  and  White  of  the  Mulford  Explor- 
ation arrived  in  Abuna,  on  their  homeward  way,  and  continued  their 
journey  to  Porto  Velho  the  next  day.  A  "gab  fest"  between  the  two 
expeditions  is  reported. 

In  spite  of  the  unfavorable  weather  their  Odonata  numbered  2945 
specimens  on  March  14  and  3616  on  March  26. 

On  March  27  they  continued  up  the  railway  to  Villa  Martinho,  where 
there  is  no  hotel  as  at  Porto  Velho  and  at  Abuna,  and  found  quarters 
in  a  restaurant.  Villa  Martinho  is  93  kilometers  from  Abuna.  In  these 
river  towns  the  railway  is  the  only  foot  highway. 

A    Request    for    Exchanges    with    Russia. 

The  Permanent  Bureau  of  Ail-Russian  Entomo-Phytopathological 
Congresses,  Liteyny,  37-39,  Room  59,  Petrograd,  Russia,  desires  : 

1.  To    exchange    printed    matter    (published    since    1914)    on    ento- 
mology,   phytopathology,    mycology   and    zoology,    with    American    Col- 
leagues, Scientific  Societies,  Agricultural  Experiment  Stations,  Museums 
of   Natural   History,   Periodicals,   etc. 

2.  To   receive    from   American    publishers   catalogues  and   specimen 
numbers  of  various  publications  on  the  above  mentioned  subjects. 

3.  To  receive  catalogues  and  price-lists  from  American  firms  dealing 
in  various  apparatus  and  chemicals  used  in  combating  the  plant  injurers. 

The  above  mentioned  Permanent  Bureau  has  supplied  credentials  to 
Mr.  D.  N.  Borodin  (who  also  represents  the  Bureau  of  Applied  Botany 
of  the  Russian  Agricultural  Scientific  Committee,  Petrograd)  to  collect 
literature  in  this  country  and  give  all  the  necessary  information  t» 
American  Colleagues,  concerning  the  entomological  work  conducted  in 
Russia  and  to  organize  an  exchange  of  literature. 

Air.    Borodin   will   accept   all    packages   of    books,   bulletins,   etc.,    for 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  187 

Russia,  if  they  will  be  addressed  to  him  at  No.   110  West  40th   Street, 
Room   1603,   New  York  City. 

[The  Editors  are  aware  that  there  has  been  difficulty  in  sending 
and  receiving  scientific  papers  to  and  from  Russia,  and  will  be  glad 
if  Mr.  Borodin  succeeds  in  reopening  communication  with  that  country.] 

Entomological    Literature 


Under  the  above  head  it  is  intended  to  note  papers  received  at  the 
Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  of  Philadelphia,  pertaining  to  the  En- 
tomology of  the  Americas  (North  and  South),  including  Arachnida  and 
Myriopoda.  Articles  irrelevant  to  American  entomology  will  not  be  noted; 
but  contributions  to  anatomy,  physiology  and  embryology  of  insects, 
however,  whether  relating  to  American  or  exotic  species,  will  be  recorded. 

The  numbers  in  Heavy- Faced  Type  refer  to  the  journals,  as  numbered 
in  the  following  list,  in  which  the  papers  are  published. 

All  continued  papers,  with  few  exceptions,  are  recorded  only  at  their 
first  installments. 

The  records  of  papers  containing  new  genera  or  species  occurring  north 
of  Mexico  are  grouped  at  the  end  of  their  respective  Orders. 

For  records  of  Economic  Literature,  see  the  Experiment  Station  Record, 
Office  of  Experiment  Stations,  Washington.  Also  Review  of  Applied  En- 
tomology, Series  A,  London.  For  records  of  papers  on  Medical  Ento- 
mology, see  Review  of  Applied  Entomology.  Series  P, 

The  titles  occurring  in  the  Entomological   News  are  not   listed. 

5 — Psyche,  Cambridge,  Mass.  7 — Annals  of  The  Entomological 
Society  of  America,  Columbus,  Ohio.  8 — The  Entomologist  ^ 
Monthly  Magazine,  London.  10 — Proceedings  of  the  Entomological 
Society  of  Washington.  D.  C.  11 — Annals  and  Magazine  of  Natural 
History,  London.  12 — Journal  of  Economic  Entomology,  Concord, 
N.  H.  13 — Journal  of  Entomology  and  Zoology,  Claremont,  Cal. 
15 — Insecutor  Inscitiae  Menstruns,  \Yashington,  D.  C.  16 — The 
Lepidopterist,  Salem,  Mass.  22 — Bulletin  of  Entomological  Re- 
search, London.  24 — Annales  de  la  Societe  Entomologique  de 
France.  Paris.  28 — Entomologisk  Tidskrift,  Uppsala.  39 — The 
Florida  Entomologist,  Gainesville,  Florida.  45 — Zeitschrift  fur 
wissenschaftlichc  Insektenbiologie.  Berlin.  50— Proceedings  of  the 
United  States  National  Museum.  52 — Zoologischer  An/eiger,  Lcip- 
sjc_  62 — Bulletin  of  the  American  Museum  of  Natural  History. 
New  York.  68 — Science,  Garrison  on  the  Hudson.  X.  Y  69- 
Comptcs  Rendus,  des  seances  de  1'Academie  des  Sciences,  Paris. 
70 — Journal  of  Morphology,  Philadelphia.  72 — The  Annals  of 
Applied  Biology,  London.  73 — Proceedings  of  the  I.innean 
Society  of  New  South  Wales,  Sydney.  77— Compte^;  Kendus 
des  seances  dc  la  Societe  de  Biologic,  Paris.  80— Revu-.- 
Suisse  de  Zoologie,  Geneve.  82 — The  Ohio  Journal  of  Science. 
Columbus.  Ohio.  85 — The  Journal  of  Experimental  Zoology.  Phila- 
delphia. 87 — Arkiv  for  Zoologi,  K.  Svcnska  Vetenskapsakademien, 
Stockholm.  88 — Occasional  Papers  of  the  Mil-rum  of  Zool" 
University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor.  89 — Zoologische  Jahrbucher. 

188  ENTOMOLOGICAL'  NEWS  [June,  '22 

Jena.  91 — The  Scientific  Monthly,  Lancaster,  Pa.  104 — Zeitschrift 
fur  Wissenschaftliche  Zoologie,  Leipzig.  114 — Entomologische 
Rundschau,  Stuttgart.  115 — Societas  Entomologica,  Stuttgart.  125— 
Verhandlungen  del  zoologisch-botanischen  Gesellschaft  in  Wien. 
138 — American  Museum  Novitates.  139 — Bulletin  of  the  Southern 
California  Academy  of  Sciences,  Los  Angeles.  140 — Sitzungs- 
berichte  der  Gesellschaft  Naturforschender  Freunde  zu  Berlin. 

GENERAL.  Borodin,  D.  N. — The  present  status  of  entomology 
and  entomologists  in  Russia.  12,  xv,  172-6.  Distant,  W.  L.— 
Obituary  notice.  8,  Iviii,  66-67.  Handschin,  E. — Zur  nomenklatur- 
irage.  115,  xxxvii,  9.  Louisiana  Entomological  Society.  [An  ac- 
count of  the  society  by  T.  E.  Holloway].  68,  Iv,  436.  Pierce,  W.  D. 
—Lectures  in  applied  entomology.  Collection.  Ser.  1,  Pt.  1,  No.  5. 
Schrottky,  C. — Soziale  gewohnheiten  bei  solitaren  insekten.  45,  xxii, 
•19-57.  Thompson,  Caroline  B. — Obituary  notice.  72,  ix,  81-82. 
Wahlgren,  E. — De  europeiska  polaroarnas  insektfauna  des  samman- 
sattning  och  harkomst.  28,  1920,  1-23. 

ANATOMY,  PHYSIOLOGY,  ETC.  Baerg,  W.  J.— Regarding 
the  habits  of  tarantulas  and  the  effects  of  their  poison.  91,  xiv,  482- 
89.  Brown,  M. — Notes  on  the  structure  of  an  endoparasitic  water- 
mite  l.'irva  occurring  in  frogs.  (Washington  Univ.  Studies,  ix,  291- 
308.)  Bryk,  F. — Grundzuge  der  sphragidologie.  87,  xi,  No.  18.  Car- 
penter &  Pollard — The  presence  of  lateral  spiracles  in  the  larva 
of  Hypoderma.  (Proc.  R.  Irish  Acad.,  xxxiv,  B.  73-84.)  Crampton, 
G.  C. — Evidences  of  relationship  indicated  by  the  venation  of  the 
fore  wings  of  certain  insects  with  especial  reference  to  the  Hemip- 
tera-Homoptera.  5,  xxix,  23-41.  v.  Emden,  F. — Beitrag  zur  kenn- 
zeichnung  der  holometabolen  (heteromophen)  insektenlarven.  52, 
liv,  231-5.  Fassl,  A.  H. — Einige  kritische  bemerkungen  zu  J.  Robers 
"Mimikry  und  verwandte  erscheinungen  bei  schmetterlingen."  114, 
xxxix,  15-16.  Gaschott,  O. — Zur  phylogenie  von  Psithyrus.  52,  liv, 
225-31.  Genieys,  P. — Sur  le  determinisme  des  variations  de  la  color- 
ation chez  un  Hymenoptere  parasite.  77,  Ixxxvi,  767-70.  Heiker- 
tinger,  F. — Die  wespenmimikry  oder  sphekoidie.  125,  Ixx,  316-385. 
Heselhaus,  F. — Die  hautdrusen  der  apiden  und  verwandter  fornien. 
89,  Ab.  f.  Anat.,  xliii,  369-464.  Hess,  W.  N.— Origin  and  develop- 
ment of  the  light-organs  of  Photurus  pennsylvanica.  70,  xxxvi,  245- 
77.  Kreuscher,  A.--Der  fettkorper  und  die  oenocyten  von  Dytiscns 
marginalis.  104,  cxix,  247-84.  Lienhart,  R. — Le  mechanisme  de  la 
stridulations  chez  Cyrtaspis  scutata.  24,  xc,  156-60.  Petrunkevitch, 
A. — The  circulatory  system  and  segmentation  in  Arachnida.  70, 
xxxvi,  157-89.  de  Peyerimhoff,  P. — Etudes  stir  les  larves  des  coleop- 
teres.  I.  24,  xc,  97-111.  Reh,  L. — Die  wespenmimikry  der  SesiVn. 
125,  Ixx,  99-112.  Roubaud,  E. — Sommeil  d'hiver  ccdant  a  I'liiver 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  180 

chez  les  larvcs  et  nymphes  de  Muscides.  69,  clxxiv,  964-6.  Van  der 
Heyde,  H,  C. — On  the  respiration  of  Dytiscus  marginalis.  85,  xxxv. 
335-52.  Walker,  E.  M. — The  terminal  structures  of  orthoptcroid 
insects:  a  phylogenetic  study.  Part  2.  7,  xv.  1-88.  Wolff,  B.— 
Schlammsinnesorgane  (pelotakische  organe)  hti  Limnobiinenlarven. 
(Jenaische  Zeit.  f.  Naturw.,  Iviii,  77-144.) 

ARACHNIDA,  ETC.  Ewing,  H.  A.— Three  new  species  of 
peculiar  and  injurious  spider  mites.  10,  xxiv.  104-8. 

NEUROPTERA.  Sjostedt,  Y. — Wissenschaftliche  ergebnisse  der 
schwcdischen  entomologischen  reise  der  D.  A.  Roman  in  Amazonas. 
Odonata.  87,  xi,  No.  15. 

Watson,  J.  R. — New  Thysanoptera  from  Florida.  XI.  Another 
new  thrips  from  cocoanuts  from  Cuba.  39,  v,  65-6;  66-7.  William- 
son, E.  B. — Notes  on  Celithemis  with  descriptions  of  two  new  spe- 
cies. 88,  No.  108. 

ORTHOPTERA.  Criddle,  N.— Manitoba  grasshoppers.  (Can. 
Field-Nat.,  xxxvi.  41-44,  66-S.) 

HEMIPTERA.  Barber  &  Ellis— Eggs  of  three  Ccrcopidae.  5, 
:-:xix,  1-3.  Drake,  C.  J. — The  genus  Dicysta.  (Ann.  Carnegie  Mus., 
xiii,  269-73.)  Mason,  A. — Life  history  studies  of  some  Florida 
Aphids.  39,  v,  53-9,  62-5. 

Barber,  H.  G. — Two  new  species  of  Reduviidac  from  the  U.  S. 
10,  xxiv,  103-4.  Sanders  &  DeLong — New  species  of  Cicadellidae 
from  the  eastern  and  southern  U.  S.  10,  xxiv,  93-102. 

LEPIDOPTERA.  Caudell,  A.  N.— Change  of  authorship  of  cer- 
tain Noctuids.  15,  x,  112. 

Barnes  &  Lindsey — A  review  of  some  generic  names  in  the  order 
Lepidoptera.  7,  xv,  89-90.  Cassino  &  Swett — Two  new  species  of 
Sericosema.  Some  new  Geometrids.  16,  iii,  151-55;  155-58.  Wright, 
W.  S.— A  new  Lycaenid.  139,  xxi,  19-20. 

DIPTERA.  Crumb,  S.  E.— A  mosquito  attractant.  68,  Iv,  416-7. 
Alexander,  C.  P.— The  biology  of  the  North  American  crane-flies. 
VI.  The  genus  Cladura.  13,  xiv.  1-6.  Undescribcd  species  of  Costa 
Rican  flies  belonging  to  the  family  Tipulidae  in  the  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus. 
50,  Ix,  Art.  25.  Patton,  W.  S.— Notes  on  the  species  of  the  genus 
Musra.  22,  xii,  411-26.  Pawan,  J.  L.— The  oviposition  of  .loblotia 
digitalis.  15,  x,  63-5.  Ping,  C.— The  biology  of  Kphydra  subopaca. 
(Cornell  I'niv.  Agr.  Kxpt.  Sta.,  Mem.  49.)  Thompson,  W.  R.— 
On  the  taxonomic  value  of  larval  cliaracters  in  tacliinid  parasites. 
10,  xxiv.  85-93. 

Dyar,  H.  G.— The  American  Aedes  of  the  scapularis  group.  Two 
mos(|uitoes  new  to  the  mountains  of  California.  Illustrations  of  the 

190  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [June,  '22 

male  hypopygium  of  certain  Sabethids.  The  mosquitoes  of  the 
Palacarctic  and  Ncarctic  regions.  The  mosquitoes  of  the  Glacier 
National  Park,  Montana.  Mosquito  notes.  15,  x,  51-60;  60-61; 
01-62;  65-75;  80-8;  92-1).  Garrett,  C.  B.  D.— Two  new  Blepharo- 
ceridae.  A  meristic  variation.  15,  x,  89-91;  91.  Hine,  J.  S.— De- 
scriptions of  Alaskan  diptera  of  the  family  Syrphidae.  82,  xxii, 

COLEOPTERA.  Aurivillius,  C.— Coleopterorum  catalogus.  Pars 
73:  Cerambycidae  Lamiinae  I.  Comstock,  J.  A. — A  giant  palm-bor- 
ing beetle  (Dinapate  wrightii).  139,  xxi,  5-17.  Cros,  A. — Notes  sur 
les  larves  primaires  des  Meloidae  avcc  indication  de  larves  nouvelles. 
24,  xc,  133-55.  Hustache,  A. — Nouveaux  Ceuthorrhynchini  de 
l'Amerique  du  Sud.  24,  xc,  112-32.  Kleine,  R. — Wissenschaftliche 
crgebnisse  der  schwedischen  entomologischen  reise  des  A.  Roman 
in  Amazonas  1914-15.  Brenthidae.  87,  xiii,  No.  12.  Montet,  G.— 
Thynnides  nouveau  du  Museum  d'Histoire  Nat.  de  Geneve.  80,  xxix, 
177-226.  Pic,  M. — Melanges  exotico-entomologiques.  Fasc.  35. 
[many  So.  American  species  described].  Sicard,  Dr. — Descriptions 
cK-  varietes,  especes  et  genres  nouveaux  appartenant  a  la  famille  des 
Coccinellides.  11,  ix,  349-60.  Watson,  J.  R. — Some  beetles  new  to 
Florida.  39,  v.  67-8.  Weise,  J. — Wissenschaftliche  ergebnisse  der 
schwedischen  entomologischen  reise  des  A.  Roman  in  Amazonas. 
Chrysomelidae.  87,  xiv,  No.  1. 

Frost,  C.  A. — A  new  species  of  New  England  C.  (Cantharis). 
5,  xxix,  4-6. 

HYMENOPTERA.  Cockerell,  T.  D.  A.— Descriptions  and  rec- 
ords of  bees.  XCIII.  11,  ix,  360-7.  Kahl,  H.— Notes  on  some 
species  of  Chalcidoidea  in  the  Carnegie  Museum.  (Ann.  Carnegie 
Mus.,  xiii,  265-8.)  Ramme,  W.— Zur  lebensweise  von  Pseu- 
dagenia.  140,  1920,  1:50-32.  Roman,  A. — Schlupwespen  aus  Ama- 
zonien.  87,  xi,  No.  4.  Ruschka,  F. — Chalcididenstudien.  125,  Ixx, 

Brues,  C.  T. — The  Embolemid  genus  Pcdinomma  in  North  Amer- 
ica. 5,  xxix,  6-8.  Cockerell,  T.  D.  A. — 'Bees  in  the  collection  of  the 
U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.  50,  Ix,  Art.  18.  Bees  of  the  genus  Panurginus 
obtained  by  the  American  Museum  Rocky  Mountain  expeditions. 
138,  No.  36.  Cushman,  R.  A. — New  species  of  ichneumon-flies  with 
taxonomic  notes.  50,  Ix,  Art.  21.  Enderlein,  G.— Symphytologica 
!.  Zur  kenntnis  der  Oryssiden  und  Tenthrediniden.  140,  1919,  111- 
27.  Gahan,  A.  B. — A  new  hymcnopterous  parasite  upon  adult 
beetles.  82,  xxii,  140-2.  Kinsey,  A.  C.— New  Pacific  coast  Cynipidae. 
62,  xlvi,  279-95.  Timberlake,  P.  H. — A  revision  of  the  chalcid-flies 
of  the  encyrtid  genus  Chrysoplatycerus.  50,  Ixi,  Art.  2. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  191 

Doings  of  Societies. 

The    American    Entomological    Society 

Meeting  of  June  6,   1921,  at  The  Academy  of   Natural   Sciences  of 
Philadelphia.     Twelve  persons   present,   Dr.    Skinner   presiding. 

ODONATA. — Dr.  Calvert  exhibited  specimens  of  the  true  Gomphus 
dilatatus  Rambur  which  has  been  found  only  in  Georgia  and  Florida ; 
also  specimens  from  Weaver,  Perry  County,  Pennsylvania  (by  the  late 
Erich  Daecke)  and  other  northern  states,  which  have  passed  for  dila- 
tatus but  are  specifically  distinct  and  for  which  the  name  lineatifrons 
is  proposed;  also  specimens  of  G.  vastus  Walsh  which  is  the  northern 
and  smaller  representative  of  the  true  dilatatus.  The  differences  be- 
tween these  three  were  briefly  discussed.  [The  full  statement  appears 
in  a  paper  which  has  since  been  published  in  the  Transactions  of  the 
Society,  xlvii,  pp.  221-232.  J  He  remarked  that  fast  us  is  a  smaller 
form  than  dilatatus  and  asked  for  discussion  on  this  point.  Mr.  Rehn 
said  that  in  birds  and  mammals  southern  forms  were  smaller,  while  in 
grasshoppers  they  were  larger.  Mr.  Hebard  spoke  on  possible  influ- 
ence of  richness  of  vegetation  on  size  and  remarked  that  the  same 
influence  is  seen  in  ascending  mountains. 

LEPIDOPTERA. — Dr.  Skinner  stated  that  in  butterflies  the  southern 
forms  were  larger  and  that  Papilio  tunius  in  Alaska  was  but  half  the 
size  of  tHose  in  the  southern  states.  He  discussed  the  various  forms  of 
In  nuts  and  whether  they  are  species  or  not. 

Mr.  Hebard  remarked  that  two  forms  might  be  distinct  in  two  local- 
ities and  yet  converge  to  the  area  where  intermediates  are  found. 
When  the  opposite  is  true  there  is  no  change  even  though  the  specie? 
are  quite  similar.  In  such  cases  they  change  from  one  form  to  the 
other  without  overlapping.  Mr.  Rehn  remarked  that  the  area  of  inter- 
gradation  is  usually  narrow  and  that  forms  do  not  gradually  merge 
over  extensive  territories. 

Comments  by  Mr.  Williams  followed.  Mr.  Laurent  noticed  that 
Florida  forms  of  Lepidoptera  were  usually  larger.  Dr.  Skinner  stated 
that  there  was  plenty  of  food  for  tunius  there,  cherry  and  tulip  poplar. 
ORTHOPTERA. — Mr.  Rehn  exhibited  specimens  of  the  two  species  of 
Ilcm'uncrus  and  made  some  remarks  on  the  family  Hemimeridae,  touch- 
ing on  the  structure,  habits  and  distribution  of  the  species  and  the 

history   of   our   knowledge   of    these    remarkable   insects. — DAVID    HAR- 
ROWER,  Recording  Secretary. 

Meeting  of  October  26,  1921,  at  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of 
Philadelphia.  Members  present,  8  and  one  visitor,  Dr.  Skinner  pre- 

LEPIDOPTERA. — Mr.  Davis  presented  a  colony  of  cocoons  of  Apantclcs 
Itictt'icolor  Yier.,  a  parasite  of  the  Gypsy  and  Brown  Tail  Moths  in  New 
England,  and  he  spoke  of  the  introduction  of  these  parasites  in  1914- 
1910,  and  the  apparent  success  of  various  parasites  introduced  for  these 

192  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [June,  '22 

pests.  Dr.  Skinner  spoke  about  his  researches  in  the  Hesperidae,  par- 
ticularly his  genitalic  studies  of  that  family,  and  exhibited  outline 
sketches  showing  the  various  forms  of  these  organs  in  a  number  of 

ORTHOPTERA. — Mr.  Hebard  exhibited  specimens  of  the  Blattid  genus 
Prosoplecia  from  the  Philippine  Islands  which  mimic  species  of  the 
Coleopterous  family  Coccinellidae.  He  also  spoke  of  the  peculiar 
Orthopterous  fauna  of  that  part  of  the  world.  Mr.  Rehn  made  a  few 
remarks  on  the  West  Indian  species  of  the  Blattid  genus  Nyctibora, 
dwelling  particularly  upon  the  history  of  N.  lactngata,  which  remained 
virtually  unrecognized  for  over  one  hundred  years  after  it  was  orig- 
inally described.  The  series  of  the  genus  from  the  collection  was 

General  discussion,  especially  by  Messrs.  Hebard  and  Rehn  and 
Cresson  as  to  the  generic  value  of  certain  characters,  followed.  A  point 
brought  out  in  the  discussion  was  that  a  generic  character  may  not 
necessarily  be  present  in  all  species  of  the  genus. — E.  T.  CRESSON,  JR., 
Recording  Secretary  pro  tern. 

Meeting  of  December  12,  1921,  at  the  same  place.  Eight  members 
and  contributors  and  Mr.  T.  H.  Prison,  of  Riverton,  visitor,  present, 
President  Skinner  presiding. 

The  President  gave  an  interesting  reminiscence  of  his  nearly  forty 
years'  connection  with  this  Society  as  a  member;  of  the  meetings  and 
their  attendances,  communications,  and  of  the  persons  he  knew  and  had 
been  associated  with  during  the  early  years. 

A  letter  from  the  Consulate  General  of  Finland  was  read  in  which 
mention  was  made  that  Mr.  B.  W.  Heikcl,  Jardin  Botanico,  Asuncion. 
Paraguay,  would  like  to  correspond  with  any  person  wishing  collections 
of  Natural  History  specimens  from  Paraguay. 

Mr.  Rehn  moved  that  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  extended  to  Dr. 
Robert  G.  LeConte  for  a  gift  of  the  letters  of  his  father.  Dr.  John  L. 

Mr.  Rehn  moved  that  the  meetings  during  1922  be  held  as  follows  : 
Fourth  Thursdays  of  February,  April  and  October,  and  on  the  second 
Monday  of  December.  Adopted. 

The  following  officers  and  committees  were  elected  to  serve  during 
1922:  President,  Henry  Skinner,  M.D.,  Sc.D. ;  Vice-President,  James  A. 
G.  Rehn ;  Corresponding  Secretary,  Morgan  Hebard ;  Recording  Sec- 
retary, Roswell  C.  Williams,  Jr. ;  Treasurer,  Ezra  T.  Cresson. 

Publication  Committee,  James  A.  G.  Rehn  (Chairman  and  Editor), 
Ezra  T.  Cresson,  Philip  P.  Calvert,  Ph.D. 

Finance  Committee,  Morgan  Hebard  (Chairman),  David  M.  Castle, 
M.D.,  James  A.  G.  Rehn. 

Property  Committee,  Ezra.  T.  Cresson,  Jr.  (Librarian  and  Custodian"), 
Morgan  Hebard  and  Philip  Laurent.— E.  T.  CRESSON,  JR.,  Recording 
Secretary  pro  tern. 


Fine  perfect  specimens  of  this  grand  rare  species  are  offered  ;  also  O. 
chimaera — Zelotypia  staceyi,  superb  rarity — many  others.  Largest  stock  of 
exotic  Coleoptera,  rarities  and  unnamed  series.  Also  the  most  important 
books  on  Entomology  in  stock. 

Janson  &  Sons,  Naturalists  &  Booksellers  44,  Great  Russell  St ,  London, W.C.I. 

|7/"\D     QAI  F     A  large  collection  of  butterflies — Papilios 

only — from  all  parts  of  the  world.     All 
mounted  and  classified  in  three  large  cabinets. 

C.  F.  GROTH 

14  Poplar  Place,  New  Rochelle,  N.  Y 



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the  world.  Published  in  two  series,  "A"  dealing  with  insect  pests  of  cultivated  plants,  and 
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North  American  and  Mexican  Phanaeus  and  Monilema. 
Will  purchase  or  exchange. 

DR.    FKANK    J.    PSOTA, 

:JS.~»4-    West    i£«Stli    Street,         -         Chicago,    Illinois. 

Kian£su  Bureau  of  Entomok 
will  collect  Chinese  insects  in  exchao 

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tell  us  what  you.  want  us  to  collect  for  you      Addn 

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From  Colombia,  South  America: 

Morpho  cypris  Morpho  amathonte 

sulkowskyi  Caligo  spp. 

From  Cuba: 

Papilio  columbus  Urania  boisduvali 

andraemon  Erinyis  guttalaris 

celadon  Protoparce  brontes,  etc. 

"        devilliersi 

From  Venezuela : 

Over  5000  Lepidoptera 

200  Dynastes  Hercules 

From  New  Guinea 

2000  Coleoptera 
200  Orthoptera 

From  Assam,  India: 

Papilio  arcturus  Kallima  inachis 

philoxenus  Brahmaea  wallachi 

And  Many  Other  Showy  Species 

From  Tibet  (Bhutan)  : 
Arrnandia  lidderdalii  Parnassius  hardwicki 



If  interested  kindly  send  your  list 
of  desiderata  for  further  information  to 


Department  of  Natural  Science  New  York 

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JULY,  1922 


Vol.  XXXIII  No.  7 



PHILIP  P.  CALVERT,   Ph.   D.,   Editor. 

E.  T.   CRESSON,  JR.,  Associate  Editor. 

HENRY   SKINNER,   M.D.,   Sc.D..   Editor   Emeritus. 


EZRA  T.  CRESSON,  J.  A.  G.  RF.HN, 




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Plate  IX. 

LARVA    (D).— MASON. 






JULY,  1922 

No.  7 


Mason — Cryptothrips  laureli,  a  New 

Tbrips  from  Florida  (Thysatiop.)  193 

Williamson  — Indiana  Somatochloras 
again  (Odonata,  Libellulidae).  200 

Alexander — Undescribed  Crane-flies 
from  Argentina  (Tipulidae,  Dipt.). 
Part  V 207 

Lindsey — Notes  on  the  Distribution  and 
Synonymy  of  some  Species  of  Ptero- 
phoridae  I  l.epid.  ) 211 

Prison  —  Further  Biological  and  Syste- 
matic Notes  Concerning  Bremus 
kincaidii  Ckll.  and  other  closely 
related  Species  (  Hym.,  Bombidae)  214 

The   University  of   Michigan-William- 
son Expedition  to  Brazil 216 

Editorial — On  Firing  Shot 217 

Barnes  and  Benjamin — Correction 217 

Howard — A    Braconid  .Feeding  bv   In- 
direct Suction  (  Hym. ) 218 

Khmgsu  Bureau  of  Entomology 2iS 

Entomological   Literature 219 

Review  of  Howard's  translation  of  Boif- 

vier's  The  Psychic  Life  of  Insects. .  222 
Review  of  the   Report  of  the  Proceed- 
ings of  the  Fourth  Entomological 

Meeting  held  at  Pusa 223 

Doings  of  Societies — The  American  En- 
tomological Society 224 

Cryptothrips  laureli,  a  New  Thrips  from  Florida 


By  ARTHUR  C.  MASON,  Assistant  Entomologist,  Fruit  Insect 

Investigations,  Bureau  of  Entomology,  United  States 

Department  of  Agriculture.1 

(Plate  IX.) 


While  making  a  survey  of  the  native  hay  trees  of  the  genus 
Tainala  (Pcrsca)  in  the  central  part  of -Florida  for  the  purpose 
of  discovering,  if  possible,  the  origin  of  the  camphor  thrips 
(Crvrtothrips  florid  cnsis  \Yatson),  a  closely  related  species  of 
t'rvptothrips  was  found.  The  camphor  thrips  has  proven  a 
^crious  menace  in  the  last  few  years  1o  the  newlv  developing 
camphor  industry  in  the  State  and  has  heen  the  subject  of 
investigation  by  the  l>ureau.  Although  first  taken  to  he  an 
introduced  insect  peculiar  to  camphor,  later  development- 
tended  to  point  to  the  fact  that  it  might  he  native  on  the  hays 
and  had  taken  to  the  camphors  because  of  their  close  botanical 

Published  with  the  permission  of  the  Secretary  of  Agriculture. 


194  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  «!'-  '22 

relationship.  This  theory,2  that  the  native  bays  were  the  nat- 
ural host  for  the  camphor  thrips,  was  held  for  some  time. 
However,  the  results  of  this  investigation  have  shown  that  the 
thrips  on  the  bay,  although  identical  in  many  respects  with  the 
camphor  thrips,  is  a  new  species  distinct  from  C.  floridcnsis. 
The  purpose  of  this  paper,  therefore,  is  to  describe  this  new 
bay  thrips  and  give  its  biological  habits  and  other  points  of 

Cryptothrips  laureli  n.  sp.    (Plate  IX,  A,  B,  C.) 

Close  to  C.  floridensis  Watson,  but  differs  in  the  following  charac- 
ters :  general  size,  color  and  length  of  antennae  ;  relative  shape  and  size 
of  third  antennal  segment  ;  stronger  spines  on  head,  thorax  and  ab- 
domen ;  number  of  doubled  hairs  on  fringe  of  wings.  Also  in  color 
and  appearance  of  eggs,  color  of  larvae,  feeding  habits,  preferred  host 
plants,  general  biological  habits,  such  as  length  of  instars,  reproductive 
methods,  etc. 

General  color  almost  uniformly  glossy  black;  tarsi  dark  brown;  an- 
tennae dark  brown  to  black  with  exception  of  segment  three,  which  is 
clear  yellow. 

Average  measurements:  Total  length  of  insect,  exclusive  of  antennae, 
2.7  mm.  ;  head,  length  .34  mm.,  width  .25  mm.  ;  prothorax,  length  .23 
mm.,  width  .44  mm.  ;  mesothorax,  width  .54  mm.  ;  abdomen,  greatest 
width  .57  mm.  ;  tube,  length  .25  mm.  ;  width  at  base  .084  mm. 

Antennae:  1,  37.1  microns;  2,  58.8  microns;  3,  107.1  microns;  4, 
94.2  microns  ;  5,  85.4  microns  ;  6,  75.6  microns  ;  7,  67.2  microns  ;  8, 
36.8  microns;  total  length  .56  mm. 

Head  nearly  one  and  one-half  times  as  long  as  wide,  cylindrical, 
sides  almost  straight  and  parallel  ;  one  rather  prominent  spine  back  of 
each  eye.  Eyes  dark  brown,  rather  large  and  prominent,  finely  facetted, 
not  pilose.  Ocelli  present,  concolorous  with  eyes,  inconspicuous.  Mouth- 
cone  blunt,  reaching  nearly  across  the  pronotum.  Antennae  with  eight 
segments,  almost  twice  as  long  as  head;  first  two  segments  heavy,  third 
segment  long  and  slender  in  proportion  to  the  others  ;  segments  one 
and  two  concolorous  with  the'  head,  segment  three  clear  yellow,  seg- 
ment four  light  brown  at  base  and  shading  into  darker  brown  toward 
the  tip,  remaining  segments  dark  brown  or  black  ;  bristles  and  sense- 
cones  thick. 

Prothorax  short,  slightly  shorter  than  the  width  of  the  head,  widest 

3Watson,  J.  R.  "The  Native  Host-Plant  of  the  Camphor  Thrips." 
In  "Florida  Buggist,"  Vol.  ITT.  No.  2,  p.  25,  1919. 

3The  writer  is  jndcbted  to  Mr.  W.  W.  Yothers,  under  whose  direction 
this  work  was  done,  for  many  valuable  suggestions  in  accomplishing  it. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  195 

in  center  and  narrowed  toward  each  end ;  two  prominent  spines  on  both 
the  anterior  and  posterior  lateral  margins.  Mesothorax  very  short  with 
straight  parallel  sides,  about  one  and  one-fourth  times  as  wide  as  the 
prothorax.  One  short  spine  on  each  lateral  margin.  Pterothorar 
slightly  narrower  than  the  abdomen,  sides  almost  straight.  Lefjs  long; 
and  slender  except  the  fore  femora ;  tarsi  dark  brown  but  otherwise 
concolorous  with  the  body,  ll'inf/s  transparent,  rather  short,  about 
two-thirds  of  length  of  abdomen,  very  slight  constriction,  finely  fringed 
with  hairs  and  doubled  for  from  5  to  13  hairs,  usually  about  7  hairs. 
3  strong  prominent  spines  at  base  of  fore  wings. 

Abdomen  long,  first  three  segments  of  nearly  equal  width  and  then 
tapers  gradually  to  segments  7  and  8,  which  are  rounded  off  to  the 
tube.  A  pair  of  prominent  spines  on  outer  posterior  angles  of  all 
abdominal  segments  which  become  longer  toward  the  posterior  end, 
the  last  two  pairs  being  as  long  as  the  tube.  Tube  rather  long  and 
slender  with  a  circle  of  stiff  hairs  at  the  end,  8  of  which  are  nearly 
as  long  as  the  tube  and  the  alternating  8  about  half  as  long. 

Males  are  very  much  smaller  but  otherwise  similar.  Sometimes  show 
reddish  brown  or  purple  pigment.  Body  length  varies  from  1.3  mm. 
to  2.2  mm.  with  an  average  of  1.7  for  ten  specimens. 

Described*  from  a  large  number  of  adults,  eggs  and  larvae 
collected  on  bays  of  the  genus  Tamala.  Type  localities  Daytona 
rind  Orlando,  Fla. 

EGG. — The  eggs  (Plate  IX,  E.)  average  .46  mm.  x  .20  mm.  in  size, 
are  light  straw  yellow  to  orange  yellow,  and  become  red  during  develop- 
ment of  the  embryo.  The  surface  is  sometimes  smooth  and  sometimes 
covered  with  irregular  scale-like  patches;  often  one  side  of  an  egg 
will  show  these  markings  while  the  other  side  is  smooth. 

The  average  time  for  development  of  eggs  was  6.5  days  (average 
of  30  eggs).  When  ready  to  hatch  a  lid-like  cap  splits  off  the  anterior 
end  of  the  egg,  allowing  the  young  larva  to  escape.  The  egg  shell 
remains  intact  on  the  limb  or  buds,  often  for  a  long  period. 

The  preferred  place  for  laying  eggs  seems  to  be  among  the  bud  scales 
on  the  new  shoots.  They  are  also  found  sometimes  in  the  axils  of  the 
leaves  or  other  sheltered  places  on  the  limb. 

LARVA. — First  Instar. — When  first  hatched  from  the  eggs  the  young 
larvae  appear  a  light  carmine  red  color.  Total  length,  including  an- 
tennae, about  one  millimeter,  the  legs  and  antennae  very  long  in  pro- 
portion to  the  rest  of  the  body.  The  antennae  black,  but  have 
a  short  colorless  area  at  the  end  of  each  segment ;  eyes  small  and  red  ; 
two  black  spots  on  the  thorax  so  large  as  to  occupy  most  of  the  dorsal 
surface  and  make  the  entire  thorax  appear  black;  legs  and  last  two 
abdominal  segments  dirty  white  or  gray. 

*Types  deposited  in  the  U.   S.  National   Museum. 

196  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  u-  '22 

The  average;  duration  of  the  first  instar  for  18  individuals  was  8.06 
days.  It  varied  from  6  to  11  days. 

Second  Instar.  —  (Plate  IX,  D.)  Color  bright  carmine  red,  the  larvae 
being  conspicuous  on  the  trees  by  their  brilliant  color.  The  color 
pigment  solid  throughout  the  body  and  not  broken  into  blotches.  Head, 
antennae,  legs  and  last  two  abdominal  segments  clear  glossy  black. 
Also  two  large  black  spots  on  the  thorax  and  two  rectangular  black 
markings  reaching  about  half  way  around  the  center  of  the  third  seg- 
ment from  end  of  abdomen.  The  body,  including  legs  and  antennae,  is 
covered  with  a  number  of  black  hairs  or  spines. 

The  larvae  are  not  very  active  and  when  moving  about  often  carry 
the  tip  of  the  abdomen  curled  upward  and  forward  in  a  characteristic 
manner.  The  length  of  this  instar  varied  from  6  to  13  days  with  an 
average  of  7.9  days. 

Third  Instar.  (Prepupa).  Same  clear  red  color  as  in  preceding 
stages,  although  the  color  pigment  is  somewhat  broken  into  blotches, 
particularly  in  head  and  thorax  and  near  tip  of  abdomen.  Head 
whitish  and  almost  colorless  except  for  a  few  blotches  of  red  color 
in  the  center  ;  eyes  small  and  red  ;  antennae  short,  stout  and  colorless. 
Wing  pads  very  short  and  colorless  ;  legs  and  last  two  abdominal  seg- 
ments also  colorless.  A  few  whitish  hairs  cover  the  body. 

The  larvae  in  this  stage  are  very  inactive.  The  instar  is  of  short 
duration,  lasting  only  2  or  3  days,  with  an  average  of  2.4  days. 

Pupa.  —  This  stage  is  the  same  color  as  the  preceding  and  appears 
similar  except  for  the  length  of  the  antennae  and  wing  pads.  The 
antennae  are  now  longer  and  folded  back  along  the  sides  of  the  head. 
Wing  pads  reach  to  the  4th  or  5th  abdominal  segment.  The  eyes 
appear  somewhat  larger  and  brown  in  color. 

The  pupae  are  very  quiescent  and  usually  remain  in,  secluded  places. 
The  stage  lasts  for  4  to  6  days  with  an  average  of  4.5  days. 


The  natural  host  plants  of  this  insect  include  all  of  the 
bay  trees  of  the  genus  Tanmla  (  family  Lauraceae).  There  is 
in  the  State  another  entirely  unrelated  group  of  trees  called 
hays,  belonging  to  the  genus  Magnolia  of  the  family  Mag- 
noliaceae.  These,  of  course,  have  no  relation  to  tlie  laurels 
and  are  not  concerned  in  this  discussion.  Although  known  to 
occur  only  in  Florida,  it  is  probable  that  the  bay  thrips  extends 
over  the  entire  range  of  its  host  plants  which  includes  all  of 
the  southeastern  states.'  All  four  species  of  T  a  mala  have  been 
found  infested.  The  writer  has  collected  C.  laurcli  from  three 
of  these  bays  and  Watson  reports  finding  it  on  the  fourth, 

xxxiii,  '22  j  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  197 

Tamala  borbonia,  or  red  bay,  near  Gainesville.  The  shore  hay, 
T.  lift  oral  is,  is  a  very  common  tree  along  the  sand  ridges  on 
the  beach  near  Daytona  and  in  nearly  all  cases  harbors  the 
thrips.  In  the  so-called  oak  scrub,  in  central  Florida,  is  a  bay 
known  as  T.  Jut  in  His,  or  scrub  bay,  and  the  thrips  were  taken 
from  it  between  Orange  City  and  Lake  Monroe.  Probably 
the  most  common  bay  of  the  State  is  the  swamp  bay,  T. 
pubesccns,  which  lives  around  the  margin  of  lakes  and  along 
streams  and  in  swampy  ground  over  most  of  the  State.  The 
bay  thrips  is  common  on  this  species  in  the  vicinity  of  Orlando 
and  is  reported  by  Watson  as  being  found  on  them  near  Frost- 
proof, Florida,  and  other  points  on  the  central  ridge  of  the 
State.  The  red  bay  lives  in  the  higher  hammock  lands  and, 
as  stated  above,  is  also  a  host  of  the  bay  thrips. 

The  bay  thrips  also  will  live  on  camphor  (Cainphora 
i  amphora},  but  it  is  somewhat  doubtful  if  it  will  establish 
itself  permanently  there.  Several  generations  have  been  bred 
on  camphor  trees  under  observation  at  the  laboratory,  but  no 
instances  have  been  found  where  bay  thrips  have  colonized 
themselves  on  camphor  trees  naturally.  Camphor  trees  grow- 
ing close  to  bay  trees  infested  with  thrips  were  uninjured.  The 
preferred  hosts  certainly  are  the  bays.  Of  the  four  species  of 
Tamala  no  preference  has  been  observed. 

The  length  of  time  required  from  egg  to  adult  as  determined 
from  the  average  of  50  individuals  was  28.3  days.  As  stated 
above  the  egg  stage  lasted  for  6.5  days.  The  total  time  for 
the  larval  and  pupal  stages  together  was  21.8  days  as  an 
average.  Since  there  is  a  preoviposition  stage  of  several  days. 
the  period  for  the  maximum  generations  would  be  in  execs-, 
of  30  days.  The  life  of  the  adult  thrip  often  lasts  about  60 
days  in  confinement  but  in  some  cases  has  exceeded  this.  There 
is  also  a  postoviposition  stage  lasting  usually  for  se\eral  days 
]  -receding  death.  The  bay  thrips  are  not  very  prolific  in  number 
of  eggs  laid.  Ten  adults  laid  an  average  of  1.06  eggs  per  day 
over  a  period  of  about  2  months.  The  greatest  number  laid 
on  any  one  day  was  4.  Many  days  were  passed  without  any 
eggs  being  laid. 

198  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Juty'  '22 

The  above  data  were  obtained  during  August  and  September 
when  the  weather  was  warm.  Of  course,  the  various  stages 
would  be  much  longer  during  the  cooler  weather.  During  these 
experiments  the  temperatures  at  the  laboratory  in  Orlando, 
Florida,  were  as  follows  : 

For  August  the  daily  maximums  ranged  from  90"  F.  ID  100"  F. 
with  a  mean  of  94°  F.  ;  the  daily  minimums  65°  F.  to  75  J  F.  with  a 
mean  of  71.2°  F.  ;  mean  temperature  for  month  82.6°  F.  ;  greatest 
daily  range  29°  F.  ;  precipitation  4.13  inches.  For  September  the  daily 
maximums  ranged  from  91°  F.  to  103°  F.  with  mean  of  95.9°  F.  ; 
the  daily  minimums  67°  F.  to  73"°  F.  with  mean  of  69.6°  F.  ;  mean  tem- 
perature for  month  82.8°  F.  ;  greatest  daily  range  32*  F.  ;  precipitation 
1.93  inches. 

Contrary  to  the  sex  ratio  of  many  species  of  thrips,  the  per- 
centage of  males  for  this  species  seems  to  be  relatively  high, 
often  as  many  as  50%  of  those  captured  being  males.  The 
same  phenomenon  has  been  observed  among  those  bred  in  jars 
in  the  laboratory,  a  large  number  being  males.  The  adults  of 
both  sexes  have  a  habit  of  congregating  together  and  copulation 
has  frequently  been  seen  to  occur  in  the  breeding  jars.  In 
fact  it  is  very  doubtful  if  this  thrips  will  breed  partheno- 
genetically.  In  a  large  number  of  experiments  the  adults  reared 
in  jars  would  die  without  laying  eggs  when  they  were  not  mated 
with  males. 

All  stages  of  the  thrips  are  found  around  the  terminal  bud 
and  on  the  new  shoots.  The  young  larvae  on  hatching  feed  on 
the  newly  unfolding  leaves,  causing  brown  and  dead  spots  to 
appear.  The  later  stages  of  the  larvae,  as  well  as  the  pupae 
and  adults,  also  feed  on  the  new  growth.  When  very  numerous 
on  a  tree  they  will  sometimes  kill  the  buds,  but  ordinarily  no 
damage  is  done.  Although  small  areas  are  killed  on  the  nc\v 
leaves,  the  leaves  later  outgrow  this  injury.  The  thrips  do 
not  cause  lesions  or  other  injury  to  the  bark,  and  no  instances 
have  been  observed  where  trees,  or  even  limbs  on  a  tree,  have 
been  killed.  This,  of  course,  would  be  expected  of  a  native 
insect  on  its  natural  host. 

The  adult  thrips  are  always  active  and  usually  walk  about 
on  the  stems  and  leaves  with  a  rapid  motion.  They  have  a 
characteristic  habit  of  carrying  the  tip  of  the  abdomen  curved 

xxxiii,  '22 1  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  199 

upward  and  forward.  Although  possessed  of  fully  developed 
wings,  they  have  seldom  been  seen  to  fly  and  then  only  for  short 
distances.  When  disturbed  they  will  run  rapidly  around  the 
stem  or  to  some  place  of  hiding.  They  are  often  found  close 
down  in  the  axils  of  newly  opening  leaves. 

These  insects  possess  the  .ability  to  puncture  the  skin.  The 
writer  while  working  with  them  has  often  felt  a  very  per- 
ceptible stinging  sensation  from  their  bite  on  the  back  of  the 
hand,  neck  or  other  place  where  the  skin  is  tender. 


One  of  the  factors  limiting  the  increase  in  numbers  of  the 
bay  thrips  is  that  it  is  preyed  upon  by  other  insects.  At  least 
two  of  these  enemies  have  been  found,  one  an  internal  hymen- 
opterous  parasite  and  the  other  a  predaceous  Anthocorid. 

The  first  of  these  is  Tctrastichns  .?/>., 5  apparently  an  uride-- 
scribed  species,  and  a  representative  of  a  genus  not  known 
before  from  Thysanoptera  in  this  country.  Internal  parasites 
of  thrips  while  very  rare,  have  been  reported  in  a  few  cases. 
Parasitized  specimens  of  this  thrips  were  collected  on  bay  trees 
in  September,  1921,  and  the  adults  bred  from  them  in  the 
laboratory.  The  eggs  are  laid  by  the  adults  in  the  bodies  of 
the  larval  stages  of  the  thrips.  After  a  few  days  the  thrips 
dies  and  the  body  becomes  dried  and  swollen.  About  a  week 
later  the  small  wasp-like  parasite  emerges  from  a  hole  cut 
through  the  body  \vall  on  the  dorsal  surface  near  the  end  of 
the  abdomen. 

The  second  of  these  is  Anthocoris  sp.?  a  small  predaceous 
insect,  which  was  found  sucking  the  juices  from  the  larval  and 
pupal  stages  of  the  thrips.  While  perhaps  not  so  important  a 
factor  in  control  as  the  internal  parasite,  still  these  Anthocorids 
will  destroy  a  large  number  of  thrips.  These  two  insects 
undoubtedly  are  largely  responsible  for  keeping  the  thrips  from 
increasing  and  doing  a  large  amount  of  injury  to  the  bay  trees. 


Cryptothrips  laurcli  n.  sp.  A. — Head  and  prothorax.  B. — Antenna 
enlarged.  C. — Tip  of  abdomen  showing  tube  and  hairs.  D. — Second 
stage  larva.  E. — Egg. 

5Determined  by  A.  B.  Gahan  of  the  Bureau  of  Entomology. 
6Determined  by  W.  L.  McAtec,  of  the   Bun-au  of  Entomology. 

200  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  |  July,  '22 

Indiana  Somatochloras  Again  (Odonata,  Libellulidae). 

By  E.   B.  WILLIAMSON,   Bluffton,   Indiana. 

Eighty-five  years  ago,  in  1837,  Calvin  C.  Deam,  aged  six 
years,  came  to  Wells  County,  Indiana,  with  his  parents.  Here 
they  found  only  a  few  white  people  in  a  few  small  cleared 
areas  in  the  practically  continuous  forest,  two  small  prairies, 
the  largest  about  seventy  or  eighty  acres,  being  the  only  natural 
openings  in  the  woodland  which  covered  the  land  to  the  water's 
edge  along  the  Wabash  River.  The  forest  was  heavily  under- 
brushed  with  prickley  ash,  spicewood,  pawpaw  and  dogwood. 
The  small  streams  of  later  years  were  then  practically  long 
swamps  with  short  connecting  streams.  Here  the  timber  was 
not  so  heavy,  being  principally  ash,  and  the  underbrush  was 
not  so  thick,  but  the  water  was  all  shaded  and  log-dammed 
at  frequent  intervals.  Creek  beds  as  I  knew  them  thirty  years 
ago  as  a  boy  did  not  appear  till  the  fallen  logs  were  dragged 
out  and  the  released  waters  made  the  channels.  The  Wabash 
was  also  log-jammed  and  full  of  deep  holes.  Its  breadth 
permitted  the  sun  to  reach  the  water,  which  was  deep  and 
clear  even  in  low  stages  when  it  almost  ceased  to  flow.  The 
boulders,  now  numerously  exposed,  were  then  all  covered  with 
but  one  exception.  Even  in  the  highest  stages  the  water  was 
only  slightly  roiled,  never  getting  a  muddy  yellow  as  in  these 
later  days,  though  it  frequently  got  out  of  its  banks  into  the 
surrounding  woodland.  The  prairie  of  seventy  or  eighty  acres 
got  dry  enough  in  the  summers  to  cut  with  scythes,  but  not 
dry  enough  for  wagons,  and  the  hay  was  pulled  out  with  grape 
vines  and  horses.  There  were  two  Indian  camps,  one  of  thirty 
to  forty  Indians  just  below  the  mouth  of  Johns  Creek  (named 
for  John  Bennett)  and  one  of  twenty-five  to  thirty  Indians 
just  above  the  mouth  of  Bills  Creek  (named  for  William 

Calvin  Deam  has  lived  to  see  the  day  when  the  original 
forest  has  gone  from  Wells  County  as  certainly  and  com- 
pletely as  has  the  Indian.  He  has  seen  the  ruination  of  the 
Wabash  and  the  complete  destruction  of  many  of  its  tributaries. 
The  modern  dredge  has  laid  its  unsightly  gashes  in  every 

xxxiii,  '22}  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  201 

direction  through  the  land,  the  old  water  level  is  forever  low- 
ered, and  the  primitive  conditions  are  gone  never  to  return. 
Study  and  discussion  may  devise  methods  of  improving  the 
Wabash,  but  it  will  he  an  artificial  Wabash,  not  a  restored 
Wabash,  on  whose  banks  no  Indians  will  camp,  from  whose 
waters  no  doe  and  her  fawns  will  drink,  through  whose  forest > 
no  wild  turkey  hen  will  lead  her  brood. 

And  as  Calvin  Beam  has  told  me  of  the  deer  that  used  to 
come  in  the  heat  of  the  day  to  the  cool  recesses  of  the  Vanemon 
Swamp  (known  then  as  Bay's  Swamp  for  William  May,  who 
owned  it),  so  I  would  tell  a  little  of  the  Somatochloras  which 
still  survive,  but  which  are  going, — which  may  be  gone  before 
another  year  has  passed. 

In  Entomological  News  of  .April,  1912.  I  recorded  the 
captures  of  Somatochloras  in  Indiana  up  to  that  date,  and 
described  Flat  Creek  in  Wells  County  where  two  species  had 
been  found.  Since  then  the  Simmers  sisters'  woods,  through 
which  Flat  Creek  flows,  has  been  cut  over,  exposing  the  Creek 
more  to  the  sun,  and  weeds  and  mud  have  replaced  the  feu- 
gravelly  spots  which  formerly  existed.  I  took  another  male 
of  charadraca  there  on  July  4,  19 13,  but  failed  to  find  it  after 
that  date  until  during  the  summer  of  1921,  when  another  single 
male  was  taken  on  July  6.  On  July  10,  1914,  a  female  of 
Uncarts  was  taken  on  the  same  creek  and  on  July  9  and  13, 
1919,  four  males  and  a  female  of  the  same  species  were  col- 
lected. The  female  was  ovipositing  by  striking  her  abdomen 
on  the  fine  gravel  at  the  water's  edge  of  a  shallow  ripple.  Since 
then  this  sandy  ripple  has  become  mud-co\rered  and  weed- 
grown,  and  we  failed  to  find  lincaris  on  the  creek  in  1921. 

North  of  Wells  County,  in  Allen  County,  is  a  small  tributary 
of  Little  River,  named  the  Aboite  River,  which,  a  few  miles 
above  its  mouth,  flows  for  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  through 
a  bit  of  woodland  known  as  Devil's  Hollow,  though  there  is 
nothing  in  the  long  pools  and  gentle  ripples  to  'suggest  the 
name.  Aboite  River  is  in  reality  only  a  shallow  creek  aver- 
aging possibly  ten  feet  in  width.  At  the  upper  end  of  Devil's 
Hollow  is  a  small  right-hand  tributary  of  cold  clear  spring 
water  (lowing  through  a  thick  second  growth.  This  small 

202  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [July,  '22 

stream  is  about  a  foot  and  a  half  wide  and  pursues  a  very 
tortuous  course  at  the  foot  of  a  low  bluff  or  ridge.  On  July 
6,  1919,  we  collected  at  several  points  on  the  Aboite  above 
Devil's  Hollow  and  at  Devil's  Hollow.  About  noon,  on  the 
small  tributary  described  above,  we  saw  a  Somatochlora  hover- 
ing over  a  small  pool.  It  was  captured  and  proved  to  be 
tcnebrosa.  A  few  minutes  later  a  second  one  was  seen  and 
captured  over  another  small  pool.  Several  trips  back  and  forth 
over  the  course  of  the  stream  failed  to  reveal  any  more,  and  on 
several  subsequent  visits  we  have  never  been  able  to  find  a 
Somatochlora  on  the  Aboite  or  its  tributary. 

One  of  these  fruitless  visits  was  made  on  July  3,  1921. 
Leaving  the  Aboite  about  the  middle  of  the  afternoon.  Arch 
Cook,  Jesse  Williamson  and  myself  started  south  for  the  old 
collecting  ground  on  Flat  Creek.  Some  detours  were  necessary 
and  as  a  result  we  discovered  a  good  looking  creek  one  mile 
west  and  about  half  a  mile  south  of  Zanesville.  This  is  Davis 
Creek  and  our  road  crossed  it  along  the  east  edge  of  a  bit  of 
unpastured  second  growth  woods,  known  as  Shoups  woods, 
through  which  the  creek  flows  in  a  westerly  direction.  Leaving 
the  road  and  following  the  creek  into  the  woods  we  found  a 
fine  little  stream  three  to  eight  feet  wide,  flowing  mostly  over 
gravel,  with  many  gentle  ripples  and  frequent  pools,  some  of 
the  latter  almost  waist  deep.  We  had  not  gone  far  when  a 
Somatochlora  was  seen  and,  collecting  from  about  three  to 
four  p.  m.,  we  succeeded  in  taking  two  males  of  linearis. 
Below  the  Shoup  woods,  Davis  Creek  flows  through  some 
brushy  unpastured  blue  grass  fields,  through  two  small,  second 
growth,  unpastured  woods,  then  into  a  pastured  woods  where 
it  is  fouled  and  trampled,  and  finally,  just  before  its  mouth  in 
Eight  Mile  Creek,  it  passes  through  a  pastured  field.  Through 
the  Shoup  woods  westward  to  the  pastured  woods  just  above 
its  mouth  it  is  more  or  less  shaded  and  its  banks  and  ripples 
are  not  ruined  by  live  stock,  as  is  the  case  in  the  pastured 
woods.  East  of  the  Shoup  woods,  in  its  upper  courses,  it 
passes  through  hot,  sunny  fields,  a  mere  mud  trough  in  a 
ruined  landscape. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  203 

About  five  a.  m.  the  next  day,  I  again  visited  the  creek  \vith 
a  party  studying  birds.  But  little  time  could  be  spared  looking- 
for  Somatochloras,  but  I  saw  a  female  of  lincaris  ovipositing;, 
captured  a  male  each  of  lincaris  and  charadraca,  and  saw 
several  more  of  both  species. 

On  July  5,  Arch  Cook  and  I  went  again  to  the  creek,  reach- 
ing it  about  4  p.  m.  We  caught  one  male  each  of  charadraea 
and  lincaris.  The  last  specimen  seen  was  flying  the  creek  at 
6.30  p.  m.  That  night  we  slept  in  the  J.  M.  Settlemeyer  barn 
and  were  at  the  creek  early  the  next  day.  The  morning  was 
cloudy  or  hazy,  and  seemed  rather  unfavorable,  but  we  saw 
our  first  Somatochlora  before  5  a.  m.  and  we  caught  six  more 
males  of  lincaris  and  another  charadraca,  and  returning  home, 
we  stopped  at  Flat  Creek  and  caught  a  male  charadraca. 

Our  success  encouraged  us  to  enlarge  our  party,  and   the 
night   of   July   7,   Rev.    D.    C.    Truesdale,    Arch   Cook,    Jesse 
Williamson  and  I  slept  in  the  Settlemeyer  barn  again.     Sun  up 
the  next  day  found  us  at  the  creek  but  the  morning  was  hazy 
and   between   six   and   seven    o'clock    a   heavy   thundershower 
drove  us,  with  only  four  or  five  lincaris  in  our  bottles,  to  the 
shelter  of  the  tight  floored  road  bridge  over  the  creek.     Here 
we  cooked  and  ate  our  breakfast.     By  this  time  the  storm  was 
over  and  the  sun  came  out  brightly.     We  all  returned  to  col- 
lecting, and  before  9  a.  m.,  when  another  thunder  storm  again 
drove  us  to  shelter,  we  brought  our  total  catch  for  the  morning 
up  to  thirteen  males  and  one  female  of  lincaris  and  two  males 
of  charadraca.     From  July  3,  when  we  first  saw  the  creek,  to 
July  8,  the  water  had  fallen  about  eight  inches  and  had  ceased 
to  flow  above  ground,  though  there  was  doubtless  a  continued 
flow  through  the  gravel  which  forms  the  stream  bed.     Davis 
Creek  is  one  of  the  very  few  undredged  creeks  in  Wells  County, 
but  Eight  Mile  Creek,  of  which  it  is  an  a  affluent,  has  been 
deeply  dredged  and  into  its  lowered  basin  the  water  in  Davis 
Creek  is  readily  drained  through  the  underlying  sand  and  -ravel. 
With  this  catch  before  us,  we  planned  a  killing  for  the  next 
Sunday,  July  10.     Eli  Captain,  master  catcher  of  Macromias, 
was  enlisted  and  Saturday  night  he.  Arch  Cook,  Jesse  William- 
son and  I  spent  another  night  at  Scttlemeyer's  barn.     Sunday 



[July,  '22 

morning  came  clear  and  cloudless  and  we  were  at  the  Creek 
before  4.30  a.  m.  At  4.45  a.  m.  the  only  female  of  charadraea 
any  of  us  ever  saw  was  seen  ovipositing,  and  two  of  us,  suffer- 
ing from  Somatochlora  fever,  in  turn  missed  fair  strokes  at  her. 
But  that  morning  Somatochloras  were  very  rare,  and  though  the 
lour  of  us  collected  diligently  until  after  10  a.  m.,  a  later 
hour  than  we  had  found  it  possible  to  remain  on  other  days, 
we  got  a  total  of  only  three  males  and  one  female  of  lincaris 
and  two  males  of  charadraea.  Possibly  the  following  record 
of  temperatures,  and  possibly  the  lower  humidity  of  the  morn- 
ing of  July  10,  will  explain  the  relative  scarcity  of  individuals 
on  that  date.  As  the  minimum  temperature  each  day  was  from 
4  to  6  a.  m.,  no  other  tabulation  of  early  morning  temperatures 
is  given.  The  temperatures  are  from  a  registering  thermometer 
at  The  Wells  County  Bank  at  Bluffton.  Probably  at  Davis 
Creek  the  minimums  fell  slightly  lower,  but  the  record  is  accur- 
ate enough  for  our  purpose.  If  temperature  is  not  the  cause 
of  the  difference  in  the  activity  of  these  dragonflies,  I  can  offer 
no  other  suggestion.  It  is  an  unfortunate  fact  that  after  twenty 
years  I  am  still  unable  to  predict  a  good  day  for  Macromias 
on  the  Wabash  River. 

Date,  1921 



At  6 



from  about 
5-9  a.m. 

Saturday,  July  2..  . 

95°  5  P.m. 
95°  2  p.m. 

63°  5-6  a.  in. 
73°  5  a.m. 


Monday,  July  4  

96°  3  p.m. 

74°  5  a.m. 




Tuesday,  July  5  

98°  4-5  p  m. 

74°  5  a  m. 


Wednesday,  July  6. 

99°  4  p.m. 

75°  4  a.m. 




Thursday,  July  7... 
Friday  July  8  

100°  45  p.m. 
93°  3  p.m. 

76°  5  6  a.m 
77°  3-6  a.m. 




Saturday,  July  9..  . 

87°  4  p.m. 

69°  5-6  a.m. 


Sunday,  July  10  .  .  . 

86°  2  p.m. 

68°  4-6  n.m. 




*  Temperatuie,  Fahrenheit  scale. 

During  our  collecting  trips,  we  had  several  opportunities 
to  observe  females  of  linearis  ovipositing.  This  always  took 
place  in  fine  gravel  and  sand  at  or  near  the  water's  edge  where 
the  water  was  very  shallow,  usually  at  a  ripple.  The  females 

y  \\iii.  '22  |  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  205 

flew  back  and  forth  a  few  inches  above-  the  ground,  frequently 
striking  with  the  end  of  their  abdomens.  In  no  case  did  they 
alight.  The  spots  selected  were  a  few  days  later  merely  damp 
sand  more  or  less  distant  from  the  water  which  had  ceased 
to  flow.  The  single  female  of  charadraca  seen  ovipositing  was 
flying  back  and  forth  tapping  her  abdomen  on  a  damp  clay 
surface  at  the  edge  of  the  creek  and  about  a  foot  above  the 
water.  Occasionally  a  Somatochlora  will  fly  along,  striking  the 
water  with  its  abdomen  and  rarely  throwing  itself  into  the 
water,  but  in  every  case  where  positive  observation  was  pos- 
sible these  individuals  were  males.  The  males  at  the  creek 
spend  their  time  beating  back  and  forth,  at  an  elevation  of 
two  or  three  feet,  over  the  sandy  spots  where  the  females 
oviposit.  Having  examined  one  of  these  spots  they  may  fly 
away  a  short  distance  to  return  at  once,  or,  more  probably,  they 
fly  swiftly  up  or  down  the  creek  to  another  similar  ovipositing 
site.  They  frequently  leave  the  creek  and  disappear  upward 
among  the  trees.  The  males  of  llnearis  were  never  observed 
fighting,  but  on  two  occasions  two  males  of  charadraca  were 
observed  to  fly  at  each  other  and  fall  to  the  ground  in  a  rough 
and  tumble  scrimmage.  In  flying  the  creek,  males  of  charadraca 
habitually  fly  at  a  lower  level  than  males  of  lincaris. 

At  three  different  times,  at  sunny  openings  among  the  trees 
over  or  near  the  creek,  three  to  five  Somatochloras,  apparently 
both  species,  were  seen  hawking  lazily  back  and  forth  at  an 
elevation  of  twenty  to  thirty  feet.  These  I  think  were  certainly 
recently  emerged  individuals.  I  made  several  efforts,  both  in 
the  mornings  and  afternoons,  to  locate  Somatochloras  in  adja- 
cent fields,  pastures  and  brush  lots,  examining  a  considerable 
number  of  likely-looking  habitats,  but  I  never  saw  a  Soma- 
tochlora in  these  places.  Kven  during  early  imaginal  life  they 
do  not  seem  to  wander  from  the  bit  of  woods  wlu-rr  thry  live 
as  larvae.  Observations  Arch  Cook  and  I  made  in  Tennessee 
indicate-  tlii^  is  not  true  of  tcncbrosa  which  we-  found  living 
along  roads  and  over  fields  at  the  edges  of  woods. 

On  July  27,  Arch  Cook,  Jesse  \Yilliamson  and  I  paid  the 
final  visit,  of  the  seasori  to  the  creek,  when.'  we  arrived  about 
5  a.  in.  after  slevping  in  Sc-ttlemeyer's  barn.  \Ye  found  the 

206  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Juty,  '22 

water  level  greatly  lowered  and  in  the  entire  Shoup  woods 
there  were  only  four  small  pools  remaining.  The  fine  gravel 
or  sand  ripples  where  females  of  linear  is  had  been  observed 
ovipositing  were  now  many  of  them  entirely  dry,  in  one  case 
at  least  to  a  distance  of  two  inches  below  the  surface.  The 
clay  flat  where  charadraca  was  ovipositing  seventeen  days 
before  was  dry  and  hard,  and,  like  the  sand  and  gravel  bars, 
far  from  any  water.  Mr.  Settlemeyer  told  us  that  these  small 
streams  usually  begin  to  flow  again  in  September. 

At  5.30  a.  m.  a  female  of  llncaris  was  observed  ovipositing 
by  tapping  the  abdomen  in  almost  dry  sand  in  a  low  stretch 
in  the  creek  bed.  She  scattered  her  eggs  at  intervals  over  an 
area  about  four  to  six  feet  wide  and  twenty  to  thirty  feet  long. 
She  was  captured  and  represented  the  day's  catch,  though  half 
an  hour  later  a  male  was  seen,  but  he  was  hurrying  down  the 
dry  creek  bed.  No  other  specimens  were  seen.  The  imaginal 
life  of  the  two  species,  llncaris  and  charadraca  in  northern 
Indiana,  is  thus  about  thirty  days  or  a  little  more,  including 
the  last  few  days  of  June  and  practically  the  entire  month  of 
July.  Their  period  of  ovipositing  coincides  with  the  time  of 
rapidly  falling  water  level  in  the  creek,  thus  exposing  suc- 
cessive clay  banks  and  fine  gravel  bars  on  which  the  eggs  are 
placed  while  the  surface  is  moist,  thus  insuring  the  distribution 
of  eggs  over  practically  the  entire  creek  bed.  Oviposition  was 
observed  only  where  the  forest,  a  heavy  second  growth  mostly 
of  white  elm,  lay  on  both  creek  banks.  Somatochloras  were 
not  observed  where  one  bank  was  cleared  and  the  other  wooded. 

Associated  with  the  two  Somatochloras  were  a  very  few 
Boycria  vinosa,  less  than  half  a  dozen  being  seen,  and  many 
Caloptcry.v  maculata.  No  other  dragonflies  were  on  the 
wooded  parts  of  the  creek.  Perhaps  the  most  obvious  differ- 
ence to  be  noticed  in  collecting  dragonflies  in  Indiana  and  in 
the  American  tropics,  is  the  great  di (Terence  in  the  amount  of 
odonate  life  on  small  woodland  streams.  On  Davis  Creek,  for 
example,  there  are  only  two  dragonflies  besides  the  two  Soma- 
tochloras, and  these  two  are  widely  distributed,  though  with 
pretty  definite  habitat  preferences,  while  the  two  Somatochloras 
alone  seem  to  be  confined  entirely  to  the  creek.  I  can  call  10 


mind  half  a  dozen  little  streams  in  the  tropics,  similar  in  si/.e 
and  general  character  to  Davis  Creek,  and  at  once  I  recall  a 
dozen  species  which  made  the  ripples  flash  with  color,  or  which 
sat  motionless  on  dead  twig  tips  on  the  darkest  stretches  of  the 
creeks,  giving  life  and  vivacity  to  a  somber  forest.  No  such 
wealth  of  odonate  life  exists  on  Davis  Creek  where  individuals 
are  as  rare  as  species,  except  for  occasional  assemblages  of 
Caloptcry.v  niacitlata.  Frequently  at  sunrise  individuals  of  this 
species  were  seen  resting  inertly  on  leaves  with  all  four  wings 
spread  flat. 

Undescribed  Crane-flies  from  Argentina  (Tipulidae, 

Dipt.)    Part  V. 

By  CHARLES  P.  ALEXANDER,  Urbana,  Illinois. 

The  types  of  the  novelties  described  in  this  paper  are  pre- 
served in  the  collection  of  the  writer  through  the  great  kind- 
ness of  Dr.  Bruch  and  Senor  Weiser,  to  whom  my  thanks  are 

Dicranomyia  omissivena  sp.  n. 

General  coloration  whitish  yellow ;  antcnnal  flagellum  brown ;  wings 
whitish  subhyaline,  veins  pale;  Sc  long,  cell  1st  M2  open  by  the 
atrophy  of  the  outer  deflection  of  Af3. 

$ . — 'Length  4.2  mm. ;  wing  5.4  mm.  9 . — Length  4.8  mm. ;  wing 
6  mm.  Rostrum  and  palpi  pale.  Antennae  with  the  scapal  segments 
pale  yellow,  the  flagellum  gradually  darkening  into  brown.  Head  pale 

Mesonotum    pale    whitish   yellow    without   darker   markings.      Pleura 
whitish    yellow    with    slight    green    reflexions.      Halteres    pale    whitish 
yellow.      Legs   pale   whitish   yellow    with    only   the   terminal    tarsal    seg 
ments  dark  brown. 

Wings  whitish  subhyaline;  veins  pale.  Venation:  Sc  long,  Scl  ending- 
opposite  or  just  beyond  midlength  of  Rs,  Sc2  at  tip  of  Sc\  ;  Rs  about 
twice  the  deflection  of  A'4+5;  cell  l.v/  .1/2  open  by  the  atrophy  of  the 
outer  deflection  of  .1/3;  petiole  of  cell  2nd  M2  shorter  than  the  cell; 
K-isal  deflection  of  Cu}  close  to  the  fork  of  .!/. 

Abdomen    whitish,    the   segments   with   greenish    reflexions. 

Habitat :  'Argentina.  llolotyfc.  S,  (Juehrada  Knmriillu, 
Ttu-unian,  altitude  1600  meters,  October  1(>.  1'PO  (  V.  Weiser), 

c,    9.     rarutoptityl'cs.  3    6$. 

208  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [July,  '22 

Geranomyia   (Geranomyia)   gaudens  sp.   n. 

General  coloration  of  the  thorax  gray;  halteres  yellowish  at  base, 
the  knohs  brown ;  wings  subhyaline,  handsomely  spotted  and  clouded 
with  brown  and  gray,  this  including  a  series  of  four  brown  subcostal 
spots;  Sc  long,  cell  1st  i\I2  closed;  basal  deflection  of  Cnl  before  the 
fork  of  M. 

$. — Length  (excluding  rostrum)  8.6  mm.;  wing  10.5  mm.  9. — 
Length  (excluding  rostrum)  7.5-8  mm.;  wing  8.8-9  mm.;  rostrum 
4.5-4.7  mm. 

Rostrum  elongate,  the  paraglossae  beyond  the  palpi  partly  lost ; 
when  entire,  the  rostrum  would  extend  to  at  least  one-third  the  length 
of  the  abdomen,  dark  brown,  the  palpi  concolorous.  Antennae  dark 
brown,  the  flagellum  broken.  Front  and  anterior  part  of  the  vertex 
with  a  golden-yellow  pollen;  remainder  of  vertex  dark  brown,  the 
broad  median  area  and  a  narrow  border  adjoining  the  eyes  more 

Pronotum  gray,  the  lateral  margins  obscure  yellow.  Mesonotal  prae- 
scutum  dark  gray  with  three  lighter  gray  stripes,  the  median  one  of 
which  is  bisected  anteriorly  by  a  line  of  the  ground  color;  scutum 
light  gray,  the  lobes  dark  gray;  scutellum  reddish,  gray  pruinose : 
postnotum  gray.  Pleura  brown,  gray  pruinose ;  dorso-pleural  membrane 
obscure  huffy-yellow.  Halteres  white,  the  knobs  dark  brown,  the  base 
of  the  stem  yellowish. 

Legs  with  the  coxae  yellow,  the  outer  face  infuscated.  this  including 
nearly  the  basal  half  of  the  fore  coxae,  a  large  area  on  the  middle 
coxae  and  a  slight  cloud  on  the  posterior  coxae ;  trochanters  yellow ; 
remainder  of  legs  broken  except  the  basal  half  of  the  posterior  femora 
which  are  testaceous. 

Wings  subhyaline,  handsomely  spotted  and  clouded  with  brown  and 
gray;  stigma  brown;  a  series  of  four  dark  brown  areas  in  the  sub- 
costal cell,  the  third  at  the  origin  of  Rs,  the  last  at  5V2;  cord  and  outer 
end  of  cell  1st  M2  seamed  with  brown  ;  conspicuous  gray  clouds  in  eel! 
R  beneath  the  brown  subcostal  spots,  before  the  ends  of  the  outer 
radial  cells,  at  the  ends  of  both  anal  veins  and  in  the  anal  angle  of  the 
wing ;  veins  pale,  brown  in  the  darkened  areas.  Venation :  Sc  long, 
Scl  ending  about  opposite  midlength  of  Rs,  Sc2  at  tip  of  Scl ;  a  super- 
numerary crossvein  in  cell  5Y;  Rs  long,  angulated  and  slightly  spurred 
at  origin;  r  more  than  its  length  from  the  tip  of  R\:  r-m  obliterated 
by  contact  of  the  long  deflection  of  R4  +  5  on  ,1/1+2;  in  only  about 
one-third  to  one-fourth  of  the  outer  deflection  of  Af 3 ;  basal  deflection 
of  C'A  at  about  one-third  its  length  before  the  fork  of  M. 

Abdomen  dark  brown,  the  pleural  appendages  of  the  hypopygium  ob- 
scure orange. 

Habitat:  Argentina.  Holotypc,  $,  San  Pedro  de  Colalao, 
Tucumun,  altitude  2500  meters,  January  28,  1921  (V.  Weiser). 

xxxiii,  '221  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  209 

Allot\pc,  9  ,  Caspinchango,  Catamarca,  altitude  2500  meters, 
March  28,  1921  (V.  Weiser).  Paralyse,  9,  with  the  allotype, 
March  2,  1921. 

The  female  is  entirely  similar  to  the  male.  The  femora  are 
yellow  with  a  conspicuous,  dark  brown,  suhterminal  ring. 

Rhabdomastix   (Sacandaga)   complicata  sp.  n. 

General  coloration  dark  brownish  gray ;  wings  tinged  with  hrown. 
the  extreme  base  paler  in  both  sexes ;  m  short  or  obliterated ;  male 
hypopygium  with  the  outer  pleural  appendage  bifid  at  apex,  the  lower 
arm  bearing  two  long,  chitinized  teeth. 

$  . — Length  about  3.6  mm  ;  wing  about  3.2  mm.  9  . — Length  3.5-4 
mm. ;  wing  3.6-4.2  mm. 

Rostrum  and  palpi  brownish  black.  Antennae  with  the  scapal  seg- 
ments brownish  black;  flagellum  slightly  paler  brown;  flagellar  seg- 
ments subglobular.  Head  dark  brownish  gray  with  a  sparse  bloom. 

Mesonotum  dark  brownish  gray,  the  usual  three  praescutal  stripes  a 
little  darker  hrown  but  very  poorly  defined.  Pleura  brownish  gray. 
Halteres  light  yellow.  Legs  black,  the  femoral  bases  in  some  cases  a 
little  paler,  in  other  cases  the  femora  nearly  uniform  throughout. 

Wings  with  a  brownish  tinge,  the  extreme  base  paler,  this  including 
the  cells  proximad  of  arculus ;  veins  brown.  Venation :  5Y1  ending 
about  opposite  two-fifths  the  length  of  Rs,  Sc2  near  midlcngth  of  the 
distance  between  the  origin  of  Rs  and  the  tip  of  Scl  ;  r  a  short  distance 
beyond  the  fork  of  M;  cell  1st  M2  closed;  m  short  to  lacking,  cell 
2nd  M2  in  some  cases  being  short-petiolate ;  basal  deflection  of  Cul 
a  short  distance  beyond  the  fork  of  M. 

Abdomen  dark  brownish  black.  Male  hypopygium  generally  similar 
to  that  in  R.  basnHs,  but  the  outer  pleural  appendage  much  more  com- 
plex, appearing  as  a  narrow  arm  that  is  expanded  apically  and  here 
deeply  bifid,  the  lower  branch  being  chitinized  and  deeply  notched 
apically,  the  outer  edge  of  this  notch  produced  into  two  long,  blackened 
teeth,  the  margins  of  the  notch  feebly  denticulate ;  inner  pleural  ap- 
pendage much  longer  and  stouter  than  in  basalts,  only  a  little  shorter 
than  the  outer  pleural  appendage.  The  digitiform  lobe  on  the  inner 
face  of  each  pleurite  is  stouter  than  in  basalts.  Ovipositor  with  the 
valves  horn-colored. 

Habitat:  Argentina.     Holotypc,    $,  Masao,  Catamarca,  alti- 
tude 2500  meters,  February  10,  1921   (V.  Weiser).     Allotype, 
9  ,  Caspinchango,  Catamarca,  altitude  2500  meters,   February 
23,  1921    (V.  Weiser).     l\iratop»t\pcs,  5    9 's. 

Rhabdomastix  complicata  is  allied  to  R.  basalts  Alex.  (Ar- 
gentina), but  is  readily  told  by' the  darker  coloration,  the  al- 
most uniform  wings  in  both  sexes  and  the  complex  male  hypo- 

210  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  f  Jllly,  '22 

Tipula  amoenicornis  sp.  n. 

General  coloration  dull  yellow ;  antennae  elongate,  bicolorous,  the 
basal  enlargement  of  the  segments  dark  brown,  the  remainder  yellow : 
wings  with  a  strong  yellowish  brown  tinge,  cells  C  and  Sc  more  sat- 
urated ;  abdomen  reddish  orange  with  a  conspicuous  black  subterminal 

$  .- — Length  12.5  mm. ;  wing  12.3  mm.  Frontal  prolongation  of  the 
head  brownish  yellow,  the  palpi  concolorous,  with  the  terminal  seg- 
ments darker.  Antennae  elongate,  if  bent  backward  extending  to 
beyond  the  base  of  the  abdomen;  scapal  segments  obscure  yellow; 
flagellar  segments  bicolorous,  obscure  yellow,  the  basal  enlargement  of 
each  segment  dark  brown  except  at  the  extreme  base;  terminal  flagel- 
lar  segments  broken.  Head  obscure  brownish  yellow. 

Mesonotum  dull  brownish  yellow  without  markings,  the  posterior 
sclerites  more  testaceous.  Pleura  yellowish  testaceous.  Halteres  pale, 
the  knobs  faintly  darker.  Legs  with  the  coxae  and  trochanters  light 
yellow ;  remainder  of  the  legs  pale  yellowish  brown,  only  the  tarsi 
passing  into  dark  brown. 

Wings  with  a  strong  yellowish  brown  tinge,  the  base  and  cells  C 
and  Sc  more  saturated ;  stigma  small,  oval,  brown  ;  a  conspicuous  oblit- 
erative  area  before  the  stigma,  reappearing  across  the  base  of  cell  1st 
M2 ;  veins  dark  brown.  Venation :  Rs  short,  arcuated  beyond  mid- 
length ;  cell  2nd  Rl  very  small;  parallel-sided;  tip  of  R2  preserved; 
cell  A/1  about  twice  the  length  of  its  petiole;  cell  1st  .1/2  narrowed 
distally,  ;;;  being  about  two-thirds  the  basal  deflection  of  A/1 +2;  m-cu 

Abdomen  conspicuous  reddish  orange ;  conspicuous  black  areas  on 
lateral  margins  of  tergites  two,  three  and  four ;  a  conspicuous  black 
ring  including  all  of  segment  seven  and  all  of  eight  except  the  broad 
posterior  margin  of  the  eighth  sternite.  Male  hypopygium  with  all 
the  sclerites  separate,  the  ninth  pleurite  large.  Caudal  margin  of  the 
ninth  tergite  with  a  shallow  V-shaped  notch,  the  mesal  margins  of  the 
lobes  densely  hairy ;  ventro-median  portion  of  the  tergite  at  the  apex 
of  the  notch  produced  into  a  pendulous,  bilobed  appendage  that  is 
densely  hairy.  Pleural  appendage  flattened,  the  apex  narrowly  mar- 
gined with  black,  at  the  base  on  the  outer  face  a  conspicuous  blackened 
lobe  that  is  microscopically  spinulose.  Ninth  sternite  extensive,  the 
median  portion  filled  with  membrane,  at  the  caudal  margin  of  which 
hangs  a  very  conspicuous,  median,  elongate,  slender,  hairy  lobe  that  is 
split  at  the  apex  into  two  small,  digitiform  appendages.  Eighth  sternite 

Habitat :  Argentina.     Holotypc,    <3 ,   San   Pedro  de   Colalao, 
Tucuman,  altitude  2500  meters,  January  27,  1921  (V.  Weiser). 


Notes  on  the  Distribution  and  Synonymy  of  Some 
Species  of  Pterophoridae  (Lepid.) 

By  A.  W.  LINDSEY,  M.S..  Ph.D.,  Sioux  City,  Iowa. 

Four  months  have  elapsed  between  the  publication  of  the 
Pterophoridae  of  America,  North  of  Mexico  and  the  writing 
of  this  paper,  yet  in  that  short  time  a  number  of  interesting 
data  have  been,  added  to  our  knowledge  of  this  family.  These 
data  have  been  derived  from  three  sources,  viz.,  some  notes  on 
synonymy  very  kindly  communicated  by  Mr.  Edward  Meyrick, 
a  considerable  number  of  specimens  from  British  Columbia 
submitted  by  Mr.  E.  H.  P>lackmore  for  identification,  and  two 
specimens — yet  a  remarkable  catch — which  were  the  only 
Pterophoridae  secured  by  the  writer  after  his  removal  to  Sioux 
City  in  the  fall  of  1921. 

Mr.  Meyrick's  notes  are  placed  at  the  end  of  the  paper. 
Credit  for  them  is  due  entirely  to  their  author,  who  states  in  a 
letter  of  October  27,  1921,  that  they  are  to  be  published  in 
The  Entomologist.  They  are  included  here  by  his  permission, 
in  order  that  they  may  be  more  readily  available  to  lepidop- 
terists  on  this  side  of  the  Atlantic,  and  are  quoted  without 
change,  aside  from  a  few  omissions,  and  without  criticism. 
The  writer  would  suggest,  however,  that  it  can  do  no  harm 
and  may  do  some  good  if  anyone  with  both  exotic  and  indi- 
genous material  will  check  these  conclusions,  especially  by  an 
examination  of  the  male  genitalia.  While  it  is  certain  that  the 
utility  of  these  structures  is  limited,  they  are  frequently  con- 

For  the  successful  use  of  genitalia  in  classification  the  fol- 
lowing rules  are  a  useful  guide : 

1.  Study  complete  genitalia,  not  merely  the  valves. 

2.  Genitalia  are  subject  to  variation,  in  form  within  the  spe- 
cies.    A  striking  example  is  that  of  Hcspcria  tesscllata  Scud., 
including  occidentalis  Skinner. 

3.  Conspicuous   differences  between  the  genitalia  of   speci- 
mens or  series  indicate  that  they  belong  to  different  species. 
If  only  slight  differences  exist  they  may  indicate  specific  dis- 
tinctness, but  in  such  cases  it  is  necessary  to  prove  by  the  exam- 

212  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [July,  '22 

ination  of   series   from   various   localities  that  the   differences 
are  constant. 

4.  Distinct  species  may  possess  genitalia  indistinguishable 
from  each  other.  Example:  Oidaematophorus  homodactyhis 
Wlk.  and  O.  clliottii  Fern. 

TRICHOPTILUS  PYGMAEUS  Wlsm.  A  single  fragmentary  specimen  from 
Wellington,  British  Columbia,  June  30,  seems  to  belong  here. 

PLATYPTILIA  TESSERADACTYLA  Linn.  One  $ ,  Princeton,  British  Colum- 
bia, June  20,  confirms  the  occurrence  of  this  species  in  British 
Columbia.  A  second  specimen  from  Vernon,  B.  C,  sent  in  by  Mr. 
Blackmore,  is  much  browner  than  any  other  North  American 
specimen  seen  by  the  writer.  It  is  quite  like  European  specimens. 

STENOPTIUA  MENGELI  Fern.  One  specimen  from  Mt.  McLean,  British 
Columbia,  5000  ft.,  Aug.  This  specimen  is  much  paler  than  the 
Greenland  type  series,  and  even  paler  than  the  single  Colorado 
specimen  mentioned  in  the  Rci'ision,  due  to  the  paler  gray  shade 
and  the  more  extensive  pale  over-scaling  on  the  inner  part  of  the 
primaries.  The  costal  lobe  has  an  evident  dark  dash  and  the  dot 
at  the  base  of  the  cleft  is  conspicuous.  This  specimen  extends 
the  known  range  of  the  species  remarkably,  and  strengthens  the 
writer's  belief,  as  expressed  in  the  Revision,  that  it  may  prove  to 
be  circumpolar. 

OIDAEMATOPHORUS  occiDENTALis  Wlsm.  Two  specimens.  Vavenby, 
July  25,  and  Fort  Steele,  both  British  Columbia,  August  15. 

O.  MATHEWIANUS  Zell.  Specimens  from  Kaslo,  Mt.  McLean  and 
Lillooet,  British  Columbia,  Aug.,  are  much  whiter  than  California!! 
specimens,  with  no  discernible  brownish  shades. 

O.  GRISESCENS   Wlsm.   Kaslo,   British   Columbia,   August. 

O.  FIELDI  Wright.  Two  rather  faded  specimens  from  Atlin,  British 
Columbia,  appear  to  belong  here.  They  check  by  both  genitalia 
and  superficial  characters,  excepting  the  rather  dull  brown  color, 
and  only  the  remarkable  extension  of  range  suggests  any  uncer- 

O.  PHOERUS  B.  &  L.  Another  British  Columbia  specimen  taken  at 
Kaslo,  June  22,  1910,  confirms  the  occurrence  of  the  species  this 
far  north. 

O.  FISHII  Fern.  One  9,  Sioux  City,  Iowa,  Sept.  3,  1921.  An  excellent 
specimen  which  seems  referable  only  to  this  species,  but  it  is  as 
dark  as  California  males.  With  the  possible  Manitoba  record 
mentioned  in  the  Rci'ision,  it  suggests  that  the  species  may  b^ 
found  to  range  well  to  the  north,  becoming  darker  in  higher  lati- 

O.  IOBATES  B.  &  L.  One  9,  Sioux  City,  Iowa,  Sept.,  1921.  This  speci- 
men extends  the  range  of  the  species  quite  unexpectedly,  but  it  is 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  213 

so  nearly  normal  and  perfect  as  to  leave  no  doubt  of  its  identity. 
The  record  is  quite  in  keeping  with  others  made  in  this  region. 

O.  HELLIANTHI  Wlsm.  One  $ ,  South  Fork  Kaslo  Creek,  British  Co- 
lumbia, August  10,  1903.  This  may  be  the  same  specimen  listed 
with  doubt  by  Dr.  Dyar  (Proc.  U.  S.  N.  M.,  xxvii,  924,  1904). 

O.  BALANOTES  Meyrick.  Mr.  F.  H.  Benjamin  sent  specimens  to  the 
museum  at  Decatur  which  were  reared  at  Landon,  Mississippi, 
Aug.  7,  1921,  from  larvae  boring  in  the  stems  of  "Myreca" 
(Myrlcaf).  No  doubt  either  Mr.  Benjamin  or  Mr.  L.  E.  Miles, 
who  reared  the  specimens,  will  be  able  to  furnish  an  account  of  the 
life  history  later. 

Mr.  Mey rick's  remarks  on  synonymy  are  as  follows  : 

"Platyftilia  crcnulata  is  a  synonym  of  brachymorpha  Meyr. 
(Africa,  S.  Asia,  Ceylon,  Hawaii)  ;  quite  certain,  your  figure 
is  very  characteristic. 

"PlatyptUia  inannarodactyla  Dyar  is  a  synonym  of  fnsci- 
cornis  Zell.,  common  in  South  America  and  Hawaii ;  I  have 
many  specimens  from  Hawaii,  Peru,  etc.,  and  there  is  no  ques- 
tion about  it.  Also  I  note  that  one  of  Walsingham's  figures  of 
cosnwdactyla  (Pter.  Cal.  Oreg.,  pi.  ii,  4)  (not  the  other  two) 
is  certainly  this  species,  the  different  position  of  the  scaletuft 
of  hindwings  and  other  characteristics  being  accurately  given. 

"Ptcrophorus  (Oidaematoplwrus}  linns  is  a  synonym  of 
licnigianns  Zell.  (Europe,  Africa,  India,  Ceylon,  S.  America)  ; 
I  am  very  familiar  with  this  species,  which  is  common  in 
India  and  Africa,  and  there  is  no  doubt  about  it. 

"Orneodes  (Alncita]  montana  is  in  my  opinion  ...  a  syno- 
nym of  hiirbneri  Wall.  (Europe,  throughout  Africa,  and 
Kashmir)."  Mr.  Meyrick  also  adds  a  discussion  of  the  char- 
acters which  lead  him  to  the  last  conclusion. 

Quite  in  keeping  with  the  writer's  private  views,  Mr.  Mey- 
rick expresses  the  belief  that  PlatyptUia  shastac  and  frac/ilis 
Wlsm.  are  synonyms  of  albida  Wlsm.  It  may  be  added  that 
Mr.  Meyrick's  knowledge  of  marmarodactyla  Dyar  and  mon- 
tana  Ckll.  is  based  in  part  upon  authentic  specimens  sent  from 
the  museum  at  Decatur,  part  of  the  material  used  in  the  prep- 
aration of  the  Revision.  The  remaining  synonymies  are  ap- 
parently deduced  In  mi  the  descriptions  and  figures  included  in 
the  Revision. 

214  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [July,  '22 

Further  Biological  and  Systematic  Notes  Concerning 

Bremus  kincaidii  Ckll.  and  Other  Closely  Related 

Species  (Hym.,  Bombidae). 

By  THEODORE  H.  PRISON,  Urbana,  Illinois. 

In  a  recent  article  on  the  Hymenopterous  Insects  of  the 
Family  Brcmidac  from  the  Pribilof  Islands,  Alaska,  published 
in  Volume  XII,  Number  14,  Fourth  Series,  Proceedings  of 
the  California  Academy  of  Sciences,  I  list  a  queen  and  a 
worker  of  Brcmns  (Bonibus)  kincaidii  (Ckll.)  from  St.  Paul 
Island.  Because  of  the  rareness  of  this  species  in  collections 
and  our  lack  of  biological  data  concerning  the  same,  it  seems 
advisable  to  record  in  addition  five  adults  and  two  pupae.  These 
specimens  were  sent  me  for  study  too  late  for  the  data  to  be 
included  in  the  article  just  cited.  Two  of  the  five  adults  are 
queens,  two  are  workers  and  one  is  a  male,  all  collected  on  St. 
Paul  Island  on  August  10,  1920,  by  Dr.  G.  Dallas  Hanna.  The 
two  queen  pupae  were  collected  on  the  same  date  and  at  the 
same  locality  as  the  adults. 

The  presence  O'f  the  male  and  two  queen  pupae,  in  the  lot 
of  bumblebees  last  received  from  the  Pribilof  Islands,  enables 
me  to  extend  somewhat  my  previous  biological  remarks  about 
this  species.  One  of  the  queens  collected  on  August  10  is  in 
perfect  condition,  indicating  that  she  was  produced  the  same 
season  as  collected.  That  August  10  is  not  too  early  a  date 
at  which  to  expect  the  new  queens  of  this  species  is  evidenced 
by  the  fact  that  the  two  queen  pupae  taken  on  this  date  are 
in  an  advanced  stage  of  development,  and  further  that  a  male 
was  captured  at  the  same  time.  There  is  every  reason  to 
believe  that  in  the  far  northern  latitudes,  as  well  as  in  the 
more  temperate  regions  of  North  America,  the  males  do  not 
hibernate  during  the  winter  as  do  the  impregnated  queens. 
The  time  of  appearance  of  the  sexes  is  usually  well  correlated, 
though  it  is  true  the  males  often  show  a  tendency  to  appear  in 
advance  of  the  new  queens.  The  early  production  of  males 
and  queens  and  the  formation  of  small-sized  colonies  were  noted 
in  my  paper  as  phenomena  to  be  expected  in  the  life-histories 
of  bumblebees,  which  inhabit  far  northern  latitudes.  Friese, 
in  Fauna  Arctica,  1902,  V.  2,  p.  490,  has  advanced  the  idea 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  215 

that  in  the  cold  regions  B,  kirbyellus  (Curtis)  and  B.  liypcr- 
borcus  (Schonherr)  in  some  instances  apparently  produce  only 
queens  and  males,  a  condition  characteristic  of  solitary  bees. 

B  re  ni  us  kincaidii  is  also  interesting  from  a  systematic  stand- 
point, as  it  belongs  to  a  boreal  group  of  bumblebees  (Kirbyellus 
Group  Franklin)  which  presents  many  classificatory  difficulties. 
Franklin  has  suggested  that  this  species  may  eventually  prove 
to  be  a  "color  variant  or  subspecies  of  strcnuiis  or  polaris." 
Through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  E.  T.  Cresson,  Jr.,  the  writer 
has  had  the  privilege  of  comparing  Brcmns  kincaidii  with  the 
type  specimens  of  Brcmns  strcniius  (Cress.)  and  a  series  of 
Brcmns  polaris  (Curtis)  contained  in  the  collection  of  the 
American  Entomological  Society  at  Philadelphia. 

As  a  result  of  this  study  I  am  forced  to  the  conviction  that 
B.  kincaidii,  B.  strcnuus  and  B.  polaris  are  distinct  species. 
An  examination  of  the  genitalia  of  B.  kincaidii  bears  out  the 
close  relationship  existing  between  all  three  species,  particularly 
its  affinity  with  B.  polaris.  The  inner  spatha  of  B.  kincaidii 
has  the  general  shape  of  the  same  structure  in  B.  polaris  as 
delineated  by  Sladen  (1919)  and  Franklin  (1913).  In  the 
specimen  of  B.  kincaidii  before  me,  the  lateral  margins  of 
the  triangular-shaped  apex  of  this  structure  are  much  straighter 
than  in  B.  polaris.  In  this  last-named  species,  the  lateral 
margins  of  the  triangular-shaped  apex  are  inclined  to  be  more 
or  less  curved  inward.  The  setae  occurring  on  the  inner  spatha 
are  also  more  restricted  to  the  tip  and  lateral  margins  of  the 
apex  in  B.  kincaidii  than  in  B.  polaris.  In  B.  polaris  these 
setae  are  more  evenly  distributed  over  the  entire  tip  of  the 
triangular-shaped  apex.  Furthermore,  in  B.  kincaidii  the  setae 
do  not  extend  to  the  two  parallel,  longitudinal  lines  or  more 
strongly  chitinized  areas,  as  is  the  case  in  B.  polaris.  The 
claspers  of  B.  polaris  and  B.  kincaidii  are  almost  identical.  The 
male  of  B.  kincaidii  collected  by  Dr.  Hanna  has  the  apical  dorsal 
abdominal  segments  predominantly  black,  whereas  in  B.  polaris 
these  segments  are  normally  ferruginous  or  have  a  large  amount 
of  light-colored  hairs.  B.  kincaidii  is  also  less  robust  than  B. 
polaris,  judging  by  the  spc-cimens  I  have  studied. 

An  examination  of  the  genitalia  of  the  al'otype  male  of  B. 

216  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  f  July,  '22 

strcnitus  proves  this  species  to  be  distinct  from  both  B.  polaris 
and  B.  kincaidii.  Unfortunately  museum  pests  have  injured 
the  internal  abdominal  structures  of  this  male,  but  enough  of 
the  gen.italia  and  inner  spatha  remain  to  establish  the  validity 
of  the  species.  The  apex  of  the  inner  spatha  of  B.  strenuns 
does  not  end  in  a  conspicuous  triangular  projection.  Instead 
it  is  somewhat  blunt  and  trilobed,  the  central  lobe  being  larger 
than  either  of  the  two  lateral  lobes.  In  some  respects  the 
inner  spatha  is  similar  in  outline  to  Sladen's  figure  of  the  inner 
spatha  of  B.  neoborciis  (Sladen),  a  species  recently  described 
from  Bernard  Harbour,  Northwest  Territories,  in  the  Report 
<>i  the  Canadian  Arctic  Expedition.  In  this  latter  species,  how- 
ever, the  lateral  angles  of  the  apex  of  the  inner  spatha  are 
sharply  pointed  and  the  extreme  apex  or  middle  portion  is 
blunt  and  slightly  curved  inward. 

The  shape  of  the  inner  spatha  of  B.  kincaidii  distinctly  sep- 
arates it  from  B.  hyperboreus  and  B.  kirbycllits,  the  only  other 
described  American  species  of  the  Kirbyellus  Group  not  already 
discussed  in  the  systematic  portion  of  this  paper. 

The   University  of  Michigan- Williamson   Expedition   to   Brazil. 

The  expedition  remained  at  Villa  Martinho  (see  this  volume  of  the 
NEWS,  page  186)  until  April  9,  when  they  went  by  launch  upstream  to 
Villa  Bella,  Bolivia,  on  the  point  of  land  at  the  junction  of  the  Beni 
and  Mamore  rivers  to  form  the  Madeira,  and  thence  four  hours  up  the 
Rio  Beni  to  Cashuela  Espcranza.  This  little  town  of  200  to  300  people 
is  in  the  Provincia  de  Vaca  Diez,  Bolivia,  at  the  falls  of  the  Rio  Beni. 
It  is  the  headquarters  of  Suarez  Brothers,  the  rubber  kings  of  the  dis- 
trict, and  due  to  their  wealth  the  town  has  a  good  hotel,  ice  plant,  elec- 
tric light  plant,  etc. ;  it  is  built  on  granite  rocks  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
river.  The  falls  were  about  7  feet  high  at  the  time  of  the  party's  visit; 
they  are  said  to  be  15  feet  high  when  the  stream  is  at  low  water.  On 
April  12  it  was  noted  that  the  Beni  had  fallen  about  7  teet  liom  tlm 
year's  high  water  mark. 

At  Villa  Martinho  on  March  31,  it  is  recorded  that  "little  gnats,  sand 
Hies  and  other  pestiferous  insects  abounded."  Wasps,  bees  and  spiders 
were  abundant  in  the  woods  at  Cashuela  Esperanza  on  April  12  and 
following  days.  From  the  latter  place  collections  were  made  also  along 
the  Yata  river  trail.  On  April  15,  Mr.  J.  H.  Williamson  was  taken 
with  malaria,  wherefore  he  went  down  stream  to  Candelaria  where  is  a 
hospital  in  which  he  recovered  in  about  ten  days.  Returning  to  Porto 
Velho  collecting  was  resumed  on  April  25.  Both  at  Villa  Martinho  and 
at  Cashuela  Esperanza  there  was  much  rain.  On  April  25  their  Odonata 
were  estimated  at  50'.)S  specimens  of  128  species.  (From  Mr.  Jesse 
H.  Williamson's  letters  and  "log.") 



On  Firing  Shot. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  addresses,  presidential  or  other- 
wise, which  we  have  read  for  a  long  while  is  that  entitled  The 
Factor  of  Safety  in  Research,  by  the  President  of  the  Michigan 
Academy  of  Science,  Arts  and  Letters,  published  in  Science 
lor  May  12,  1922.  Those  who  enjoyed  it,  as  we  did,  will 
recall  that  a  thesis  maintained  was : 

The  training-  of  young  investigators  on  a  diet  of  insignificant  prob- 
lems is  not  inevitably  fatal  and  may  even  be  beneficial. 

[Again:!  The  principle  of  this  method  is  one  which  has  been  widely 
adopted  in  other  affairs  of  life  and  has  been  found  good.  Firing  a 
whole  cartridge  full  of  shot  in  order  that  one  ball  may  bring  down 
the  game  is  a  recognized  principle  of  the  huntsman.  Is  the  remaining 
shot  wasted  ?  It  is.  Is  the  system  which  uses  cartridges  of  shot,  most 
of  which  is  wasted,  an  uneconomical  one?  Any  hunter  will  tell  you 
it  is  not.  The  bullets  of  a  machine  gun  are  mostly  wasted,  but  the 
system  as  a  whole  insures  hitting  the  mark. 

But  if  we  have  been  trained  on  this  method — and  we  do  not 
presume  to  suggest  a  better — that  is  no  reason  why  we  should 
be  content  with  thereafter  wasting  many  shot  in  our  marks- 
manship. There  are  those  who  take  up  one  little  problem  after 
another,  as  such  chance  their  way,  without  apparently  looking 
into  the  future  to  form  an  opinion  whether  such  chance  re- 
search will  ever  lead  to  the  solution  of  some  larger  question 
of  pure  or  applied  knowledge.  It  is  surely  better  for  each  one 
to  consider  the  possibility  of  his  mastering  some  broader 
problem  and  of  directing  his  continued  efforts  thereto  through 
the  years  which  may  be  his  for  research. 

On  the  Types   of  Gnamptonychia   ventralis,   B.   &   L.,   a   Correction 

(Lepid.,  Arctiidae). 

In  the  original  description  of  Gnamptonychia  ventralts,  B.  &  !_,.,  IS^i, 
Entomological  News,  xxxii,  297,  instead   of  "two  paratypcs    9,"  read 

"two  paralypes    $  ." 

WM.  BARNES  and  F.  H.  BENJAMIN. 


218  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [July,  '22 

Notes  and  Ne^vs. 



A   Braconid   Feeding  by  Indirect   Suction   (Hym.). 

Many  notes  have  been  published  during  the  last  few  years  on  the 
feeding  of  parasitic  Hymenoptera  at  the  puncture  hole  made  by  the 
ovipositor ;  but  B.  Trouvelot,  in  the  C.  R.  Soc.  de  Biologic,  December 
3,  1921,  has  published  a  note  which  brings  in  a  new  feature.  The 
American  Braconid,  Habrobracon  johansenni  Vier.,  has  been  sent  over 
to  France  by  the  Bureau  of  Entomology  for  the  purpose  of  securing1 
its  establishment  there,  since  it  is  a  parasite  of  the  potato  tuber  moth. 
It  lays  its  egg  in  the  larva  of  this  moth  after  the  latter  has  made  its 
cocoon,  and  this  cocoon  is  naturally  considerably  larger  than  the  larva ; 
therefore,  when  the  parasite  lays  its  egg  by  thrusting  its  ovipositor 
through  the  silken  cocoon  it  is  not  able  to  feed  at  the  puncture. 
Trouvelot  finds  that  when  the  Habrobracon,  standing  on  the  silken 
cocoon,  has  thrust  its  ovipositor  through  the  skin  of  the  caterpillar  it 
secretes  from  the  extremity  of  its  abdomen  a  mucilaginous  tube,  which 
hardens;  then,  after  the  ovipositor  is  withdrawn,  the  Braconid  sucks 
the  juices  of  its  host  through  this  tube. 

My  attention  to  this  interesting  communication  was  drawn  by  a  note 
which  Doctor  Feytaud  has  published  in  the  Rci'uc  dc  Zooloyic  Agricolc 
et  Appliquce  (Bordeaux,  January,  1922,  p.  18).  Doctor  Feytaud  adds 
that  J.  L-  IJchtenstein  has  noticed  a  similar  procedure  with  Habrocytus 
cionicida,  a  Chalcidid  parasite  of  Clonus  thapsi. 

A  similar  habit  will  surely  be  found  among  the  parasitic  Hymen- 
optera in  this!  country,  and  the  object  in  sending  this  note  to  Entomo- 
logical Neil's  is  to  ask  its  readers  to  watch  for  such  cases.-— L.  O. 

The   Kiangsu  Bureau  of  Entomology. 

The  Bureau  of  Entomology,  Kiangsu  Province,  National  Southeastern 
University,  College  of  Agriculture,  Nanking,  China,  has  been  organ- 
ized with  the  following  staff :  Charles  William  Woodworth,  Director 
and  Chief  Entomologist;  Goey  Park  Jung-  and  C.  Francis  Wu,  Ento- 
mologists; H.  S.  Chang,  Entomologist  and  Curator;  Huan-cjuang  En, 
Secretary  and  Editor ;  Fo-ching  Woo,  Tsong-ling  Tsou,  Chi-yeu  Wang, 
We-i  Young,  Laboratory  Assistants ;  M.  S.  Chang,  Pai-han  Wang, 

The  Bureau  is  fitting  up  a  houseboat  48x11  as  a  floating  laboratory  for 
its  field  investigations.  It  will  provide  living  quarters  for  four  Ento- 
mologists and  four  sailors.  The  canals  in  this  province  will  make  it 
possible  to  take  this  laboratory  within  easy  walking  distance  of  every 
farm.  There  will  be  a  motor  boat  to  tow  and  tend  the  houseboat. 

The   Bureau  has  undertaken  the  control  of   the   flies  and   mosquitoes 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  21() 

in  co-operation  with  the  city  health^  department  which  contributes  the 
funds  and  the  services  of  twenty  police  olhccrs.  Seventeen  stiulents  of 
the  Southeastern  University  also  lake  part  in  the  campaign. 

The  Bureau  has  just  begun  the  publication  ol  a  semi-monthly  Bulle- 
tin which  will  be  devoted  largely  to  recording  the  distribution  and 
injuries  done  by  insect  pests  in  China  and  each  number  will  contain  one 
or  more  articles  on  some  phase  of  Economic  Entomology. 

Entomological    Literature 


Under  the  above  head  it  is  intended  to  note  papers  received  at  the 
Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  of  Philadelphia,  pertaining  to  the  En- 
tomology of  the  Americas  (North  and  South),  including  Arachnida  and 
Myriopoda.  Articles  irrelevant  to  American  entomology  will  not  be  noted; 
but  contributions  to  anatomy,  physiology  and  embryology  of  insects, 
however,  whether  relating  to  American  or  exotic  species,  will  be  recorded. 

The  numbers  in  Heavy- Faced  Type  refer  to  the  journals,  as  numbered 
in  the  following  list,  in  which  the  papers  are  published. 

All  continued  papers,  with  few  exceptions,  are  recorded  only  at  their 
first  installments. 

The  records  of  papers  containing  new  genera  or  species  occurring  north 
of  Mexico  are  grouped  at  the  end  of  their  respective  Orders. 

For  records  of  Economic  Literature,  see  the  Experiment  Station  Record, 
Office  of  Experiment  Stations,  Washington.  Also  Review  of  Applied  En- 
1 1. 1111.1,  iny.  Series  A,  London.  For  records  of  papers  on  Medical  Einto- 
mology,  see  Review  of  Applied  Entomology,  Series  B 

The  titles  occurring  in  the  Entomological   News  are  not  listed. 

4 — Canadian  Entomologist,  Guelph,  Canada.  5 — Psyche,  Cam- 
bridge, Mass.  8 — The  Entomologist's  Monthly  Magazine,  London. 
10 — Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  D.  C. 
11 — Annals  and  Magazine  of  Natural  History,  London.  16 — The 
Lepidopterist,  Salem,  Mass.  20 — Bulletin  de  la  Societe  Entomolo- 
gique  de  France,  Paris.  21 — The  Entomologist's  Record,  London. 
33 — Annales  de  la  Societe  Entomologique  de  Belgique,  Brussels. 
36 — Transactions  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  London.  42 — En- 
tomologiske  Meddelelser  udgivne  af  Entomologisk  Forening,  Kjo- 
benhavn.  50 — Proceedings  of  the  United  States  National  Museum. 
67 — Le  Naturaliste  Canadien,  Quebec.  68 — Science,  Garrison  on  the 
Hudson,  N.  Y.  71 — Novitates  Zoologicae,  Tring,  England.  89— 
Zoologische  Jahrbucher,  Jena.  90 — The  American  Naturalist,  Lan- 
caster, Pa.  91 — The  Scientific  Monthly,  Lancaster,  Pa.  95 — Annales 
des  Sciences  Naturelles,  Paris,  Zoolog'ie.  98 — Annals  of  Tropical 
Medicine  and  Parasitology,  Liverpool.  102 — Broteria.  Re-vista 
Lusco  Brazileira.  Serie  Zoologica,  Braga.  Ill — Archiv  fur  Natur- 
gcschichte,  Berlin. 

GENERAL.  Bainbrigge  Fletcher,  T.— Setting  without  boards. 
(Proc.  Fourth  Ent.  Meet.  1'usa,  334-5.)  Felt,  E.  P.— Bugs  and 
antennae.  68,  Iv,  ,V2S-:i().  Harmer,  S.  F. —  Experiments  on  the  fading 
of  museum  specimens.  (Museum  Jour.  London,  xxi,  205-22.)  Hew- 
lett, F.  M.  -Tlie  practical  application  of  insect  psychology.  (Proc. 

220  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [July,  '22 

Fourth  Ent.  Meet.,  Pusa,  368-80.)  Merle,  R. — Animaux  veninieux 
et  venins.  (La  Nature,  1,  225-9.)  O'Donoghue,  C.  H. — A  prelim- 
inary survey  of  the  biota  of  a  sand  spit  in  Lake  Winnipeg.  (Cana- 
dian Field-Nat.,  xxxv,  121-31.)  Sladen,  F.  W.  L.— Obituary.  8, 
Iviii,  111-13.  Tavares,  J.  S. — Cecidologia  Brazileira  as  restantes  fanii- 
lias.  102,  Zool.,  xx,  5-48.  Wheeler,  W.  M. — Social  life  among  in- 
sects. 91,  xiv,  497-524.  Note — In  36,  1921,  Part  5,  there  are  a 
number  of  articles  on  the  behavior  of  several  orders  of  insects  which 
may  prove  of  interest. 

ANATOMY,  PHYSIOLOGY,  ETC.  Donisthorpe,  H.— On  some 
abnormalities  in  ants.  21,  xxxiv,  81-5.  Forbes,  W.  T.  M. — Fugitive 
net-veining  in  the  cicada.  90,  Ivi,  191-2.  Goffer je,  M. — Uber  den 
einfluss  verschiedener  salze  auf  die  entwicklungsdauer  von  Culex 
pipiens,  und  auf  das  verhalten  dcr  Culex-larven  wahrend  der  sub- 
mersion. 89,  xxxix,  Abt.  f.  Zool.  195-300.  Hayes,  W.  P. — The  ex- 
ternal morphology  of  Lachnosterna  crassissima.  (Trans.  Amer. 
Microsc.  Soc.,  xli,  1-28.)  Hewlett,  F.  M. — Protective  movements 
and  range  of  vision  in  platypezid  flies.  (Pro.  Fourth  Ent.  Meet., 
Pusa,  279-86.)  Lutz  &  Richtmyer — The  reaction  of  Drosophila  to 
ultraviolet.  .68,  Iv,  519.  Sparck,  R. — Beitrage  zur  kenntnis  der 
Chironomiden-metamorphose,  I-IV.  42,  xiv,  32-48  (cont.)  Stumper, 
R. — Le  venin  des  fourmis  en  particulier  1'acide  formique.  95,  v, 
105-12.  Welch,  P.  S. — The  respiratory  mechanism  in  certain  aquatic 
lepidoptera.  (Trans.  Amer.  Microscop.  Soc.,  xli,  29-50.) 

ARACHNIDA,  ETC.  Chamberlin,  R.  V.— A  new  Lithobiid  of 
the  genus  Paobius.  4,  liv,  47-8. 

NEUROPTERA.  Banks,  N.— South  Am.  Glenurus  and  some 
other  Myrmeleonidae.  4,  liv,  58-60.  Holland,  W.  J. — Calopteryx 
maculata,  an  interesting  photograph.  10,  xxiv,  117-8. 

ORTHOPTERA.  Caudell,  A.  N.— Report  on  Orthoptera  and 
Dermaptera  collected  by  the  Barbados-Antigua  expedition  from  the 
University  of  Iowa  in  1918.  (LIniv.  Iowa  Studies,  x,  19-14.)  Cor- 
kins,  C.  L. — Notes  on  the  migration  of  Melanoplus  atlanis  in  north- 
ern North  Dakota  in  1920.  4,  liv,  1-4. 

HEMIPTERA.  Champion,  G.  C.— Miridae  (Capsidae)  common 
to  Britain  and  N.  America.  8,  Iviii,  109.  Hussey,  R.  F. — Notes  on 
Neottiglossa  trilineata.  (Pentatomidae.)  5,  xxix,  85-8.  Morrison  & 
Morrison — A  redescription  of  the  type  species  of  the  genera  of  Coc- 
cidae  based  on  species  originally  described  by  Maskell.  50,  Ix,  Art. 
12.  Muir,  F. — On  the  genus  Elidiptera  (Homoptcra).  4,  liv.  61. 
The  Scutelleroidea  of  the  Douglas  Lake  region.  (LIniv.  Iowa 
Studies,  x,  45-65.)  Stoner,  D. — Report  on  the  Scutelleroidea  col- 
lected by  the  Barbados-Antigua  expedition  from  the  University  of 
Iowa  in  1918.  (Univ.  Iowa  Studies,  x,  3-17.) 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  221 

LEPIDOPTERA.  Blackmore,  E.  H.— The  Pterophoridac  of 
British  Columbia.  (Kept.  Prov.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  Victoria,  1921, 
34-45.)  Dyar,  H.  G. — The  family  position  of  Platyprepia  and  other 
notes.  4,  liv,  20-1.  Jordan,  K. — On  an  organ  peculiar  to  the  females 
of  some  genera  of  Ludiinae,  a  subfamily  of  Saturniidae.  A  mono- 
graph of  the  Saturnian  subfamily  Ludiinae.  71,  xxix,  247-8;  249-326. 
Prout,  L.  B. — New  and  little-known  Geometridae.  71,  xxix,  327-63. 
Rothschild,  L. — A  preliminary  list  of  the  Arctiinae  of  Para,  Brazil, 
and  a  few  from  other  localities.  11,  ix,  457-94. 

Cassino  &  Swett — New  Geometrids.  16,  iii,  159-66.  McDunnough, 
J. — Undescribed  L.  in  the  Canadian  Nat.  Collection.  A  further  note 
on  the  genus  Platyprepia.  4,  liv,  34-47;  66. 

DIPTERA.  Chapais,  J.  C.— Moustiques,  brulots,  siimtlies.  67, 
xlviii,  221-4.  Frey,  R. — Studien  uber  den  ban  des  mindes  der  nie- 
deren  diptera  schizophora  nebst  bemerkungen  uber  die  systematik 
dieser  dipterengruppe.  (Acta  Soc.  Fauna  et  Flora  Fennica,  xlviii, 
No.  3,  246  pp.,  1921.)  Johnson,  C.  W. — Notes  on  distribution  and 
habits  of  some  of  the  bird-flies,  Hippoboscidae.  5,  xxix,  79-85. 
Melander,  A.  L. — Microsania,  a  genus  of  the  Platypezidae.  5,  xxix, 
43-48.  Newstead,  R. — A  new  species  of  Phlebotomus  from  Trinidad. 
98,  xvi,  47-50.  Tothill,  J.  D. — Note  on  types  of  Ernestia.  (Tachini- 
dae.)  4,  liv,  48.  Walter,  E. — Beitrage  zur  kenntnis  dcr  larven  von 
Hypoderma  und  Gastrus.  89,  xlv,  Abt.  f.  Syst.,  587-608. 

Aldrich,  J.  M. — Two-winged  flies  of  the  genera  Dolichopus  and 
Hydrophorus  .collected  in  Alaska,  with  new  species  of  Dolichopus 
from  North  America  and  Hawaii.  50,  Ixi,  Art.  25.  Curran,  C.  H.— 
New  species  of  Canadian  Syrphidae.  II.  New  species  of  the  syr- 
,)hid  genus  Chilosia  from  Canada.  4,  liv,  14-19;  19-20.  Greene,  C.  T. 
—Synopsis  of  the  North  American  flies  of  the  genus  Tachytrechus. 
50,  Ix,  Art.  17. 

"~COLEOPTERA.  Brethes,  J.— Notas  coleopterologicas.  (Revista 
Facult.  Agron.,  La  Plata,  xiv,  163-9.)  Fisher,  W.  S.— Notes  on 
Agrilus  lateralis.  10,  xxiv,  124-5.  Fleutiaux,  E. — Description  d'un 
genre  nouveau  et  d'un  cspece  nouvelle  de  Melasidae.  20,  1922,  7:2. 
Kleine,  R. — Die  geographische  verbreitung  der  Brenthidae.  Ill, 
1921,  A,  10,  :',9-132.  d'Orchymont,  A. —  Le  genre  Tropisternus.  II. 
(Hydrophilidae.)  33,  1922,  11-18.  Sloane,  T.  G. —  On  the  number  of 
joints  in  the  antennae  of  Haliplidac  and  Patissidae.  36,  1921,  590-1. 
Strand,  E. —  Lepidopterorum  catalogus.  Pars  26:  Arcliidae:  Litho- 
siinae.  Weiss,  H.  B. — A  summary  of  the  food-habits  of  North 
American  coleoptera.  90,  Ivi,  159-65.  Wickham,  H.  F.-- -Weevils 
of  the  genus  Apion  injurious  to  beans  in  Mexico.  10,  xxiv.  118-22. 

Blatchley,  W.  S. — Some  new  and  rare  C.  from  southwestern 
Florida.  4,  liv,  9-1!  (cont.).  Calder,  E.  E.— Xew  Cicindelas  of  the 
fulgida  group.  4,  liv,  62.  Hippisley,  W.  W. — Notes  on  northern 

222  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Juty.  '22 

Br.  Columbian  coleoptera.     4,  liv,  fi.3-6.     Liljeblad,  E.  —  A  revision  of 
the  N.  A.  species  of  Mordella  related  to  M.  melaena.     4,  liv,  51-5S. 

HYMENOPTERA.  Caudell,  A.  N.—  A  diving  wasp.  10,  xxiv, 
125-6.  Crawley,  W.  C.  —  Formicidae.  —  A  new  species  and  variety. 
21,  xxxiv,  85-6.  Cushman,  R.  A.  —  The  identity  of  Habrobracon  bre- 
vicornis.  10,  xxiv,  122-3.  Donisthorpe,  H.  —  Mimicry  of  ants  by 
other  arthropods.  36,  1<)21,  307-11.  The  subfamilies  of  Formicidae. 
36,  1921,  xl-xlvii.  Friese,  H.—  Eine  neue  gattung  der  Urbienen: 
Brachyglossa  n.  g.  (Apidae).  Eine  neue  bienengattung  aus  Sudanie- 
rika:  Rhinetula  (Apidae).  89,  xlv,  Abt.  f.  Syst.,  577-80;  581-8(1. 
Hill,  C.  C.  —  A  preliminary  account  of  two  Serphoid  (Proctotrypoid) 
parasites  of  the  hessian  fly.  10,  xxiv,  109-17.  Middleton,  W.—  De- 
scription of  some  N.  American  sawfly  larvae.  50,  Ixi,  Art.  21.  Tay- 
lor, L.  H.  —  Notes  on  the  biology  of  certain  wasps  of  the  genus  Ancis- 
trocerus.  5,  xxix,  48-65. 

Cushman,  R.  A.  —  On  the  Ashmead  manuscript  species  of  Ichneu- 
monidae  of  Mrs.  Slosson's  Mount  Washington  lists.  50,  Ixi,  Art.  8. 
Gahan,  A.  B.  —  Descriptions  of  miscellaneous  new  reared  parasitic  H. 
50,  Ixi,  Art.  24. 

THE  PSYCHIC  LIFE  OF  INSECTS  by  E.  L.  BOUVIER.  Translated  by  L. 
O.  HOWARD.  Illustrated,  New  York,  The  Century  Co.,  1922.  12  mo. 
pp.  xvii,  377.  16  figs.,  $2.00.  It  is  very  fitting  that  this  volume  by  the 
Vice  President  of  the  Academy  of  Agriculture  of  France  should  be 
translated  by  a  Member  of  the  same  academy  and  that  the  latter  in 
his  preface  should  sketch  the  chief  biological  activities  of  the  author 
and  the  interest  which  the  present  work  aroused  in  the  translator. 
Dr.  Howard  writes  that  it  is  "a  broad  summary  of  an  interesting  field 
in  which  much  work  has  been  done  by  many  men  of  many  nations,  but 
which  is  as  yet  almost  unexplored.  It  has  interested  me  enormously, 
and  I  feel  sure  that  it  will  have  the  same  interest,  not  only  for  students 
of  some  one  restricted  field  of  biology,  but  also  for  all  nature-lovers, 
especially  those  to  whom  the  constant  question  'why'  occurs." 

Many  of  us  who  knew  this  work  in  the  original  French,  before  the 
publication  of  Dr.  Howard's  translation,  owed  our  introduction  to  it 
to  Dr.  W.  M.  Wheeler's  review  in  Science  for  November  13,  1920, 
pages  443-446.  In  view  of  the  existence  of  that  review  and  its  recent 
appearance  it  is  not  necessary  to  give  here  more  than  the  merest  out- 
line of  its  contents. 

After  a  brief  Introduction  the  original  is  divided  into  a  Fundamental 
and  a  Special  Part,  but  although  the  former  appears  as  a  heading 
in  the  translation  (page  1),  the  latter  must  be  sought  on  page  196.  The 
Fundamental  Part  embraces  the  first  nine  chapters  :  I.  Directive  Action 
of  Light,  Phototropism  ;  II.  The  Differential  External  Stimuli  and 
the  Tropisms  which  they  provoke.  III.  Vital  Rhythms  and  Organic 
Memory.  IV.  Differential  Sensitiveness.  V.  Differential  Sensitiveness, 

xxxiii,  '22  j  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  22,^ 

Species  Memory  and  Simulation  of  Death.  VI.  Individual  or  Asso- 
ciative Memory.  VII.  Spontaneous  Modifications  of  Habits.  VIII. 
Evolution  of  Instincts.  IX.  Comparative  Psychology.  History  of  the 
Pompilids.  The  Special  Part  comprises  the  following  five  chapters : 
X.  Insects  and  Flowers.  XI.  The  Faculty  of  Orientation.  XII.  The 
Faculty  of  Orientation  [in]  Terrestrial  Articulates.  XIII.  The  Divi- 
sion of  [the]  Sexes  [in]  the  Nest-Making  Hymenoptera.  XIV.  The 
Social  Life  of  the  Articulates  and  a  Conclusion,  containing,  among 
other  topics,  that  interesting  comparison  between  the  structural  bases 
of  the  psychic  life  of  Vertebrates  and  Insects  respectively  which  is 
largely  due  to  Bergson. 

We  confess  that  we  can  not  always  extract  the  same  meaning  from 
the  original  as  the  translator  has  done.  We  would  have  written  "wake- 
fulness,"  instead  of  "age,"  in  the  last  line  of  page  168.  On  page  328 
we  would  have  preferred  "polygynous"  and  "polygyny"  to  "polygenous" 
and  "polygeny,"  and  would  have  substituted  "which  the  workers  some 
times  produce"  for  the  second  line  of  page  345.  On  page  342,  "Bonnier" 
should  be  "Bugnion." 

The  translation  is  improved,  in  comparison  with  the  original,  by  the 
fuller  references  to  the  places  of  publication  of  the  literature  quoted 
in  the  foot  notes  and  by  the  addition  of  an  index  of  more  than  twelve 
pages,  even  though  some  entries,  c.  g.,  trophobiosis,  page  334,  may  have 
been  omitted  therefrom. 

That  Dr.  Howard's  translation  will  add  greatly  to  the  available' litera- 
ture in  English  on  this  entrancing  subject  is  evident  and  we  wish  to  be 
among  the  first  to  appreciate  his  labors  and  to  offer  him  our  thanks.— 

Held  at  Pusa  on  the  7th  to  12th  February,  1921.  Edited  by  T.  BAIN- 
HRIGCE  FLETCHER,  R.  N.,  etc.,  Imperial  Entomologist.  Calcutta  Super- 
intendent Government  Printing,  India,  1921.  Price  Rs.  7  As.  8.  8vo. 
pp.  xli,  401,  pis.  Ivii.  -  The  Proceedings  of  this  Fourth  meeting 

occupy  one  volume  as  compared  with  three  for  those  of  the  Third 
meeting  (see  the  NEWS.  vol.  xxxii,  pp.  221-222).  The  names  of  42 
members  and  2  visitors  are  given  as  having  taken  part.  Fifty  papers 
and  reports  are  included,  grouped  as  dealing  with  Crop  Pests  (21), 
Forest  Entomology  (1),  Medical  and  Veterinary  Entomology  (8), 
Household  and  Store  Pests  (1).  Lac  C2),  Life-histories  and  Bionomics 
(9),  Collection  and  Preservation  (1),  Systematic  Entomology  (2). 
Publications  (1),  Miscellaneous  (4).  As  we  remarked  last  year  also. 
some  of  these  articles  will  be  useful  to  economic  entomologists  of 
other  lands  as  well  as  to  those  working  in  India.  Certain  other  papers 
on  mosquitoes  and  means  of  checking  them,  on  Colcoptera  in  the  human 
intestine  (R.  Senior  White  and  K.  Sen.)  ;  on  the  proportion  of  the 
female  forms  of  Papilio  polytcs  (by  Prof.  E.  B.  Poulton),  the  ovi- 

224  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [July,  '22 

position  of  Gynacantha  (T.  B.  Fletcher),  on  life  histories  of  Culicoides 
oxystoma,  of  Gracilaria  soyella  and  its  parasite,  Asympicsiella  india,  of 
Stauropus  alternates  and  of  two  species  of  Celyphidae ;  Gynandromor- 
phism  of  Mcgachilc  bicolor,  etc.,  will  appeal  to  a  wide  circle  of  extra- 
Indian  students.  Mr.  T.  B.  Fletcher  contributes  an  English  translation  of 
Dr.  Johann  Gerhard  Koenig's  rare  paper  on  South  Indian  Termites  from 
the  fourth  volume  of  the  Beschaftigungen  dcr  Bcrlinischen  Gcsdlsclwft 
Natwforschenden  Frcunde  (1779),  preceded  by  a  biographical  note  on 
the  author,  a  pupil  of  Linneaus,  who  lived  in  India  from  about  1767 
to  his  death  there  on  June  26,  1785.  Mr.  Fletcher  regards  Koenig's 
paper  as  equally  fundamental  to  the  study  of  termites,  from  the  his- 
torical standpoint,  as  the  celebrated  account  by  Smeathman.  Mr. 
Fletcher  also  has  a  suggestion  on  setting  insects  without  boards  (shown 
on  plate  Ivi).  Mr.  T.  V.  Rama  Krishna  Ayyar  furnishes  a  check  list 
of  Coccidae  of  the  Indian  Region  and  a  list  of  parasitic  Hymenoptera 
of  economic  importance  from  South  India.  A  suggestive  paper,  ad- 
dressed chiefly  to  the  economic  entomologist,  is  by  the  late  F.  M.  Hew- 
lett, The  Practical  Application  of  Insect  Psychology,  in  which  he 
pleads  for  the  intensive  study  of  the  stimuli  which  determine  the  feed- 
ing, pairing  and  choice  of  a  suitable  nidus  for  the  young  of  injurious 
insects,  with  the  view  of  using  these  stimuli  to  provoke  reactions  of 
such  species  leading  to  their  own  destruction. — P.  P.  CALVERT. 

The  American  Entomological   Society. 

Meeting  of  February  23,  1922,  in  the  hall  of  the  Academy  of  Natural 
Sciences  of  Philadelphia.  Dr.  Skinner  presided ;  six  members  and  con- 
tributors to  the  Entomological  Section  of  the  Academy  were  present. 

Mr.  Cresson,  of  the  Property  Committee,  reported  the  following 
accessions  to  the  Library:  Zeitschrift  des  Oesterreichischen  Entomolo- 
gen  Vereins,  Wicn,  Jahr.  11  (1917)— VI  (1921)  ;  Konowia,  Wien,  Band 
I  (1922)  No.  1-2;  and  to  the  Cabinet,  seven  named  Hymenoptera  from 
the  Hawaiian  Islands  by  Dr.  D.  M.  Castle. 

LF.PIDOPTERA. — Dr.  Skinner  exhibited  a  series  of  Ncniiivix 
ridingsi  and  dionysHS  from  Colorado  and  South  Utah  respectively,  llieit 
specific  identity  and  distribution  being  the  subject  of  a  paper  to  be  soon 
published  by  him  (see  the  NEWS,  xxxiii,  page  74). 

ORTHOPTERA. — Mr.  Rehn  spoke  of  a  similar  case  in  the  Orllioptera, 
Acrochorcutcs  carlinianus  carlinianus,  the  Great  Plains  and  Great  Basin 
forms  joining  with  intergrades  through  the  Wyoming  plains. 

There  followed  a  general  discussion  of  variation  in  insects  due  to 
climatic  and  topographic  conditions  in  the  western  United  Stales. 

COLEOPTERA. — Mr.  Homig  exhibited  larvae,  cells  and  imagoes  of  Lasio- 
derma  serricornc  in  mustard  dust  in  the  original  tin  container  which  ln» 
had  had  for  four  years. 

R.  C.  WILLIAMS,  JR.,  Recording  Secretary. 


Fine  perfect  specimens  of  this  grand  rare  species  are  offered  ;  also  O. 
chimaera — Zelotypia  staceyi,  superb  rarity— many  others.  Largest  stock  of 
exotic  Coleoptera,  rarities  and  unnamed  series.  Also  the  most  important 
books  on  Entomology  in  stock. 

Janson  &  Sons,  Natnralists  &  Booksellers  44,  Great  Russell  St.,  London.W.C.I. 

pV"\D     Q  AI  p*     A  large  collection  of  butterflies — Papilios 

only — from  all  parts  of  the  world.     All 
mounted  and  classified  in  three  large  cabinets. 

C.  F.  GROTH 

14  Poplar  Place,  New  Rochelle,  N.  Y. 



Published  quarterly.  Containing  original  articles  on  Economic  Entomology  (illustrated).  Ann- 
ual Subscription  in  advance  for  Vol.  xiii  ( 1922),  155.  post  free  ;  separate  parts  55.  each,  post 
free.  Prices  of  back  parts  on  application. 


Published  monthly.  Containing  reviews  of  current  works  on  Economic  Entomology  throughout 
the  world.  Published  in  two  series,  "A"  dealing  with  insect  pests  of  cultivated  plants,  and 
"B"  dealing  with  insects  conveying  disease  or  otherwise  injurious  to  man  and  animals 
Annual  Subscription  in  advance  for  Vol.  x  (1922),  Series  "A"  125.;  Series  "B"  6s.  post  free. 
Prices  of  back  parts  on  application. 

Publication  Office :  41  Queen's  Gate,  London,  S.  W.  7. 


North  American  and  Mexican  Phanaeus  and  Monilerna. 
Will  purchase  or  exchange. 

DR.    FRANK    J.    PSOTA, 
3854  West   26th  Street,  Chicago,   Illinois. 

The  Kiangsu  Bureau  of  Entomology 
will  collect  Chinese  insects  in  exchange 
for  books  or  pamphlets  on  Entomology.  Send  list  with  prices  and 
tell  us  what  you  want  us  to  collect  for  you.  Address 

C.   W.  WOODWORTH,  Director,  Nanking,  China,  or 
American  P.  O.,  Shanghai,  China. 


From  Colombia,  South  America : 

Morpho  eypris  Morpho  amathonte 

sulkowskyi  Caligo  spp. 

From  Cuba: 

Papilio  columbus  Urania  boisduvali 

andraemon  Erinyis  guttalaris 

celadon  Protoparce  brontes,  etc. 


From  Venezuela :  From  New  Guinea 

Over  5000  Lepidoptera  2000  Coleoptera 

200  Dynastes  hercules  200  Orthoptera 

From  Assam,  India: 

Papilio  arcturus  Kallima  inachis 

philoxenus  :     Brahmaea  wallachi 

And  Many  Other  Showy  Species 

From  Tibet  (Bhutan)  : 
Arrnandia  lidderdalii  Parnassius  hardwicki 



If  interested  kindly  send  your  list 
of  desiderata  for  further  information  to 


Department  of  Natural  Science  New  York 

G.  Lagai,  Ph.D.  56-58  West  23d  Street 

OCTOBER,  1922 


Vol.  XXXIII  No.  8 

i "34-" 9°3 

PHILIP   P.  CALVERT,   Ph.   D.,   Editor. 

E.  T.   CRESSON,  JR.,  Associate   Editor. 

HENRY   SKINNER,    M.D.,   Sc.D.,   Editor    Emeritus. 


EZRA  T.  CRESSON,  J.  A.  G.  REHN, 



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OCTOBER,  1922 

No.   8 


Mason— A  Collecting  Adventure  Near 

Home  ( Coleop. ) 225 

McDunnough — Synonymic  Notes  on 
Lepidoptera 228 

Brimley — Additional  Data  on  North 
Carolina  Tabanidae,  Bombyliidae 
and  Tachinidae  ( Diptera ) 230 

French — Catocala  ulalume  a  Distinct 
Species  (  Lepid.,  Noctuidae) 233 

Bro\ver — Preparatory  Stages  of  Cato- 
cala ulalume  Str.,  with  larva  of  C. 
lacrvmosa  for  Comparison  (Lepid., 
Noctuidae) 234 

Kirk — Biological  Notes  on  Elateridae 

and  Melasidae  ( Col. ) 236 

Change  of  Address 240 

Foundation  of  a  Brazilian  Entomolo- 
gical Society 240 

Cuvier's  Magnifying  Glass 240 

Editorial— The  Need  of  Greater  Preci- 
sion in  Taxonomic  Literature 241 

Mason — Additions  to  the  Coleoptera  in 
The  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences 
of  Philadelphia 241 

Aldrich — Mr.  E.  A.  Schwarz,  Honor- 
ary Ph .  D 242 

The  University  of  Michigan-William- 
son Expedition  to  Brazil 242 

Hebard— The  Stridulation  of  a  North 
American  Noctuid,  Heliocheilus 
paradoxus  Grote  (Lep.) 244 

Hutchison — The  Muiford  Biological 
Exploration  of  the  Amazon  Basin. 
Bulletin  No.  9 245 

Kellogg— The  Exchange  of  Scientific 
Literature  with  Russia 24s 

Entomological  Literature 246 

Review  of  Oberthu'r's  Etudes  de  Lepi- 
dopterologie  Comparee 251 

Review  of  Weiss's  Professor  Benedict 
Jaeger 252 

Review  of  Schmidt  and  Schenkling's 
Nomenclator  Coleopterologicus... .  252 

Review  of  Stoner  and  Caudell  in  Uni- 
versity of  Iowa  Studies 253 

Review  of  Fletcher's  Report  of  the  Im- 
perial Entomologist,  1920-21 254 

Obituaries— William  Lucas  Distant, 
George  Alexander  James  Rothney, 
Arthur  W.  Bacot.  Henry  Rowland- 
Brown,  Hans  Fruhstorfer,  Dr.  Otto 
Taschenberg,  Louis  Bedel 254 

A  Collecting  Adventure  Near  Home  (Coleop.). 

By  FRANK  R.  MASON,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. 

Early  June,  1921,  found  Mr.  Alan  S.  Nicolay,  of  Brooklyn, 
New  York,  and  myself  scouring'  the  subalpine  region  of  the 
White  Mountains,  Xew  Hampshire,  in  search  of  Coleoptera, 
especially  the  rarer  forms  of  Cychrini.  However  most  species 
of  this  group  arc  rare  and  require  rather  careful  hunting. 

\Vc  confined  our  efforts  largely  to  the  higher  slopes  of  Mount 
Madison,  Carter's  Dome  and  up  through  Tuckennan's  Ravine 
to  the  summit  of  Mount  Washington  ((>2S8  ft.).  All  these 
points  are  accessible  from  Glen  House,  Xew  Hampshire,  which 
is  the  center  of  the  wildest  remaining  section  of  the  White 
Mountain  region,  far  enough  removed  from  tin  cans  and  lunch 
boxes  and  the  blare  of  auto  horns  to  occasionally  see  a  wild-cat 
slink  along  the  trail  and  often  raise  a  covey  of  grouse  in  the 

denser  thickets. 


226  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Oct.,  '22 

Nomaretits  bilobns  Say,  probably  one  of  the  rarest  beetles 
in  eastern  North  America  and  frequently  confused  in  collec- 
tions with  the  more  common  fissicoUis  Lee.  and  cavicollis  Lee. 
from  the  Central  States,  was  taken  on  Mount  Madison  at  about 
forty-five  hundred  feet  in  heavy  timber  just  below  the  lichened 
rocks,  and  two  other  specimens  at  a  bit  lower  elevation  in 
Tuckerman's  Ravine  under  rotted  bark.  One  specimen  of  the 
leonardi  Harr.  form  of  Scaphinotus  vidmis  Dej.  found  its  way 
into  our  perfumed  tin  traps  in  the  valley  floor,  the  bait  consist- 
ing of  molasses  and  assafoetida,  a  most  sickening  solution, 
which  I  should  think  any  self-respecting  Cychrns  would  avoid. 
A  dead  mouse  added  to  the  brew  sometimes  makes  it  even  more 
effective.  Sphaerodcrns  canadensis  Chd.  and  Iccontci  Dej.  were 
more  abundant  companions  of  the  others. 

Under  the  big  summit  rocks  on  Mount  Washington  we  took 
in  fair  numbers  Carabus  chamissonis  Fisch.  var.  groenlandicus 
Dej.;  this  is  a  species  from  The  Labrador.  Snow  was  found 
at  the  head-wall  of  Tuckerman's  Ravine  and,  when  marooned 
on  the  summit  that  night,  the  temperature  dropped  to  twenty 
degrees  ;  and  all  this  in  June  east  of  the  Rockies  was  quite  a 
surprise.  The  next  morning  the  sprightly  CicindelcC  longilabris 
Say  escorted  us  down  the  very  easy  wagon  road.  We  took 
Pterostichus  (Cryobius^hudsonicus  Lee.  and  Pat  rebus  scptcn- 
trionis  Dej.  (a  Palaearctic  species)  at  six  thousand  feet  and 
lower  down  Pterostichus  ( Lyperophenis}  pnnctatissimus 
Rand.,  as  well  as  the  commoner  Pterostichus  honestus  Say, 
luczoti  Dej.,  coracinus  Newm.,  relict  us  Newm.,  etc.,  and  when 
within  five  hundred  yards  of  Glen  House  a  single  specimen  of 
Pogonocherus  fascicuJatiis  Deg.  (a  Greenland  longicorn)  and 
Xylotrcchus  aiinosus  Say  dropped  into  the  sweep-net. 

Along  the  banks  of  the  Peabody  River  (West  Branch)  I 
found  Platidius  rugicollis  Rand.,  not  common  in  collections, 
also  many  other  less  interesting  Carabidae  as  Ncbria  suturalis 
Lee.,  Pristodactyla  advcna  Lee.,  Trcchus  chalybeus  Dej.,  Lori- 
cera  cocrulcscens  L.,  Bembidion  nitens  Lee.  and  scopulinuiu. 

Pselaphidae  and  Scydniaenidae  were  very  scarce,  persistent 
sifting  only  secured  three  species;  these  families  seem  to  dwin- 

xxxiii,  '22  j  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  227 

die  as  one  goes  north.  I  think  this  is  also  true  of  the  western 
part  of  the  continent. 

On  the  bare,  wind-swept  rocks  of  Carter's  Dome  we  took 
various  good  Elaterids  :  Lcptnroidcs  dcnticornis  Kby.,  Ludius 
spinosiis  Lee.,  vireiis  Schrank,  triundtilatus  Rand.,  etc.  This 
type  of  collecting  is  much  like  picking  berries,  you  scramble 
over  the  rocks  and  gather  in  the  crop,  with  always  those  superb 
glimpses  of  tumbled  mountains  below  you.  But  atmospheric 
conditions  must  be  just  right,  bright  sunshine  and  not  too 
strong  a  breeze.  Some  days  we  found  no  insects  on  the 

Carter's  Notch  near  the  little  lake  yielded  some  interesting 
things:  Scotodcs  americanus  Horn,  Phryganophilus  collaris 
Lee.  ( n  rare  Melandryid),  Schizotits  ccri'icalis  Xewm.  and 
Pcdihts  cvanipcnnis  Bland.,  sunning  themselves  on  fallen  tim- 
ber. Some  skinned  poplar  logs  attracted  Gaurotcs  abdominalis 
Bland..  Anthnphilax  attcnitatus  Hald.  and  other  longicorns. 
DicJiclony.r  subvittata  Lee.,  together  with  numerous  Buprestids 
and  Elaterids  were  beaten  from  oak,  spruce  and  pine.  In  vain 
I  searched  near  the  type  locality  for  Cicindela  ancocisconensis 
Harr. ;  I  think  we  were  too  early.  Clerids  were  few,  probably 
for  the  same  reason. 

The  above  is  by  no  means  a  complete  list  of  species,  only 
the  more  striking  captures  being  noted,  a  large  number  of 
other  boreal  ( 'oleoptera  having  been  taken.  Tn  the  valley  the 
fauna  was  typically  New  England  and  general  run;  practically 
all  the  rarer  species  were  found  between  three  thousand  and 
fifty-five  hundred  feet  elevation. 

This  tract  of  the  \Yhite  Mountains  is  a  most  interesting 
region,  a  lovely  sylvan  country  of  running  mountain  streams 
clear  and  cold,  where  the  Pipes  of  Pan  will  wlvstle  to  you  all 
day  long  and  \\irh  peaks  high  above  timber-line  to  add  a  certain 
grandeur  to  it  all.  not  often  found  among  our  eastern  hills.  The 
collecting,  to  be  sure,  is  not  bi/nrre  and  exotic  like  the  tropics, 
neither  are  you  subjected  to  the  excessive  discomforts  of  those 
hot  countries.  One  great  advantage,  these  mountains  are  almost 
in  our  back  gardens;  a  trip  of  but  fifteen  hours  by  rail  brings 
you  to  their  very  gateway.  So  1  say  to  all  entomologists,  "why 
not  go !" 

228  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Oct.,  '22 

Synonymic  Notes  on  Lepidoptera. 

By  J.   McDuNNoucH,  Entomological   Branch,   Ottawa. 

In  Entomological  News,  xxxii,  p.  253,  Drs.  Barnes  and 
Lindsey  gave  a  few  synonymic  notes  based  on  figures  of  some 
of  Boisduval  and  Guenee's  types  published  by  Mr.  C.  Ober- 
thiir  in  Volume  XXVII  of  his  Etudes  de  Lepidopterologic 

Through  the  kindness  of  Dr.  H.  Skinner  I  have  been  able  to 
examine  a  copy  of  the  plates  of  this  work  and  note  a  few 
additional  changes  in  synonymy. 

Plate  Dili,  figs.  4193,  4194,  Chdonia  dons  Bdv.  According 
to  the  original  descriptions  Fig.  4194  agrees  with  doris  and 
Fig.  4193  with  ncrca  Bdv.  The  species  is,  however,  not  arge 
Dru.  as  at  present  listed,  but  michabo  Grt,  and  Boisduval's 
names  will  take  priority.  Typical  doris  has  the  lines  and 
bands  on  primaries  suffused  with  pink,  whilst  ncrca  represents 
the  white  banded  form. 

We  have  in  the  Canadian  National  Collection  specimens 
from  Calgary,  Alberta,  and  Aweme,  Manitoba,  that  agree  well 
with  ncrea,  whilst  specimens  from  Southern  British  Columbia 
approach  closer  to  doris.  .Michabo  Grt.,  described  from  Ne- 
braska, falls  to  ncrca;  mine  a  Sloss.,  described  from,  New 
Hampshire,  is  more  intensely  colored  than  doris  and  the  name 
for  the  present  may  be  held  for  the  Atlantic  Coast  race.  The 
synonymy  will  stand  : 

doris   Bdv. 

form  nerea  Bdv. 
michabo   Grt. 
a.     mine  a  Sloss. 

PI.  DV,  fig.  4217,  Acronycta  clarcsccns  Gn.  The  species 
was  described  from  specimens  in  the  Guenee,  Boisduval  and 
Doubleday  collections,  the  latter  type  being  in  the  British 
Museum.  According  to  the  type  figured  by  Mr.  Oberthiir  and 
to  which  we  believe  the  name  should  be  restricted,  clarescens 
is  evidently  the  same  species  as  pruni  Harris,  but  not  the  spe- 
cies figured  by  Hampson  (Cat.  Lep.  Phal.,  Brit.  Mus.,  VIII, 
80,  PI.  CXXIV,  fig.  29)  which  belongs  in  the  inclara  group, 
showing  no  dark  shade  line  between  anal  angle  and  t.  p.  line. 

xxxiii.  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  229 

The  synonymy  given  by  Hampson  will  hold,  with  the  addition 
of  smithi  Butl. 

Plate  DVI,  fig.  4228,  Macaria  contcmptata  Gn.  This  species 
must  certainly  be  removed  from  the  synonymy  of  granitata  Gn. 
The  figure  represents  a  species  quite  different  from  the  usual 
conception  of  granitata,  but  one  that  is  unknown  to  me  in 

Plate  DVII,  figs.  4237,  4238,  Ypsipctes  pluviata  Gn.  An 
examination  of  the  excellent  figures  shows  that  not  only  are  the 
two  sexes  not  conspecific,  but  also  that  neither  of  them  repre- 
sents the  conception  of  the  species  as  given  in  my  Hydrioincna 
revision  (1917,  Barnes  &  McDunnough,  Contributions,  IV, 
(1),  24).  Under  the  circumstances  I  propose  restricting  the 
name  to  the  male  type  (Fig.  4238),  which  is  apparently  a 
rather  worn  specimen  of  what  was  listed  in  the  revision  as 
frigidata  Wlk. ;  the  pale  spot  near  the  anal  angle,  the  general 
trend  of  the  lines  and  the  dark  hind  wings  all  indicate  this  spe- 
cies ;  an  examination  of  the  genitalia  should  easily  verify  this 
reference.  With  pluviata  Gn.  taking  priority  over  frigidata 
Wlk.  the  name  divisaria  Wlk.  may  be  used  for  the  pluviata  of 
the  revision.  The  female  (Fig.  4237)  appears  to  belong  to 
rcnnnciata  Wlk.,  although  somewhat  smaller  than  usual. 

Plate  DVII,  fig.  4240,  Corcnria  dcfcnsaria  Gn.  I  do  not  see 
how  it  is  possible  to  consider  this  figure  as  correctly  repre- 
senting the  type  of  defensaria.  Guenee's  description  was 
drawn  up  from  a  single  male  and  he  notes  that  the  pectinations 
of  the  antennae  are  more  robust  than  in  convallaria  Gn. ;  in 
Oberthiir's  figure  the  antennae  show  no  signs  of  pectinations, 
being  thread-like,  and  the  specimen  figured  looks  extremely 
like  a  female.  Furthermore  the  remainder  of  the  description 
does  not  fit  the  figure  at  all  well,  which,  as  a  matter  of  fact, 
represents  a  specimen  of  Pcrizoma  polygrammata  Hist,  or  one 
of  its  close  allies.  Until  further  evidence  can  be  produced  it 
would  be  well  to  make  no  change  in  the  present  conception  of 
dcfcnsaria;  as  pointed  out  by  Mr.  Swett,  it  is  not  a  -form  of 
convallaria,  as  given  in  the  1917  Check  List,  but  a  good  spe- 

230  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Oct.,  '22 

Additional  Data  on  North  Carolina  Tabanidae,  Bom- 
byliidae  and  Tachinidae  (Diptera). 

By  C.  S.  BRIMLEY,  Division  of  Entomology,  N.  C.  Dept.  of 

Agriculture,  N.  C. 

The  present  paper  is  supplementary  to  those  previously  pub- 
lished in  the  NEWS  as  follows :  on  Tabanidae,  vol.  xv,  pp.  270- 
275  (1904)  and  xix,  pp.  168-173  (1908)  ;  on  Bombyliidae,  vol. 
xxxii,  pp.  170-172  (1921)  ;  on  Tachinidae,  vol.  xxxiii,  pp.  20-26 



CHRYSOPS  BISTELLATUS  Daecke.  Lake  Ellis,  not  uncommon  on  road 
between  Havelock  and  the  lake,  in  late  May,  1908,  F.  Sherman  and 

CHRYSOPS  CUCLUX  Whitney.     Raleigh,  late  April,  1912,  CSB. 

CHRYSOPS  DORSOVITTATUS  Hine.  Lake  Ellis,  two  in  late  May,  1908, 
Southern  Pines,  May,  1908,  Manee ;  White  Lake,  late  May,  1909  and 
early  June,  1915,  FS. 

CHRYSOPS  HINEI  Daecke.  Boardman,  September  21,  1915,  R.  W. 
Leiby,  Fair  Bluff,  September  25,  1920,  T.  B.  Mitchell. 

CHRYSOPS  INDUS  O.S.     Linville  Falls,  early  June,  1920,  one,  FS. 

CHRYSOPS  punicus  O.S.  The  specimens  from  Havelock  (Lake  EHis) 
formerly  referred  to  cursim  seem  to  belong  here,  while  the  Raleigh 
cursim  seem  to  be  actually  that  species. 

CHRYSOPS  SEPARATUS  Hine.  A  male  was  taken  by  me  at  Raleigh, 
April  20,  1921. 

TABANUS  CYMATOPHORUS  O.S.     Southern  Pines,  A.  H.  Manee. 

TABANUS  ENDYMION  O.S.     White  Lake,  early  June,  1914,  FS. 

TABANUS  SULCIFRONS  Macq.  Rocky  Mount,  mid  September,  1911, 
four,  Z.  P.  Metcalf. 

TABANUS  TENER  O.S.     White  Lake,  late  May,  1909,  one,  FS. 

(All  the  preceding  are  new  to  our  state  list  except  C.  separatus). 

(Species  new  to  the  state  list  are  marked  with  a  *  star). 

ANTHRAX  ALTERNATA  Say.  Dillard-Highlands  road,  July  11,  1921. 
T.  B.  Mitchell. 

ANTHRAX  CEYX  Loew.     Marion,  July  8,  1921,  three,  TBA1. 

*ANTHRAX  FAUNUS  Fab.  Raleigh,  mid  August  1914,  C.  L.  Metcalf; 
late  July  1912,  July  22,  1921. 

*ANTH-RAX  NIGRIPENNIS  Cole.  All  the  Raleigh  specimens  previously 
referred  by  me  to  halcyon  (Ent.  News,  XXXII,  171)  belong  to  this 
species  as  well  as  five  others  taken  in  mid  and  late  June,  1921.  \i</ri- 
pcnnis  is  not  only  darker-winged  than  halcyon,  but  also  differs  in  vena- 
tion (at  least  in  our  North  Carolina  specimens)  as  follows, — in  halcyon 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  2  31 

the  third  posterior  cell  is  bisected  on  a  level  with  the  distal  end  of  the 
discal  cell  and  the  stump  which  projects  into  the  distal  portion  of  that 
cell  arises  from  the  discal  cell,  while  in  ni</rifcnnis  that  cell  is  bisected 
by  a  crossvein  which  is  oblique  to  the  discal  cell  and  closes  the  proximal 
part  of  the  third  posterior  cell  not  far  from  the  wing  margin,  the 
stump  arises  from  that  crossvein  and  not  from  the  discal  cell.  In  both 
(vv.r  and  halcyon  the  first  antennal  joint  is  red,  the  second  and  third 
black,  while  in  nigripcnnis  the  first  and  second  are  red,  the  third  only 
black.  Cey.r  and  nigripcnnis  fly  in  early  or  mid  summer,  halcyon  in 

ANTHRAX  HALCYON  Say.     Aberdeen  October  3,  1921,  TBM. 
*ANTHRAX  DISPAR  Coq.  Southern  Pines,  August  6,  1921,  TBM. 
ANTHRAX  HYPOMELAS  Macq.     Dillard-Highlands  road,  July  11,  1921, 

*ANTHRAX  LATERALIS  var.  arcnicola  Johnson.  Southern  Pines,  late 
June,  1909,  CSB.,  Dillard-Highlands  road,  July  11,  1921,  TBM. 

BOMBYI.IUS  SUBVARIUS  Johnson.  The  single  specimen  from  White 
Lake  referred  by  me  to  this  species  (Ent.  News,  XXXII,  171)  appears 
to  be  B.  fraiiditlciitits  and  not  this  species,  hence  subvariits  is  thereby 
eliminated  from  the  state  list. 

*BOMBYLIUS  FRAUDULENTUS  Johnson.  Raleigh,  late  May,  CSB,  June 
14,  16,  1921,  on  flowers  of  Ceanothus.  also  the  White  Lake  specimen 
mentioned  above. 

*BOMBYLIUS  MEXICANUS  Wied.  Raleigh,  late  April  to  late  May, 
common,  Southern  Pines,  April,  1907,  FS ;  Hendersonville,  June,  1907, 
FS;  Blowing  Rock,  June  25,  1902,  FS,  Andrews,  mid  May,  1908,  FS. 
All  these  formerly  referred  to  B.  ranus  under  a  misapprehension. 

BOMBYI.IUS  VARIUS  Fabr.  All  our  previous  records  (Ent.  News, 
XXXII,  171)  belong  to  B.  mexicanus,  except  that  from  Charlotte, 
which  is  of  a  badly  rubbed  specimen  of  azalcae.  The  species,  how- 
ever, still  remains  on  our  list  as  I  collected  one  at  Fayetteville,  in 
early  June,  1921. 

EXOPROSOPA  DF.CORA  Loew.     Old  Fort,  late  October.  1920,  FS. 
*GKRON    SUBAURATUS   Loew.     One  taken   at   Raleigh,   June    18,    1921, 
CSB.     Although    I    took   numerous    other    Gerons    during   the   summer 
they  were  all  scnilis. 

*OxconocKKA  I.KUCOPROCTA  Wied.  "North  Carolina,"  Aldrich's  Cata- 
logue of  North  American  Diptera,  page  239. 

SPOGOSTYLUM  CEPHUS  Fabr.     Marion,  July  8,  1921,  TBM. 
TOXOPHORA  LEUCOPYGA  Wied.     Goldsboro.  July  26,  1921,  TBM. 


(Records  of  my  own  collecting  are  without  initials). 
A.     Species  not  previously  recorded. 
AI.OPHORA  AENF.OVENTRIS  Will.     Raleigh,  May  17,  1921,  TBM. 

iif.'ir   HI  vi  HI. \   Coq.     Raleigh.  April  2,   1906. 


CELATORIA  DIABROTICAE  Shimer,  Raleigh,   August  16,   1921. 

DORYPHOROPHAGA  DORYPHORAE  Riley.  Terra  Ceia,  August  24,  1919, 

EPIGRYMIA  POLITA  Td.     Raleigh,  May  17,  1921. 

EXORISTA  FUTILIS  O.S.     Raleigh,  late  April,  mid  June. 

FRONTINA  ARCHIPPIVORA  Will.    Raleigh,  mid  April,  1920,  M.  R.  Smith. 

GAEDIOPSIS  FACIALIS  Coq.     Raleigh,  September  8,  13,  21,  1921. 

HOUGHIA  SETIPENNIS  Coq.     Raleigh.  July  22,  1921. 

JURINELLA  AMBIGUA  Macq.     Linville,  August  19,  1921,  TBM. 

LESKIA  THECATA  Coq.     Raleigh,  September  8,  13,  21,  1921. 

MASICERA  MYOIDEA  Desv.  Raleigh,  August  16,  29,  October  17,  20, 

OCYPTERA  DOSIADES  Walker.  Raleigh,  mid  June,  mid  August  and  mid 
September,  1921,  thirteen  specimens;  Goldsboro,  July  28,  1921,  one,  TBM. 

OESTROPHASIA  SIGNIFERA  V.  d.  W.  Raleigh,  May  23,  1921,  one  in 

PARAPLAGIA  SPINOSULA  Bigot.  Raleigh,  April  21,  1921;  Fayetteville, 
early  June,  1921. 

PHORANTHA  CALYPTRATA  Coq.     Raleigh,  May  14,  1921. 

PLECTOPS  MELISSOPODIS  Coq.     Raleigh,  June  25,  October  4,  1921. 

PSEUDATRACTOCERA  NEOMEXiCANA  Td.  Balsam,  mid  September,  1908, 

PYRAUSTOMYIA  PENITALIS  Coq.  Fayetteville,  late  May,  1920,  early 
June,  1921  ;  Raleigh,  June  1,  11,  1921. 

SIPHOCLYTIA  ROBERTSONI  Td.     September,  1921,  one. 

SIPHOPLAGIA  SIMILIS  Td.  November  9,  1920,  also  the  specimens  pre- 
viously attributed  to  S.  anomala. 

THRYPTOCERA  FLAVIPES  Coq.     Raleigh,  June  18,  August  16,  1921, 

B.  Additional  Records  of  some  species. 

CHAETOGAEDIA  CREBRA  V.  d.  W.     Raleigh,  November  5,  1921. 
EUTHERA  TENTATRIX  Loew.     Raleigh,  October  17,  1921. 
MASIPHYA  BRASILIANA  BB.     Raleigh,  late  June,  1920. 
OCYPTERA  ARGENTEA  Td.     Raleigh,  late  July,  1912,  September  13,  192] 
SIPHONA  GENICULATA  DeG.     Raleigh,  July  5,  1921,  lour. 
SIPHOPHYTO  FLORIDENSIS  Td.     (Epigrymia  floridcnsis).     Raleigh,  mid 
July,  mid  May,  mid  August,  three ;  Fayetteville,  late  May,   1920,  one 

C.  Notes  and  Corrections  to  my  list  in  Entomological   News,  Janu- 
ary,  1922. 

DINF.RA  FUTILIS  Smith.     Is  a  Dexiid. 

MYIOPHASIA  AENEA  Wied.  Of  the  specimens  referred  by  me  to  this 
form  most  of  those  from  Raleigh,  and  those  from  Gibson,  run  to 
Enyomma  globosa  by  Townsend's  key,  while  some  of  those  from 
Raleigh  and  the  specimens  from  Elrod,  Fayetteville,  and  Charlotte 
run  to  Phasioclista  mctallica.  1  mention  this  without  prejudice  to  any 
of  the  names  quoted. 

NEOPHYTO  SETOSA  Coq.  One  from  Raleigh  has  the  apical  cell  open 
and  appears  to  be  this,  but  two  others  although  very  similar  from 
Raleigh,  August  23,  1921,  and  Spruce  (Sunburst)  late  May,  1912,  have 
the  apical  cell  long  petiolate,  and  may  be  Phytodcs  hirculus  Coq. 

SIPHOPLAGIA  ANOMALA  Td.  All  our  specimens  appear  to  be  S.  similis 

XX.xiii,    '22  !  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS 

Catocala  ulalume  a  Distinct  Species  (Lepid., 

By  G.  H.   FRENCH,   Herrin,   Illinois. 

In  his  number  for  September,  1877,  of  Lcpidoptera  Rho- 
paloccrcs  and  Hctcroccres,  Mr.  Herman  Strecker  described 
Catocala  ulalituie,  on  page  132.  We  know  that  Mr.  Strecker's 
descriptions  were  not  of  much  account  as  far  as  using  them 
1;\  some  one  else  for  future  identification  of  specimens,  and 
yet  a  few  expressions  in  this  description  may  serve  to  help  us 
in  the  recognition  of,  and  separation  of,  this  species  from  the 
specimens  of  the  variable  species  C.  lacrymosa  where  it  has 
been  placed  for  a  number  of  years. 

In  the  description  he  compares  C.  ulalume  with  C.  dcsperata 
(now  C.  vidita)  in  color,  and  says  that  the  brown  shade  beyond 
the  t.  p.  line  of  C.  dcsperata  is  absent  in  C.  ulalume.  In  all  of 
the  forms  of  C.  lacrymosa  this  brown  shade  is  present.  Another 
characteristic  of  C.  lacrymosa  is  that  near  the  posterior  margin 
of  the  primaries  is  a  prominent  white  shade  inside  the  t.  a.  and 
outside  the  t.  p.  lines.  This  is  absent  in  both  C.  dejecta  and 
C.  ulalume.  The  ground  color  of  C.  dejecta  is  a  little  lighter 
bluish  gray  than  that  of  C.  ulahnne,  and  there  are  other  mark- 
ings that  separate  them. 

Both  C.  ulalume  and  C.  dejecta  used  to  be  found  in  the  hills 
of  Union  County,  Illinois,  and  specimens  of  each  were  sent  to 
Mr.  Strecker  for  identification  soon  after  his  description  of  the 
two  species,  but  my  specimens  of  both  have  been  destroyed. 
Of  late  the  species,  or  rather  both  of  them,  have  been  found 
in  the  hills  of  Green  County,  southwestern  Missouri,  by  my 
friend,  Mr.  A.  E.  Brower.  Two  specimens  of  C.  ulalume  were 
compared  with  the  types  in  the  Strecker  collection  in  the  Field 
Museum,  Chicago,  by  Mr.  W.  J.  Gerhard  and  pronounced 

The  species  has  a  clear  bluish  color  over  the  whole  wing 
except  the  whitish  shade  beyond  the  t.  p.  line  that  is  without 
any  brown.  In  the  Barnes  book,  Fig.  n.  Plate  2,  the  whole 
wing  is  suffused  with  brown.  I  do  not  know  what  that  figure 
represents.  The  subreniform  is  open  in  C.  ulalmnc  but  is 

234  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  |  (  )ct.,  '22 

closed  in  the  forms  of  C.  lacrymosa.     The  hind  wings  are  black 

with  white  fringes,  but  the  black  at  the  ends  of  the  veins  of  C. 

ulalnvne  and  dejecta  are  not  as  prominent  as  in  C.  lacrymosa. 

During  the  last  season  my  friend,  Mr.  Brower,  has  bred  C. 

•lacrymosa  and  C.  ulalume  from  the  eggs,  and  he  says  the  larvae 

are  different,  but  I  will  let  him  tell  that  story.     From  the  above 

J  think  that  C.  ulalume  is  entitled  to  specific  rank. 

Preparatory  Stages  of  Catocala  ulalume  Str.,  with 

Larva  of  C.  lacrymosa  for  Comparison 

(Lepid.,  Noctuidae). 

By  A.  E.  BROWER,  Willard,  Missouri. 

Catocala  ulalume  Strecker. 

Egg. — Diameter,  .04  inch;  height,  .03;  subspherical  in  shape,  the  base 
flattened,  not  saucer-shaped,  the  sides  with  25  longitudinal  ribs  that 
reach  the  micropyle,  with  alternate  shorter  ones,  the  space  between  these 
with  transverse  shallower  lines,  as  usual;  color  gray. 

Larva. — Stage  I. — Head  brown ;  the  newly  hatched  larva  yellowish 
white,  becoming  grayish  white  later. 

Stage  II. — Head  light  gray,  marked  with  darker  stripes  ;  body  dark 
gray,  with  subdorsal  and  two  lateral  darker  lines. 

Stage  III. — Head  light  gray,  marked  with  brownish  gray  lines,  a 
heavy  black  stripe  extending  upward  from  the  palpi,  apices  with  dark 
gray  brown  stripes ;  body  light  gray,  with  broken  irregular  subdorsal 
and  spiracular  lines. 

Stage  IV. — Head  light  gray,  with  longitudinal  slaty  gray  lines,  promi- 
nent gray  brown  stripe  across  apices  extending  over  the  front,  a  heavy 
black  stripe  from  corner  of  mouth  extending  outward  and  angled  up- 
ward ;  body  light  gray  with  irregular  broken  subdorsal  and  spiracular 
lines,  and  with  a  black  shade  on  the  juncture  of  the  fifth  and  sixth 
abdominal  segments. 

Stage  V. — Head  large,  rounded,  larger  than  the  next  segment,  light 
gray  in  color  with  longitudinal  slaty  gray  lines  ;  a  prominent  gray  brown 
stripe  across  the  apex  of  each  lobe  extending  over  the  iroiii,  a  promi- 
nent black  stripe  extends  outward  from  the  mouth  and  is  sharply 
angled  upward,  abruptly  terminating  about  half-way  up  the  face;  body 
whitish  gray,  with  irregular  broken  subdorsal  and  spiracular  lines,  the 
subdorsal  present  only  as  quite  prominent  markings  about  the  tubercles, 
a  faint  centrodorsal  line  present,  a  shade  over  the  juncture  of  the  fifth 
and  sixth  abdominal  segments,  less  prominent  on  the  fourth,  fifth  and 
eighth.  The  tubercles  are  fairly  prominent,  enlarged  on  the  eighth 
abdominal  segment,  reddish  brown  in  color.  Filaments  of  fringes 
small,  white. 

XXXl'ii,    '22]  K.NTo.MOUHllCAI.    .\K\VS 

In  comparison  with  the  larva  of  C.  lacr\mosa  the  larva  of 
this  species  is  much  lighter  in  color,  the  lines  are  less  contin- 
uous and  without  the  dorsal  chain  of  patches.  The  tubercles 
are  brighter  and  more  prominent  on  the  eighth  abdominal  seg- 
ment. The  head  appears  to  be  comparatively  larger  with  a 
somewhat  different  black  stripe.  In  general  the  larva  of  C. 
ulalumc  greatly  resembles  the  larva  of  C.  insolabilis  but  is  much 
lighter  in  color,  while  the  larva  of  C.  lacrymosa  is  much  like 
the  larva  of  C.  neogama. 

I  have  reared  larvae  from  the  ova  laid  by  four  females  of 
C.  itla! u me  and  find  the  larvae  as  well  as  the  moths  quite 
constant.  Mr.  French  has  pointed  out  the  differences  between 
the  imagines  of  C.  ulalume  and  C.  lacrymosa.  If  C.  ulalumc 
were  a  variety  of  C.  lacrymosa,  intergrades  would  be  found. 
I  have  taken  intergrades  to  all  varieties  of  C.  lacrymosa  but 
none  connecting  C.  lacrymosa  with  C.  ulalumc.  The  flight  and 
habits  of  C.  ulalumc  and  C.  lacrymosa  in  the  woods  are  quite 
different.  If  C.  ulalumc  were  a  variety  of  C.  lacr \nnosa  it 
would  be  found  throughout  the  range  of  the  latter,  but  such 
does  not  seem  to  be  the  case,  as  C.  ulalumc  seems  to  be  found 
only  in  the  Southern  and  border  United  States.  It  is  reported 
as  scarce  or  rare  at  St.  Louis.  Mr.  E.  A.  Dodge  kindly 
allowed  me  to  examine  a  single  worn  specimen  from  Louisiana, 
Missouri.  Mr.  E.  J.  Erb  tells  me  that  some  years  ago  he 
collected  several  specimens  of  C.  ulalumc  in  Western  Virginia. 
Messrs.  Erb  and  Doll  compared  specimens  that  I  collected  here 
near  Willard,  Greene  County,  Missouri,  with  a  cotype  of  C. 
ulalumc  in  the  Brooklyn  Museum.  Mr.  Doll  also  kindly  sent 
a  specimen  to  Giicago  where  Mr.  Gerhard  compared  it  with 
Strecker's  types  of  C.  ulalumc  in  the  Field  Museum. 

Catocala  lacrymosa  Guen. 

Egg. — This  has  been  described  by  Barnes  and  McDonnough  in  a 
recent  Bulletin  of  the  American  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Larva.     Stage  I. —  Head  blackish  brown;  body  grayish  white. 

Stage  II. — Head  brownish  black;  body  light  grayish  white;  li^ht 
dorsal  stripe,  laterally  reddish  brown  with  two  or  three  faint  lateral 

Stage  III. — Head  smoky  black  apically,  face  grayish;  body  dull  black 
with  a  lighter  geminate  dorsal  and  three  lateral  lines. 

236  ENTOMOLOGICAL     NEWS  j  <  >Ct.,  '22 

Stage  IV. — Head  dark  gray  with  longitudinal  black  stripes,  heavy 
black  stripe  crossing  the  apex  of  each  lobe,  continued  by  a  light  stripe 
to  corner  of  the  mouth  ;  body  dark  gray,  a  geminate  dorsal  stripe  and 
three  lighter  lateral  lines. 

Stage  V. — Head  gray,  heavily  striped  with  black,  a  little  paler  apical- 
ly.  Body  gray,  with  subdorsal  and  spiracular  Hues  of  small  black 
spots  ;  two  faint  centrodorsal  and  three  darker  lateral  lines. 

Stage  VI. — Head  light  gray,  longitudinally  lined  with  dark  gray 
brown  stripes,  prominent  darker  brownish  stripe  on  the  apex  of  each 
lobe  extending  just  over  the  front;  a  heavy  black  stripe  extending  out- 
ward from  the  jaws,  after  a  short  distance  apparently  merging  into  the 
lines  of  the  face;  body  gray  with  centrodorsal,  subdorsal  and  two 
lateral  darker  lines,  the  subdorsal  being  most  prominent;  dorsum  with 
pale  oval  or  diamond-shaped  patches;  the  posterior  portion  of  the  fifth 
and  the  anterior  of  the  sixth  abdominal  segments  darker.  Fringes 
pinkish  white. 

The  larvae  vary  somewhat  in  shade  of  color  but  on  the  whole 
are  quite  constant.  A  single  larva  from  ova  laid  by  variety 
panlina  produced  var.  panllna.  The  larva  was  quite  similar 
to  the  larvae  of  the  normal  lacrymosa. 

The  food  plant  of  both  C.  uhihiinc  and  C.  lacrymosa  is 

Biological  Notes  on  Elateridae  and  Melasidae  (Col..) 

By  H.  B.  KIRK,   Bureau   of   Plant   Industry,   Department  of 
Agriculture,  Harrisburg,   Pennsylvania. 

The  following  miscellaneous  biological  notes  on  insects  of 
the  families  Elateridae  and  Melasidae  have  been  assembled 
from  field  observations,  rearings  and  collections  by  the  author 
over  a  number  of  years,  and  from  notes  and  specimens  in  the 
collection  of  the  Bureau  of  Plant  Industry  by  others,  to  whom 
due  credit  is  given  in  the  text. 

Little  is  known  of  the  habits  of  the  adults  of  these  two  fam- 
ilies, although  they  may  be  collected  on  foliage,  flowers,  trees 
and  on  the  ground,  sometimes 'beneath  stones. 

Larvae  of  some  of  the  species  are  predaceous.  This  is  par- 
ticularly true  of  the  species  of  Adelocera,  Chalcolepidius,  Alans 
and  Hemirhipus,  which  are  decidedly  beneficial.  Certain  spe- 
cies of  other  genera  attack  living  plant  tissue,  roots,  tubers,  etc., 
and  are  destructive.  Those  attacking  dead  or  decaying  wood 

xxxiii,  '221  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  237 

tissue  are  of  no  special  economic  importance.  Larvae  of  the 
predaceous  forms,  although  confined  to  either  deciduous  trees 
or  conifers  in  nature,  will  in  captivity  feed  on  any  woodboring 
larvae,  and  will  attain  at  maturity  their  natural  characteristics 
and  markings. 

Many  species  transform  in  July  and  August,  and  remain  in 
their  pupal  cells  until  April  or  May  of  the  following  year.  Dur- 
ing this  time  adults  with  the  cast  larval  skins  may  be  found 
together,  thus  furnishing  a  means  of  connecting  the  adults  with 
the  larvae.  Adults  also  hibernate  beneath  bark,  in  crevices 
and  in  abandoned  cells  of  various  insects,  and  are  sometimes 
attracted  to  light. 

While  the  family  Elateridae  has  not  been  considered  as  con- 
taining any  particularly  beneficial  species,  a  more  thorough 
study  of  the  younger  immature  larval  stages  will  no  doubt 
reveal  as  many  equally  important  predaceous  species  as  those 
of  the  family  Clcridac. 


ADELOCFRA  IMPRESSICOLLIS  Say.  Harrisburg,  Pennsylvania,  VII-15; 
Rockville,  Pennsylvania,  XII-12.  Rare.  Hibernating  in  decayed  cavity 
in  living  tree. 

A.  RORUI.ENTA  Lee.  El  Paso  County,  Colorado,  VI-14,  VII-12.  A.  B. 

A.  BREVICORNIS  Lee.  State  College,  Pennsylvania,  V-25 :  Charter 
Oak.  Pennsylvania,  V-21  ;  J.  N.  Knull.  Wales.  Maine.  VI-23;  C.  A. 
Frost.  Rare. 

A.  OBTKCTA  Say.  Pennsylvania.  VI,  VII.  Franklin,  Xew  Hampshire, 
IX-18,  larva  and  adult  found  in  gallery  of  woodborer  in  apple  twig. 
F.  C.  Craighead. 

A.  PROFUSA  Cand.  Cornwall,  Connecticut,  VII-15,  K.  F.  Chamber- 
lain; Cranebrook,  British  Columbia,  VTI-8,  C.  B.  Garrctt ;  Oregon,  VI  fi- 
ll, adults  taken  in  Yellow  Pine,  W.  D.  Edmonston. 

A.  MARMORATA  Fab.  Rockville,  I1I-3;  Hummelstown,  IV-20,  Kirk 
and  Knull :  and  Harrisburg,  April,  June,  July ;  all  in  Pennsylvania. 
Larvae  of  this  species  found  feeding  on  Rostrychid  larvae  (  Trichodcsma 
t/ihlhtsa)  in  Gum  tree  (\yssa  sykuticn). 

A.  nisi OIIIKA  Web.  All  localities  in  Pennsylvania.  Common  beneath 
bark  of  dead  Pine. 

V  AVITA  Say.  Hummelstown,  1 1 1-2*7,  VII-7,  Kirk  and  Knull.  and 
State  College,  V,  both  Pennsylvania.  A  number  "t"  adults  reared  from 
larvae  collected  beneath  bark  of  dyin.»  uid  dead  hickory  trees.  These 
trees  were  heavily  infested  with  wuodboring  larvae  which  were  the 

238  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Oct.,  '22 

hosts   of   A.  avita.     Have  taken  a   number  of   adults   on   these  trees  at 
night  during  June  and  July. 

A.  AURORATA  Say.  State  College,  Pennsylvania,  1-9,  from  beneath  the 
bark  of  dead  Pitch  Pine  (Finns  rigida),  ).  N.  Knull ;  Pittsburgh.  Penn- 
sylvania, June. 

LACON  ILLIMIS  Horn.     Common  at  Tucson,  Arizona.     J.  H.  Shive. 
AI.AUS  LUSCIOSUS   Hope.     Arizona.     Larva   reared  by   feeding  it  with 
various  woodboring  larvae. 

A.  ZUNIANUS  Casey.  Adults,  larvae  and  pupae  cut  from  Cerambycid 
galleries  in  fallen  sycamore  tree.  East  Catalina  Mountains,  Arizona, 
June  20,  M.  Christman. 

A.  oct'LATUS  Lee.  One  of  our  most  common  species.  Adults  and 
larvae  may  be  found  in  decaying  logs  and  stumps  infested  by  various 
woodborers  upon  which  they  are  predaceous.  Very  small  larvae  of  this 
species  were  observed  feeding  upon  the  larvae  of  Agrilus  bilineatiis  in 
chestnut,  also  a  more  mature  larva  of  A.  oculatus  found  feeding  on 
larvae  of  Buprcstis  ntfipes  in  Liriodcndron  stump,  and  also  on  larvae  of 
Chalcophorclla  campcstris  in  dead  beech  ( Fagns  anicricana)  trunk. 
Have  found  larvae,  about  one-half  grown,  emerging  from  exit  holes  of 
a  Cerambycid  and  Tretnc.r  sf>.  in  hickory  trees,  where  they  crawl  about 
on  the  trunk  and  re-enter  other  burrows  in  s_earch  of  woodboring  larvae. 
This  species  occurs  only  upon  deciduous  trees  according  to  our  notes. 
Ai.  MYOPS  Fab.  Occurs 'only  in  pine.  Adults  and  larvae  taken  around 
Harrisburg,  Pa.,  in  pine  trees  and  stumps  infested  with  woodboring 
larvae.  At  Falls  Church,  Virginia,  have  taken  hundreds  of  adults  and 
larvae  in  yellow  pine  stumps  infested  with  Ascmnm  moestum. 

A.  MEI.ANOPS  Lee.  Adults  and  larvae  found  commonly  in  stumps  in- 
fested with  Chalcophora  anguUcollis.  Larvae  predaceous  on  various 
woodboring  larvae  in  dead  coniferous  trees.  Oregon,  VIII-8,  adults, 
pupae  and  larvae  in  galleries  in  dead  Douglas  fir,  W.  D.  Edmonston ; 
El  Paso  County,  Colorado,  11-20,  A.  B.  Champlain. 

CHALCOLEPIDIUS  VIRIDIPILIS  Say.  Rockville,  Pennsylvania,  VIII-8, 
collected  at  sour  sap  on  oak  tree  in  the  evening,  Daecke  and  Kirk ;  Balti- 
more, Maryland,  July  30,  V.  A.  E.  Daecke. 

C.    SMARAGDINTTS    Lee.      Reared    from   larvae    taken    from    woodborer 
gallery  in  dead  wood.     Tucson,  Arizona,  VII-14,  J.  W.   Shive;  VIII-6, 
G.  Hof er  ;  Sabino  Canyon,  Arizona,  VII-5,  W.  D.  Edmonston. 
C.  BEHRENSI  Cand.     Tucson,  Arizona,  VII-31,  J.  W.  Shive. 
ATHOUS  CUCULLATUS  Say.     Larva  collected  in  dead  log  where  it  was 
feeding  on  woodboring  larva.     Adult  reared. 

Lunius  HIEROGLYPHICUS  Say.  Adults  collected  feeding  on  small  in- 
sects on  foliage,  Knull  and  Champlain. 

HEMICREPIDIUS    MEMNONIUS   Hbst.      Rockville,    Pennsylvania,   VII-24, 

under  stones. 

H.  BILOBATUS  Say.     Harrisburg,  Pa.,  VI 11-27,  taken  on  hickory  trees 

at  night. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  239 

PARALLELOSTETHUS  ATTENUATUS  Say.  Common  in  rotten  logs,  feeding 
on  decaying  moist  wood  tissue.  Common  in  vicinity  of  Harrisburg, 
Pa..  July  and  August. 

Genus  EI.ATER.  Larvae  of  this  genus  feed  on  decaying  wood  tissue. 
Adults  frequent  flowers. 

EI.ATER  vmosus  Lee.  Adults  and  larvae  with  RIatcr  sayi  I-QC.  in 
decayed  hole  in  living  Ccltis  occidentaHs,  November  12.  It  is  likely  that 
these  two  forms  may  be  the  same  species.  Kirk  and  Champlain. 

MEGAPENTHES  LI M BALIS  Hbst.  Male  of  this  species  taken  in  coitu 
with  black  female  that  answers  the  description  of  M.  granulosns.  Falls 
Church,  Virginia,  VII-16,  F.  C.  Craighead. 

Genus  MF.LANOTUS.  Adults  of  local  species  hibernate  in  numbers  in 
old  logs  beneath  bark  and  in  old  galleries  of  woodboring  insects,  many 
being  found  in  a  single  gallery. 

PITYOBIUS  ANGUINUS  Lee.  Grand  Lake,  Presque  Isle  County,  Michi- 
gan, VII-2,  R.  J.  Sim;  Endeavor,  Pennsylvania,  VI 1-30,  adult  taken  on 
fresh  cut  white  pine  log  by  J.  N.  Knull. 

Genus  LIMONIUS.  Adults  taken  around  Harrisburg,  Pa.,  fly  early 
in  the  spring  and  are  found  commonly  on  flowers. 


MELASIS  PECTINICORNIS  Melsh.  Reared  from  dead  birch  (Bctula 
Icnta)  and  beech  (Fac/us  aincricana),  J.  N.  Knull  and  A.  B.  Champlain. 

ISORHIPIS  RUFICORNIS  Say.  Reared  from  dead  chestnut,  black  birch, 
beech,  linden  and  maple. 

DELTOMETOPUS  AMOENICORNIS  Say.  North  East,  Pennsylvania,  VII- 
22,  J.  N.  Knull ;  Tyrone,  VII-26,  J.  G.  Sanders  ;  Jeanette,  Klages  ;  Har- 
risburg, VI-29,  A.  B.  Champlain;  and  Landisburg,  VI-30;  all  in  Penn- 
sylvania. Falls  Church,  Virginia,  VI-24. 

DROMAEOLUS  CYLINDRICOLLIS  Say.  Hummelstown,  reared  from  dead 
Platainis  occldentaUs,  J.  N.  Knull;  Ohio  Pyle,  VIT-20,  T.  L.  Guyton ; 
Jeanette,  VII,  Klages:  Clarks  Valley.  Dauphin  County;  all  in  Pennsyl- 
vania. Reared  from  dead  standing  Hemlock  (Tsuga  canadensis) ,  A.  B. 

D.  STRIATUS  Lee.  Falls  Church,  Virginia,  VII-31  ;  Hummelstown, 
Pennsylvania,  VII-17.  Reared  from  dead  chestnut  stick. 

FORXAX  RADIUS  Melsh.  Harrishurg,  Pa.  Larva  very  plentiful  in 
dead,  decaying  hickory.  Adults  on  hickory  trees  at  night,  very  active, 
crawling  about  and  mating. 

F.  ORCHESIDKS  N'ewn.  Harrisburg  and  Inglenook,  Pennsylvania,  larvae 
from  decaying  logs  of  willow  and  Rciula  nic/ra  in  swamps.  The  adults 
of  this  and  other  species  in  the  genus  are  active  only  at  night,  and  may 
be  found  mating,  ovipositing  and  running  over  dead,  decaying  trees  or 
logs  at  this  time.  During  the  daytime  they  crawl  into  cracks  and 
crevices,  when-  they  remain  concealed  and  inactive.  The  eggs  of  F. 
iKV/  are  placed  in  the  cracks  and  crevices  of  dec-lying  trees, 
stumps  or  logs,  the  wood  of  which  is  usually  very  soft  and  contains 

240  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Oct.,  '22 

considerable  moisture.  The  larvae  insinuate  their  way  through  the  soft 
wood  tissue,  the  gallery  apparently  closing  up  after  their  passage,  and 
when  ready  for  pupation  they  work  their  way  to  the  sapwood,  where 
cells  are  constructed.  The  cell  is  formed  by  the  actions  of  the  larva, 
and  by  an  accumulation  of  soft  particles  rubbed  loose.  The  pupal  dura- 
tion is  about  two  weeks.  The  adults  emerge  during  June,  and  vary 
greatly  in  size.  The  spring  or  clicking  operation  is  developed  in  this 
species  to  some  extent.  They  are  able  to  spring  slightly  and  click  when 
held  in  the  hand  by  the  abdomen.  Observation  by  Champlain,  Knull  and 

MICORRHAGUS  HUMERALis  Say.  New  Cumberland,  VI-28,  Kirk  and 

NEMATODES  ATROPUS  Say.  Harrisburg,  Pa.,  1-28,  VII-9,  and  reared 
IV-14  from  dead  hickory  stumps.  Adults  taken  at  night  on  dead  hickory 
trees.  Kirk  and  Champlain. 

N.  PENETRANS  Lee.     Harrisburg,  Pa.,  VII-4,  Kirk  and  Champlain. 

SCHIZOPHILUS  SUBRUFUS  Rand.  Very  rare.  Taken  at  night  on  hickory 
tree  at  Harrisburg,  Kirk  and  Champlain  (this  specimen  in  collection  of 
U.  S.  National  Museum).  East  Falls  Church,  Virginia,  III-6.  Knull. 

Change  of  Address. 

Dr.    Charles    P.    Alexander    has    removed    from    Urbana,    Illinois,    to 
Fernald   Hall,   Mass.   Agricultural   College,   Amherst,   Massachusetts. 

Foundation  of  a   Brazilian   Entomological   Society. 

Professor  Benedicto  Raymundo  has  written  to  The  American  Ento- 
mological Society,  announcing  the  foundation,  on  February  2,  1922,  of 
the  Sociedade  Entomologica  do  Brasil,  of  which  he  is  President.  The 
Society  is  located  at  15  Rua  lo  de  Marc,o,  Rio  de  Janeiro'.  We  wish 
it  prosperity  and  a  long  life. 

Cuvier's  Magnifying  Glass. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  France,  January  11, 
1922,  Dr.  E.  Gobert  presented  to  the  Society  the  magnifying  glass 
(loupe)  belonging  to  Cuvier  and  gave  its  origin  in  the  following  terms: 
This  glass  belonged  to  Cuvier,  died  in  1832.  Dying,  he  left  it  to 
Audouin,  who  died  in  1841.  Audouin  confided  it  to  Leon  Dufour,  cele- 
brated entomologist  of  St.  Sever  (Landes).  This  latter  dying,  left  it 
to  E.  Perris,  his  favorite  pupil.  E.  Perris,  in  his  turn,  confided  it  to 
me  as  his  pupil  and  friend.  If  the  Society  accepts  it,  I  shall  be  glad  to 
offer  it  as  a  souvenir  and  in  the  name  of  the  three  entomologists  of 
The  Landes. 

This  glass  will  be  preserved  as  a  precious  relic  in  the  archives  ol  llir 
Society.  (Bull.  Soc.  Eut.  France,  1922,  no.  1,  p.  6). 



The  Need  of  Greater  Precision  in  Taxonomic  Literature. 

It  is  no  unusual  experience,  in  reading  taxonomic  keys,  de- 
scriptions of  species  and  of  genera  and  similar  gems  of  litera- 
ture, to  meet  with  expressions  intended  to  be  diagnostic  but  so 
v.-u'-ue  and  indefinite  as  to  give  no  true  idea  of  the  part  de- 
seribed.  Adjectives  like  "large,"  "small."  "broader,"  "nar- 
rower." are  frequently  employed  without  any  data  being  given 
to  indicate  the  size  intended.  It  does  require  some  additional 
time  and  labor  on  the  part  of  an  author  to  specify  how  many 
millimeters  these  descriptive  terms  mean,  or  to  state  the  dimen- 
sions of  the  structure  concerned  in  terms  of  the  length  or  width 
of  some  nearby  part,  or  of  the  distance  between  some  adjoin- 
ing organs.  Of  course  it  does.  But  no  one  in  these  days  has 
any  right  to  work  in  taxonomy,  or  in  any  other  branch  of 
science,  unless  he  is  willing  and  ready  to  express  precisely  what 
the  differences  between  objects  compared  really  are.  It  is  a 
reproach  to  us  that  so  much  of  taxonomic  literature  is  in  so 
hazy  a  condition. 

AYhen  one  reads  in  a  recent,  otherwise  valuable  manual,  on 
one  of  the  largest  orders  of  North  American  insects,  the  alter- 

tive  rubrics  of  a  key  as  "Marginal  vein  short"  and  "Mar- 
eiral  vein  long"  without  further  elucidation,  he  may,  with 
righteous  indignation,  exclaim  justlv,  "f/rw  long,  O  Lord,  how 
long?"  ^ 

Additions  to  the  Coleoptera  in  The  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of 


Three  hundred    rind    seven    specimens    of    Coleoptera   have   been   added 

to  the  collections  from  The  Hebard- Academy  Expedition  of  19; 

include  Mich  interesting   species  as  ('irimicla  longilabris   Say.  var.  oslari 

'       var.   montana  Lee.    (from  the  <ummits  ot"  the   Sandia   Alts.. 

New    Mi      co     HlrOO-lKino    ft.).    Pasimachus    obsoletus    Lee.,    Platynus 

tcxana     Lee.,    Chlaenius    chaudoiri    Horn,    Helluomorpha    ic.raim    Lee., 

Icirihts    mercurius    Wickh.,    .'.cum    texana    Crotch,     and     Gnathospasta 

iiihiicticn   I  lorn.     This  is  quite  a  remarl    ible  sho\\iim  in  view  of  the   tact 

that   the   collecting    was   primarily    for    Orthoptrra   and  during  the   latter 

th<         ,  nmcr    when    Coleoptera    are   not    SO    abundant.      FRANK 

Al  A  SO 

242  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Oct.,  '22 

Notes  and.  Ne\vs. 



Mr.  E.  A.   Schwarz,   Honorary  Ph.D. 

The  University  of  Maryland,  at  its  commencement  exercises  on  June 
10,  conferred  the  honorary  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy  upon  Eugene 
Amandus  Schwarz,  honorary  custodian  of  Coleoptera  in  the  U.  S. 
National  Museum.  Mr.  Schwarz  began  work  as  a  beetle  specialist  for 
the  Division  of  Entomology  under  the  Commissioner  of  Agriculture  in 
1878.  His  forty-four  years  of  official  scientific  activity  to  the  present 
have  been  continuously  devoted  to  the  building  up  of  a  great  collection 
and  to  the  assistance  of  other  workers,  both  taxonomic  and  economic. 
As  dean  of  entomologists  in  Washington  and  senior  coleopterist  in 
active  service  in  North  America,  permanent  president  of  the  Entomo- 
logical Society  of  Washington  (of  which  he  never  misses  a  meeting), 
and  honorary  fellow  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  America,  "Mr. 
Schwarz  is  held  in  high  and  universal  esteem  by  the  entomological 
fraternity  of  the  country,  who  would  unanimously  second  his  nomina- 
tion to  the  honor  now  bestowed. — J.  M.  ALDRICH,  U.  S.  National 
Museum,  Washington,  D.  C. 

The   University  of   Michigan- Williamson   Expedition  to   Brazil. 

Our  previous  notice  (this  volume,  page  216)  of  this  expedition  left 
it  at  Porto  Velho,  Amazonas,  Brazil,  where  it  remained  until  May  30, 
1922.  On  April  30  it  was  noted  of  the  Odonata :  "Both  species  and 
individuals  seem  less  numerous  than  when  we  were  here  before  [i.  c., 
Jan.  21 — March  5,  1922].  Certain  species  are  no  longer  seen,  but  no 
new  ones  appear  to  have  taken  their  place  ;"  on  the  other  hand,  "some 
things  like  Lais,  Chalcopteryx,  etc.,  are  much  more  common  now." 
[May  9].  Considerable  collecting  was  done  on  the  city  water  supply 
creek,  at  this  time  12 — 15  feet  wide  and  2 — 5  feet  deep.  In  the  last 
week  of  April  it  rained  "every  day  and  sometimes  practically  all  day. 
We  managed  to  put  up  one  box  of  bugs,  however."  Nevertheless  the 
second  of  May  "was  the  record  catch  for  the  trip,  269  specimens  to  put 
up  last  night."*  "Had  a  lively  battle  with  a  bunch  of  pestiferous  little 
ants  to-night  (May  3).  First  discovered  them  in  the  collecting  kit 
making  way  with  the  day's  catch ;  then  found  they  were  in  the  drier 
getting  after  yesterday's  stuff." 

On  May  9  it  was  noted:  "Rainfall  is  now  much  less — larger  creeks 
are  wadable — but  there  are  too  many  cloudy  days."  On  May  10  Mr. 
J.  H.  Williamson  had  a  return  of  the  malarial  fever.  On  May  12  and 
14  Mr.  Strohm  collected  at  San  Antonio,  Matto  Grosso,  Brazil,  as 
single  day  trips  from  Porto  Velho. 

On   May   30   the   Expedition    left    Porto   Velho  on   a   strainer   of  the 

*But  cf.  Manaos,  June  17,  "Last  night  we  papered  280  dragonflies." 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  243 

Amazon  River  Steam  Navigation  Co.  for  Manaos ;  proceeding  down  the 
Madeira  River,  many  stops  were  made,  at  some  of  which  (Humayta, 
Manicore,  Borha)  a  little  collecting  was  done.  On  the  Madeira  below 
I  '.<  irba  and  on  the  Amazon,  which  was  entered  on  June  3,  the  "waters 
overflowed  banks,  cacao  groves,  banana  fields,  etc.  Native  huts  hall 
submerged  and  cattle  kept  on  rafts." 

One  June  4  Manaos  was  reached.  "Rio  Negro  is  now  [at]  highest 
stage  ever  recorded,  being  2y2  inches  higher  than  in  1909,  the  former 
high  water  mark.  Back  water  appears  in  the  streets  in  places  and  the 
river  is  still  rising."  On  June  21  Mr.  Williamson  wrote  :  "Rio  Negro 
stays  at  same  high  level.  Frequent  rains  keep  the  swamps  and  creeks 
in  the  hills  well  tilled — much  better  collecting  than  when  rains  cease 
and  they  go  down  a  foot  or  two."  During  this  month  collecting  was 
done  at  Manaos  itself  and  between  the  city  and  Flores,  to  which  a 
street  car  runs.  "Real  original  growth  forest  was  seen  for  first  time 
to-day  [June  18].  Near  the  road — except  where  under  present  culti- 
vation— was  the  usual  second  growth,  so  common  around  Manaos,  but 
beyond  this,  the  original  forest  began  in  lines  plainly  marked  where 
clearing  had  ceased.  [This  was  about  7  miles  beyond  Flores.]  In  the 
bottom  or  swamp  lands  between  the  hills  there  probably  has  been  little 
or  no  clearing  and  no  big  trees  ever  grew."  On  June  17  the  total  catch 
of  dragonflies  was  estimated  at  7697  specimens  and  157  species. 

In  the  beginning  of  July  a  "friage"  or  cold  wave,  temperature  74" 
F.,  was  experienced,  lasting  seven  days.  On  July  2,  taking  steamship, 
the  expedition  proceeded  from  Manaos  up  the  Rio  Negro,  which  is  split 
into  many  channels  and  full  of  long,  wooded  islands,  the  latter,  like 
the  river  banks,  being  completely  flooded,  only  the  tops  of  trees  visible. 
On  July  6  Santa  Isabel  was  reached  without  having  seen  any  favorable 
collecting  grounds  on  the  way.  At  this  place,  423  miles  from  Manaos, 
indications  of  a  different  Odonate  fauna  were  obtained.  The  return 
to  Manaos  began  July  8  and  on  July  11  "many  teneral  Diasialops  and 
four  other  species  of  teneral  Libellulines  were  caught  by  ourselves  and 
fellow  passengers,"  while  "large  numbers  of  Tholymis  came  out  from 
hore  at  sunset,  but  only  caught  two  as  they  flew  over  the  boat." 
Manaos  was  reached  near  midnight  July  12. 

"It  is  indeed  fortunate  that  we  made  Porto  Velho  our  chief  objective 
on  the  trip  instead  of  any  of  the  so-called  towns  along  the  Negro.  There 
is  nothing  worthy  the  name  of  village  above  Manaos.  Xo  place  have 
we  seen  collecting  ground  for  one  real  day's  work,  let  alone  a  monthly 
stop  which  would  be  necessary  here.  Haven't  seen  a  creek  all  the  way 
up;  there  may  be  -<>nie  but  the  flooded  country  lias  them  well  con- 
cealed. I  imagine  one  would  have  to  travel  several  hundred  miles  above 
Santa  Isabel  by  launrli  and  caiun-  before  reaching  .^ond  collecting  s| 
and  tV  MI  }}•••  would  prartieally  have  to  camp  out  to  work  them"  (  Julv 
11,  1922). 

From  July   13  to  22  some   further  collecting   was   done  in  the   vicinity 

244  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Oct.,  '22 

of  Manaos,  bringing  the  estimated  total  of  specimens  and  species  of 
Odonata  up  to  8315  and  162  respectively.  There  was  much  cloudy 
weather  and  frequent  showers.  On  July  21  "we  collected  Agrionines  in 
Mr.  Russell's  house.  They  were  quite  numerous  flying  about,  nosing 
along  walls,  furniture,  etc.,  and  resting  on  everything  in  sight  from 
picture  cords  to  the  centre  of  a  bed.  Though  we  have  caught  some  of 
this  species  in  the  house  heretofore,  they  were  never  so  numerous  as 
to-day.  Some  were  netted,  many  were  caught  by  hand." 

On  July  22  the  expedition  took  steamer  from  Manaos  for  Para.  The 
Rio  Negro  had  fallen  only  \l/2  feet  since  its  new  high  water  mark  and 
the  Amazon  was  still  flooding  the  country  to  Para,  which  was  reached 
on  July  29. 

Expectations  were  that  the  Expedition  would  leave  Manaos  about 
August  1  for  Para,  leave  Para  about  September  3  for  Rio,  arriving 
there  September  17.  (From  Mr.  Jesse  H.  Williamson's  "log"  and 

The  Stridulation  of  a  North  American  Noctuid,  Heliocheilus 
paradoxus  Grote  (Lep.). 

On  the  night  of  August  16th,  1921.  while  at  Amarillo,  Texas,  an 
effort  was  made  to  secure  species  of  Tettigoniidae  by  listening  for  their 
stridulation  and  then  locating  the  singers  with  the  aid  of  a  hand  flash- 
lamp.  A  wide  grassy  plain  was  visited,  but  it  was  soon  evident  that 
search  would  be  unproductive.  Only  a  few  specimens  had  been  heard 
and  these  at  widely  separated  spots. 

While  standing  in  the  knee-high  grasses  all  was  silent,  when  suddenly 
a  faint  stridulation  became  audible.  Again  and  again  this  sound  was 
approached,  but  nothing  could  be  located.  Finally,  when  undoubtedly 
close  to  a  singer,  a  small  huffy  moth  was  seen  to  be  hovering  in  the 
shaft  of  our  light,  just  above  the  weeds  and  grasses,  holding  itself  over 
the  same  spot  by  flying  against  the  brisk  breeze  that  was  blowing.  Sud- 
denly it  flew  away  and  the  sound  ceased.  The  singer  was  in  fact  a 
moth  and  not  one  of  the  smaller  katydids,  as  had  been  supposed. 

After  this,  several  specimens  were  easily  secured  by  following  up 
the  sound  they  produced,  all  acting  just  as  the  first  individual  had  done. 
The  stridulation  was  like  "the  ticking  of  a  loud  watch,  but  much  faster 
and  easily  audible  to  good  ears  at  a  distance  of  twenty  feet."  When 
alarmed  a  singer  would  fly  away  noiselessly  and  at  great  speed. 

The  species  has  been,  identified  by  Dr.  Henry  Skinner  as  Heliocheilus 
paradoxus  Grote.1  Stridulating  organs  for  the  Agaristidae  and  Noc- 
tuidae  have  been  discussed  by  Dr.  Jordan  in  1921,-  but  we  know  of  noth- 
ing in  the  literature  bearing  on  the  stridulation  of  the  present  insect  or 
other  North  American  Noctukls.  The  species  is  huffy  and  not  strik- 
ingly marked.  Toward  the  costal  margin  of  the  fore-wings,  the  highly 
specialized  Stridulating  area  is  found. — MORGAN  HEBAKU. 

1  Described  from  Colorado,   Proc.  Ent.   Soc.    1'hila.,    IV,  p.  32').  pi.  J, 
figs.  3    ($),  4   (9),  5    (9,  reverse),    (1865). 

2  Proc.  Ent.   Soc.  Lond.,   V,   p.  xxxiii. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOMH.K  AI.  NKVYS  245 

Mulford   Biological   Exploration   of   the   Amazon    Basin 
News    Bulletin    No.    9. 

The  following  letter  from  Dr.  \Y.  deC.  Ravenel,  Administrative 
Assistant  to  the  Secretary  in  charge  of  the  U.  S.  National  Museum, 
was  recently  received  by  Mr.  Milton  Campbell,  President  of  the  H.  K. 
Mulford  Company  : 

"I  now  take  pleasure  in  advising  you  that  a  large  amount  of  addi- 
tional material  collected  by  Dr.  William  M.  Mann,  while  a  member  of 
your  Exploration  Expedition,  has  been  turned  over  to  the  collections, 
comprising  insects,  mammals,  shells,  crustaceans  and  textiles.  All  of 
the  material  is  recorded  as  a  gift  in  the  name  of  the  Mulford  Biological 
Exploration  of  the  Amazon  Basin,  and  1  would  repeat  my  assurances 
of  our  appreciation  of  the  generous  interest  which  has  been  manifested 
in  the  national  collections." 

In  reply  to  the  communications  from  Dr.  Ravenel,  Mr.  Campbell, 
President  of  the  H.  K.  Mulford  Company,  thanked  him  for  the  gen- 
erous expressions  of  appreciation  and  said,  "It  is  a  pleasure  indeed  to 
present  these  collections  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  in  view  of  the 
splendid  work  the  Institution  is  doing  and  its  importance  to  the 
country." — R.  H.  HUTCHISON,  Secretary.  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

The   Exchange  of   Scientific   Literature  with   Russia. 

Apropos  of  the  note  on  this  subject  published  in  the  NEWS  for  June 
of  this  year,  page  186,  we  reprint  the  following  from  Science  for  July 
14,  1922,  page  45 : 

"The  officers  of  the  Russian  Entomo-Phytopathological  Congress  sent 
a  request  some  months  ago  to  American  scientific  societies  and  investi- 
gators to  send  to  Rus.sia  literature  on  entomological  and  phytopathologi- 
cal  matters. 

"In  connection  with  this  request  the  Russians  promised  to  send  Russian 
scientific  literature  in  exchange.  Certain  difficulties,  however,  have 
been  found  to  exist,  principal  among  which  is  a  regulation  by  the  Soviet 
••', \eniment,  made  about  two  months  ai-o,  which  prohibits  the  sending 
out  of  literature  from  Russia  without  a  special  permit.  This  permit 
seems  very  difficult  to  get.  The  Russian  scientific  men,  therefore,  who 
have  received  American  scientific  literature  in  response  to  their  request, 
feel  much  embarrassed  by  their  inability  to  respond  by  sending  Russian 
literature  here,  and  I  have  promised  to  make  known,  in  this  way,  the 
facts  which  have  prevented  their  promised  sending  of  Russian  literature 
to  those  Americans  who  have  kindly  sent  scientific  papers  to  them.- 

In  this  connection  we  may  caM  attention  also  to  the  arrangements 
which  have  been  made  for  sending  scientific  works  to  Russia,  described 
at  lenet'n  in  Science  for  June  22.  }t>22.  pa^cs  nn7-o68. 

24f>  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NF.WS  [Oct.,  '22 

mo  logical    Literature 

COMPILED  BY  E.  T.  CRESSON,  JR.,  AND  J.  A.  G.   REHN. 

Under  the  above  head  it  is  intended  to  note  papers  received  at  the 
Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  of  Philadelphia,  pertaining  to  the  En- 
tomology of  the  Americas  (North  and  South),  including  Arachnida  and 
Myriopoda.  Articles  irrelevant  to  American  entomology  will  not  be  noted; 
but  contributions  to  anatomy,  physiology  and  embryology  of  insects, 
however,  whether  relating  to  American  or  exotic  species,  will  be  recorded. 

The  numbers  in  Heavy  -Faced  Type  refer  to  the  journals,  as  numbered 
in  the  following  list,  in  which  the  papers  are  published. 

All  continued  papers,  with  few  exceptions,  are  recorded  only  at  their 
first  installments. 

The  records  of  papers  containing  new  genera  or  species  occurring  north 
of  Mexico  are  grouped  at  the  end  of  their  respective  Orders. 

For  records  of  Economic  Literature,  see  the  Experiment  Station  Record, 
Office  of  Experiment  Stations,  Washington.  Also  Review  of  Applied  Kn- 
tomology,  Series  A,  London.  For  records  of  papers  on  Medical  Ento- 
mology. see  Review  of  Applied  Entomology,  Series  B, 

The  titles  occurring  in  the  Entomological   News  are  not   listed. 

4  —  Canadian  Entomologist,  Guelph,  Canada.  5  —  Psyche,  Cam- 
bridge, Mass.  6  —  Journal  of  the  New  York  Entomological  Society. 
8  —  The  Entomologist's  Monthly  Magazine,  London.  9  —  The  Ento- 
mologist, London.  10  —  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society 
of  Washington,  D.  C.  11  —  Annals  and  Magazine  of  Natural  His- 
tory, London.  12  —  Journal  of  Economic  Entomology,  Concord, 
N.  H.  13  —  Journal  of  Entomology  and  Zoology,  Claremont,  Cal. 
19  —  Bulletin  of  the  Brooklyn  Entomological  Society.  20  —  Bulletin 
de  la  Societe  Entomologique  de  France,  Paris.  21  —  The  Entomol- 
ogist's Record,  London.  22  —  Bulletin  of  Entomological  Research, 
London.  29  —  Annual  Report  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  On- 
tario, Toronto,  Canada.  34  —  Bulletin  de  la  Societe  Entomologique 
de  Belgique,  Brussels.  46  —  Contributions  to  the  Natural  History  of 
the  Lepidoptera  of  North  America.  Ed.  by  Wm.  Barnes.  48  — 
Wiener  Entomologische  Zeitung.  49  —  Entomologische  Mitteilungen, 
Berlin-Dahlem.  50  —  Proceedings  of  the  United  States  National 
Museum.  64  —  Parasitology,  London.  68  —  Science,  Garrison-on-the- 
Hudson,  N.  Y.  76  —  Nature,  London.  77  —  Comptcs  Rendus  des 
Seances  de  la  Societe  de  Biologic,  Paris.  86—  ,The  Quarterly  Jour- 
nal of  Microscopical  Science,  London.  89  —  Zoologische  Jahrbucher, 
Jena.  90  —  The  American  Naturalist,  Lancaster,  Pa.  91  —  The  Sci- 
entific Monthly,  Lancaster,  Pa.  92  —  Archives  de  Zoologie  Experi- 
mentale  et  Generale,  Paris.  98  —  Annals  of  Tropical  Medicine_  and 
Parasitology,  Liverpool.  99  —  Bulletin  du  Museum  National 
d'Histoire  Naturelle,  Paris.  100  —  Biological  Bulletin  of  the  Marine 
Biological  Laboratory,  Woods  Hole,  Mass.  106  —  Anales  de  la 
Sociedad  Cientifica  Argentina,  Buenos  Aires.  109  —  Annales  Histo- 
rico-Naturales  Musei  Nationals  Hungarici,  Budapest.  110  —  Natur- 
wissenschaftliche  Wochenschrift,  Jena.  Ill  —  Archiv  fur  Naturge- 
schichte,  Berlin.  118  —  Die  Naturwissenschaften,  Berlin.  119  —  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences  of  the  U.  S.  A.. 
Washington,  D.  C.  124  —  Bulletin  de  la  Societe  Entomologique 
d'Egypte,  Cairo.  127  —  Archiv  fur  Entwicklungsmechanik  der  Orga- 
nismen,  Berlin.  128  —  'Zeitschrift  fur  Induktive  Abstammungs-  und 
Vererbungslehre,  Leipzig.  141  —  Internationale  Entomologische  Zeit- 
?cbrift,  Guben,  Germany.  142  —  Notulac  Entomologicae,  Helsing- 
fors,  Finland. 

GENERAL.  Griddle,  N.—  The  entomological  record,  1920.  29, 
li,  72-90.  Felt,  E.  P.  —  The  possibility  of  exterminating  insects  91, 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  \K\VS  247 

xv,  35-41.  Hayes,  W.  P. — Method  of  procedure  in  insect  life  his- 
tory investigations.  4,  liv,  73-7.  Hoffmann,  A. — Entomologen- 
addressbuch.  Annuaire  des  entomologistes.  (Wien,  1921,  434  pp., 
Yerlag  Adolf  Hoffmann.)  Hoffmann,  F. — Deutsche  insektennamen 
in  Brasilien.  124,  ii,  65-6.  Horn,  W. — Et  meminisse  et  vaticinari 
liceat.  Ueber  oxenstjerna  und  entomologische  museologie.  49,  xi, 
42-3.  Howard,  L.  O. — A  side  line  in  the  importation  of  insect 
parasites  of  injurious  insects  from  one  country  to  another.  119, 
viii,  133-39.  Lochhead,  W. — Inter-relations  in  nature.  29,  li,  53-60. 
Nuttall,  G.  H.  F. — The  Molteno  institute  for  research  in  parasitol- 
ogy.  University  of  Cambridge,  with  an  account  of  how  it  came  to 
be  founded.  64,  xiv.  97-126.  Rau,  P. — Ecological  and  behavior 
notes  on  Missouri  insects.  (Trans.  Ac.  Sc.,  St.  Louis,  xxiv,  No.  7.) 
Rowland-Brown,  H.— Obituary.  9,  1922,  121 -3.  Williamson,  E.  B. 
—Keys  in  systematic  work.  68,  Iv,  703. 

ANATOMY,  PHYSIOLOGY,  ETC.  Armbruster,  L.— Vom 
horen  der  insekten  (Bienen).  118,  1922,  602-3.  Betts,  A.  D.— The 
Spiracular  muscles  in  hymenoptera  aculeata.  76,  cix,  813-4.  Bon- 
nier, G. — Double  sex-linked  lethals  in  Drosophila  melanogaster. 
(Act.  Zoologica,  Stockholm,  1922,  135-52.)  Brecher,  L. — Die  pup- 
penfarbungen  des  kohlweisslings,  Pieris  brassicae.  Die  puppen- 
farbungen  der  Vanessiden  (Vanessa  io,  V.  urticae,  Pyrameis  cardui, 
P.  atalanta).  127,  1,  41-78;  209-308.  Breitenbecher,  J.  K.— Somatic 
mutations  and  elytral  mosaics  of  Bruchus.  100,  xliii,  10-22.  Bug- 
nion,  E. — The  growth  of  the  antennae  and  cerci  of  the  cockroach. 
The  growth  of  the  antennae  of  Empusa  egena.  124,  1921,  56-66; 
118-32.  Cholodkovsky,  N. — Sur  les  glandes  colleteriques  de  1'ap- 
pareil  genital  feminin  des  lepidopteres.  Contribution  a  la  connais- 
sance  des  glandes  salivaires  des  dipteres.  (Bui.  Ac.  Sci.  Russie 
(6),  1918,  1351-56.)  Cole,  W.  H. — Note  on  the  relation  between  the 
photic  stimulus  and  the  rate  of  locomotion  in  Drosophila.  68,  Iv, 
678-9.  Crampton,  G.  C. — The  derivation  of  certain  types  of  head 
capsule  in  insects  from  crustacean  prototypes.  10,  xxiv,  153-57. 
Dewitz,  J. — \Vcitere  mitteilungen  ueber  die  entstehung  der  farbe 
gewisser  schmetterlingkokons .  .  .  .  89,  Ab.  f.  Zool.,  xxxviii,  365-101. 
Federici,  E. — Lo  stomaco  della  larva  di  Anopheles  claviger,  r  la 
dualita  dellc  cellule  mesointestinali  degli  insetti.  (Atti  R.  Ac.  Na/. 
Liiu-ei,  xxxi,  264-68,  394-97.)  Frisch,  K.  v. — Ueber  den  sitz  des 
geruchsinnes  bei  insecten.  89,  Ab.  f.  Zool.,  xxxviii,  149-516.  Genieys, 
p. — Sur  le  determinisme  des  variations  de  la  coloration  chez  tin 
hymenoptere  parasite.  77,  Ixxxvi,  1080-83.  Goldschmidt  &  Machida 

-Ueber  zwei  eigenartige  gynandromorphe  drs  schwammspinners 
Lymantria  dispar.  128,  xxviii.  2 19-258.  Gowen  &  Gowen— Com- 
plete linkage  in  Drosophila  melanogaster.  90,  Ivi,  286-8.  Grandi,  G. 

—Studio  morfologico  e  biologico  della  Blastophaga  psenes.  (An. 
R.  Sc.  Sup.  Agric.,  Portici,  xvi,  33-144.)  Haviland,  M.  D.— On  the 
post-embryonic  development  of  certain  chalcids,  hyperparasites  of 
aphids.  86,  Ixvi,  :;:M-38.  Hollande,  A.  C.— La  cellule  pericardiale 
des  insectes.  (Arch.  Anat.  Microsr..  1'aris,  xviii,  85-307.)  Horst, 
A. Zur  kenntnis  der  biologic  und  morphologic  einiger  Elateriden 

248  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  |  <  )ct.,  '22 

und  ihrer  larven.  Ill,  1022,  A.  1,  1-87.  Hovasse,  R.— Differences 
de  proprietes  histochiiniques  entre  1'heterochromosome  et  les  autres 
chromosomes  de  domesticus.  77,  Ixxxvii,  316.  Hyde,  R.  R. 

—A  high  fecundity  record  for  Drosophila  melanogaster.  (Proc. 
Indiana  Ac.  Sc.,  1921,  259-60.)  Ives,  H.  E.— The  fire-fly  as  an 
illuminant.  (Jour.  Frankl.  Inst.,  Phila.,  cxciv,  213-30.)  Lancefield 
&  Metz — The  sex-linked  group  of  mutant  characters  in  Drosophila 
willistoni,  90,  Ivi,  211-41.  Macfie,  J.  W.  S. — On  the  genital  armature 
of  the  female  mosquito.  98,  xvi,  157-88.  Martini,  E. — Ueber  den 
bau  der  ausseren  mannlichen  geschlechtsorgane  bei  den  stech- 
mucken.  Ill,  1922,  A.  1,  134-42.  Morgan,  L.  V.— Non-criss-cross 
inheritance  in  Drosophila  melanogaster.  100,  xlii,  267-74.  Mueller, 
A. — Ueber  den  bau  des  penis  der  tachinarier  und  seinen  wert  fur 
die  aufstellung  des  stammbaumes  und  die  artdiagnose.  Ill,  1922, 
A,  2,  45-166.  Muller,  M. — Rhyphus  und  Mycetobia  mit  besonderer 
berucksichtigung  des  larvalen  clarmes.  Ill,  1922,  A,  2,  1-44. 
Mutschler,  O.— Der  farbensinn  der  biene.  110,  xxi,  349-50.  Paw- 
lowsky,  E. — On  the  anatomy  of  Phymateus  hildebrandti  (Orthop- 
tera,  Phymateidae)  in  connection  with  the  peculiarities  of  its  der- 
mal secretion.  (Sc.  Res.  Zool.  Exped.  Br.  E.  Africa  &  Uganda,  bv 
Dogicl  &  Sokolow,  Petrograd,  i,  No.  3.)  Payne  &  Denny — A 
gynandromorph  in  Drosophila  melanogaster.  90,  Ivi,  383-4.  Przi- 
bram,  H. — Verpuppung  kopfloser  raupen  von  tagfaltern.  127,  1. 
2():'.-s.  Snodgrass,  R.  E. — Mandible  substitutes  in  the  Dolichopo- 
didae.  10,  xxiv,  148-52.  Stumper,  R. — L'influence  de  la  temperature 
sur  1'activite  des  fourmis.  77,  Ixxxvii,  9-10.  Thienemann  &  Zavrel 

—Die  metamorphose  der  Tanypinen.  (Arc.  f.  Hydrobiol.  u.  Plankt.. 
Stuttgart,  Suppl.  Bd.,  ii,  566-654.)  Thomson,  A.  L. — Notes  on  the 
regeneration  of  the  fore-limb  in  various  genera  of  Mantidac.  127, 
1,  192-202.  Titschack,  E. — Beitrage  zu  einer  monographic  der 
kleidermotte,  Tineola  biselliella.  (Zeit.  f.  Tech.  Biol.,  Leipzig,  x, 
1-168.)  Wheeler,  W.  M. — Social  life  among  the  insects.  91,  xv. 
68-88.  Whiting,  P.  W. — Heredity  in  the  honey-bee.  (Jour,  of 
Heredity,  Washington,  D.  C.,  xiii,  3-7.)  Zeleny,  C. — The  effect  of 
selection  for  eye  facet  number  in  the  white  bar-eye  race  of  Droso- 
phila melanogaster.  (Genetics,  vii,  1-115.) 

ARACHNIDA,  ETC.  Chamberlin,  R.  V.— Notes  on  West  Indian 
millipeds.  50,  Ixi,  Art.  10.  Further  studies  on  North  American 
Lithobiidae.  Bull.  Mus.  Comp.  Zool.,  Cambridge,  Mass.,  Ivii,  2.">9-:iS2. 

NEUROPTERA,    ETC.    Ahlberg,    O.— Thysanoptera    from    Juan 
Fernandez  and   Easter  Island.     (Nat.  Hist.  J.   Fern.  &  East.  Tsl.,  iii, 
Zool.,  271-76.)      Clemens,  W.  A. —  A   parthenogenetic  mayfly    (Ann- 
letus    ludens).      4,    liv,    77-8.      Snyder,    T.    E. — New    termites    from 
Hawaii,  Central  and  South  America,  and  the  Antilles.    50,  Ixi.  Art.  211. 

xxxiii,   '22\  ENTOMOLOGICAL    \I-:\VS  249 

ORTHOPTERA.  Davis,  W.  T.— Notes  on  katydids.  6,  xxx, 
73-4.  Griffini,  A. — Sopra  due  Gryllacris  del  Museo  di  Budapest. 
109,  xii  (1914),  249-60. 

Cabrera,  J. — Descripcion  de  dos  nuevas  especies  Cubanas  de 
orthoptcros  del  genero  Eurycotis.  (Mem.  Soc.  Cubana  Hist.  Nat.. 
"F.  Poey,"  iv,  94-5.) 

HEMIPTERA.  Funkhouser,  W.  D. — New  records  and  species 
of  South  American  Membracidae.  6,  xxx,  1-35.  Gowanlock,  J.  N. 
-The  periodical  cicada.  68,  Ivi,  144.  Hussey,  R.  F. — A  biblio- 
graphical notice  on  the  Reduviid  genus  Triatoma.  5,  xxix,  109-2!!. 

Bergroth,  E. — The  American  species  of  Ploeariola.  142,  ii,  49-51 
(cont.).  Davis,  W.  T.-i-An  annotated  list  of  the  cicadas  of  Virginia 
with  description  of  a  new  species.  6,  xxx,  36-52.  Penny,  D.  D. — A 
catalogue  of  the  California  Aleyrodidae  and  the  descriptions  of  four 
new  species.  13,  xiv,  21-36. 

LEPIDOPTERA.  Aurivillius,  Prout  &  Meyrick— Lepidoptercn 
vom  Juan  Fernandez  und  der  Oster-Insel.  (Nat.  Hist.  Juan  Fern. 
&  Easter  Isl.,  iii,  Zool.,  255-70.)  Chamberlin,  W.  J. — A  new  lepi- 
dopterous  enemy  of  yellow  pine  in  Oregon.  6,  xxx,  69-71.  Colle- 
nette,  C.  L. — Protective  devices  by  lycaenid  butterflies  against  the 
attacks  of  lizards  and  birds.  (Str.  Branch  R.  Asiatic  Soc.,  Jour. 
No.  85,  2110-4.)  Forbes,  W.  T.  M. — The  position  of  the  Dioptidae. 
Stridulation  in  another  family  of  Lepidoptera.  Haploa  and  Calli- 
morpha.  6,  xxx,  71;  72.  Le  Cerf,  F. — Description  d'Hesperides 
nouveaux.  99,  1922,  162-5.  Meyrick,  E. — New  microlepidoptera  of 
the  German  entomological  institute.  49,  xi,  44-7.  Niepelt,  W. — 
/\vei  neue  formen  sudamerikanischer  tagfalter.  141,  xvi,  67.  Ober- 
thur,  C. — A  propos  de  la  synonymic  de  certains  Hesperia  et  Lycae- 
nidac  americains.  20,  1922,  124-7.  Etudes  de  lepidopterologie  com- 
paree.  Fasc.  xix,  part  1-2.  Pearson,  G.  B. — California  in  October 
and  December.  21,  xxxiv,  113-14.  Pruffer,  J. — Verzeichnis  der 
schmctterlinge  aus  Peru.  .  .  .  (Discip.  Biol.  Arch.  Soc.  Sci.  Varsa- 
vienisi,  i,  1-14.)  Schaus,  W. — New  species  of  Pyralidae  of  the  sub- 
family Crambinae  from  tropical  America.  10,  xxiv,  127-45. 

Barnes  &  Benjamin — Xotes  on  Automeres.  Revision  of  Grotella. 
Notes  on  Cucullianac.  Notes  on  Drepana.  New  genera  and  species. 
46,  v,  1-50.  Braun,  A.  F. —  Microlepidoptera:  Notes  and  new  spe- 
cies. 4,  liv,  90-4. 

DIPTERA.  Alexander,  C.  P.—  (Jndescribed  crane-flies  in  the 
Paris  national  museum  (IV).  99,  192:2,  73-5.  Bequaert,  J. — Tin- 
North  American  species  of  Cryptolurili  i  (Pseudopyrellia),  (Antho- 
myiidae).  5,  xxix,  89-91.  Bezzi,  M. — Note  sur  la  presence  en  Algerie 
du  Sphynuvphala  lu-arseiana,  de  I'lnile  it  sur  la  synonynik-  de  ce 
diptere.  99,  L922,  69-72.  Bischoff,  W.-  Zur  kenntnis  der  Hlepharo- 

250  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Oct.,  '22 

ceriden.  89,  xlvi,  Abt.  f.  Syst.,  61-120.  Brethes,  J. —  (See  under 
Hymenoptera).  Cockerell,  T.  D.  A. — The  dipterous  family  Ble- 
phariceridae.  9,  1922,  135.  Dyar,  H.  G. — The  mosquitoes  of  the 
United  States.  50,  Ixii,  Art.  1.  Edwards,  F.  W. — Mosquito  Notes. 
22,  xiii,  75-]  02.  Evans,  A.  M. — Notes  on  the  Culicidae  in  Vene- 
zuela, with  descriptions  of  new  species.  98,  xvi,  213-22.  Ferris  & 
Cole — A  contribution  to  the  knowledge  of  the  Hippoboscidae.  64, 
xiv,  178-205.  Kertesz,  K. — Vorarbeiten  zu  einer  monographic  der 
Notacanthen.  109,  xii  (1914),  449-557.  Leathers,  A.  L. — Ecological 
study  of  aquatic  midges  and  some  related  insects  with  special  refer- 
ence to  feeding  habits.  (Bui.  Bur.  Fish.,  Washington,  xxxvii.  Doc. 
No.  915.)  Malloch,  J.  R. — An  unusual  taxonomic  character  in  Syr- 
phidae.  19,  xvii,  42.  Marshall,  J.  F. — The  -destruction  of  mosquito 
larvae  in  salt  or  brackish  water.  68,  cix,  746-7.  Thienemann,  A.— 
Pelopia  und  Tanypus.  Bemerkungen  zur  nomenklatur  der  Meigen'- 
schen  Chironomidengattungen.  (Arc.  f.  Hydrobiol.  u.  Plankt.,  Stutt- 
gart, Suppl.  Bel.,  ii,  555-65.) 

Aldrich,  J.  M. — A  itew  genus  of  two-winged  fly  with  mandible  like 
labella.  10,  xxiv,  145-8.  Curfan,  C.  H. — New  and  little  known 
Canadian  Syrphidae.  4,  liv,  94-6.  Johnson,  C.  W. — New  genera 
and  species  of  Diptera.  (Oc.  Pap.  Boston  Soc.  N.  H.,  v,  21-6.) 
Van  Duzee,  M.  C. — Three  new  species  of  Parasynthormon  with  a 
table  of  species  (Dolichopodidae).  4,  liv,  88-90. 

COLEOPTERA.  Cameron,  M. — Descriptions  of  new  species  of 
Staphylinidae  from  the  West  Indies.  11,  ix,  633-52.  Chamberlin, 
W.  J. — A  review  of  the  genus  Poecilonota  as  found  in  America, 
north  of  Mexico,  with  descriptions  of  new  species  (Buprestidae). 
6,  xxx,  52-66.  Champion,  G.  C. — The  synonymy  and  distribution 
of  Pantomorus  godmani,  a  cosmopolitan  weevil  attacking  roses, 
greenhouse  plants,  etc.  8,  Iviii,  161-2.  Frost,  C.  A. — Occurrence  of 
Agrilus  coeruleus  in  America.  4,  liv,  96.  Garnett,  R.  T. — Notes  sur 
le  Dinapate  wrightii.  20,  1922,  119-21.  Heller,  K.  M.— Springende 
blutenkelche,  verursacht  durch  ein  neues  Apion.  49,  xi,  52-4.  Hus- 
tache,  A. — Synonymic  et  dispersion  de  Pantomorus  godmani.  20, 
1922,  100-1.  Jeannel,  R. — Silphide  Leptininae  ct  morphologic  com- 
paree  du  Leptinus  testaceus  et  du  Platypsyllus  castoris.  92,  Ix, 
557-92.  Kleine,  R. — Studien  uber  die  Nemocephalini.  Ill,  1922,  A, 
1,  143-51.  Knaus,  W. — Notes  on  a  rare  Buprestis.  6,  xxx,  66-68. 
McCulloch,  J.  W. — Longevity  of  the  larval  stage  of  the  cadelle.  12, 
xv,  240-3.  Marshall,  G.  A.  K. — Some  injurious  Neotropical  weevils. 
22,  xiii,  59-74.  Pic,  M. — Coleopteres  Malacodermes  nouveaux  des 
collection  du  museum.  99,  1922,  157-61.  Portevin,  M.  G. — Note 
sur  quelques  Silphides  et  Liodides  de  la  collection  Grouvelle.  99, 
1921,  535-38.  van  Emden,  F. — Die  fuhler  der  Halipliden.  49,  xi, 
50-1.  Walker,  J.  J. — An  American  Scarabaeid  in  dried  fruit.  8, 

XXXl'ii,    '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  251 

Iviii,    102.      Weiss,    H.    B.— -Nuic>.    on    the    pulfball    beetle,    Caenocaru 
oculata.     5,  xxix,  92-4. 

Knull,  J.  N.— Annotated  list  of  the  Buprestidae  of  Pennsylvania. 
4,  liv.  ;(.»-si).  Weise,  J. — Ueber  einige  amerikanische  und  austr  liische 
nach  Sudfrankreich  eingefuhrte  Coccinelliden.  48,  xxxix,  104. 

HYMENOPTERA.  Brethes,  J.— Himenopteros  y  Dipteros  de 
varias  procedencias.  106,  xciii,  119-46.  Champlain,  A.  B. — Record* 
of  hymenopterous  parasites  in  Pennsylvania.  5,  xxix,  93-100.  Davis 
&  Bequaert — An  annotated  list  of  the  ants  of  Staten  Island  and  Long 
Island,  N.  Y.  19,  xvii,  1-25.  Donisthorpe,  H. — The  colony  found- 
ing of  Acanthomyops  (Dendrolasius)  fnliginosus.  100,  xlii,  173-84. 
Emery,  C. — L'ouverture  cloacale  des  formicinae  ouvrieres  et  fe- 
nu-lles.  34,  iv,  62-5.  Herbst,  P. — Zur  biologic  cler  gattung  Chili- 
cola.  49,  xi,  63-8.  Mann,  W.  H. — Ants  from  Honduras  and  Guate- 
mala. 50,  Ixi,  Art.  13.  Mercet,  R.  G.-  El  genero  Azotus  (Calci- 
didos).  (Bol.  R.  Soc.  Espanola  de  Hist.  Nat.,  Madrid,  xxii,  196-  .. 
200.)  Plath,  O.  E. — Notes  on  Psithyrus,  \vith  records  of  two  new 
American  hosts.  100,  xfiii,  23-44.  Smith,  E.  J. — The  rediscovery  of 
Odynerus  (Ancistocerus)  waldenii.  4,  liv,  87.  Szepligeti,  V. —  Ich- 
ntumoniden  aus  der  sammlung  des  Ungarischen  Nat.  Museum.  103, 
xii  (1914),  414-32.  Turner,  C.  H. — A  week  with  a  mining  cumenid: 
an  ecological  behavior  study  of  the  nesting  habits  of  Odynerus  clor- 
salis.  100,  xlii,  153-72.  Wheeler,  W.  M. — Observations  on  Gigan- 
tiops  destructor,  and  other  leaping  ants.  100,  xlii,  185-201. 

Brues,  C.  T. — On  the  hymenopterous  genus  Harpagocryptus  and 
its  allies.  5,  xxix,  101-9.  Mocsary,  A. — Chrysididae  plerumque 
exoticae  novae.  109,  xii  (1914),  1-72.  Weld,  C.  J.— Studies  on 
chalcid-flies  of  the  subfamily  Leucospidinae,  with  descriptions  of 
n.  sps.  50,  Ixi,  Art.  6.  Weld,  L.  H. — Notes  on  American  gall-flies 
of  the  family  Cynipidae  producing  galls  on  acorns,  with  descriptions 
of  n.  sps.  Notes  on  cynipid  wasps,  with  descriptions  of  new  N. 
American  sps.  50,  Ixi,  Art.  18  and  Art.  19. 

ume XIX.  part  2.  Rennes,  France,  May,  1922.  This  volume  contains 
an  introduction  by  Mr.  Obertluir  and  the  following"  papers:  A  Contri- 
bution to  the  Study  of  the  Aegeriidae,  with  descriptions  of  new  species 
and  varieties,  by  F.  Le  Cerf.  The  editor  makes  some  interesting  remarks 
on  the  species  of  Paniasshts  in  Central  Asia,  which  are  followed  by  an 
article  by  Andre  Avinoff  on  Parnassius  adcstis  Or.  M.  Oberthur 
presents  an  article  on  Syriclitns  al-i-cus.  These  difficult  Hcsperidae  are 
receiving  much  study  in  Humpe.  Additional  notes  are  given  on  the 
Lepidoptera  of  Morocco.  Sonic  oi  the  interesting  l.epidoptera  of 
Madagascar  receive  consideration  by  the  editor,  the  beautiful 


riphcus  being  particularly  mentioned.  Prof.  C.  I  loulhert  makes  a  valu- 
able contribution,  a  study  of  the  Melanargiinae  of  China  and  Siberia. 
There  are  28  plates  with  the  numerous  species  figured  in  color.  These 
plates  are  of  the  superb  character  of  those  we  have  mentioned  as  appear- 
ing- in  former  volumes.  M.  Oberthiir  richly  deserves  the  thanks  of  all 
Lepidopterists  for  the  production  of  this  valuable  series. — H.  SKINNER. 

PROFKSSOR  BENEDICT  JAEGER,  Early  Entomologist  of  Xew  Jersey. 
Under  this  title,  Mr.  Harry  B.  Weiss  has  contributed  a  biographical 
sketch  to  the  Proceedings  of  the  Xczv  Jersey  Historical  Society  (new 
series,  vol.  VII,  No.  3,  pp.  196-207,  Xewark,  N.  J.,  July,  1922).  The 
author  tells  us  that  his  interest  in  Jaeger  "was  first  aroused  by  read- 
ing in  Mr.  John  D.  Sherman's  'Catalogue  10  of-  Books  on  Insects' 
the  following  statement  referring  to  Prof.  Jaeger's  book  on  'The  Life 
of  North  American  Insects' :  'famous  as  the  most  worthless  of  all 
American  Insect  books'."  In  his  usual  painstaking  way,  Mr.  Weiss 
brings  together  a  number  of  scattered  bits  of  published  and  un- 
published information  on  his  subject.  Jaeger  was  born  in  Vienna, 
Austria,  in  1789,  came  to  the  United  States  in  1831  and  died  in  Brook- 
lyn, August  17,  1869.  His  activities  in  natural  history  embraced  other 
groups  of  animals  in  addition  to  insects  and  also  plants. — P.  P.  CALVERT. 

NOMENCLATOR  CoLEOPTEROLOGicus.  Eine  etymologische  Erklarung 
samtlicher  Gattungs-  und  Artnamen  dcr  Kafer  der  deutschen  Fauna 
sowie  der  angrenzenden  Gebiete.  Zweite  Auflage  In  Verbindung  mit 
Prof.  Dr.  R.  SCHMIDT  herausgegeben  von  SIGM.  SCHENKLING.  Jena 
Verlag  von  Gustav  Fischer  1922.  8vo.,  pp.  iv,  255.  Price  in  paper 
binding  95  Marks,  in  cloth  125  Marks. — In  1894  Herr  Schenkling  pub- 
lished the  firs!  edition  of  this  book,  now  long  since  out  of  print.  In 
1917,  at  the  expense  of  the  German  Union  of  Teachers  of  Natural 
Science,  he  issued  an  "Explanation  of  the  scientific  names  of  beetles 
in  Reitter's  Fauna  Germanica"  (Lutz,  Stuttgart,  publisher).  This  new 
edition  of  the  Nomenclator  Coleopterologicus  goes  beyond  the  "Ex- 
planation" in  that  it  gives  not  only  the  meanings  (in  German)  of 
the  generic  and  specific  names,  but  also  their  roots,  both  Greek  and 
Latin,  the  quantity  of  the  syllables  of  the  roots,  and  a  detailed  chapter 
(pp.  1-12)  on  entomological  nomenclature,  explanations  of  technical 
terms  and  translations  of  a  number  of  Latin  adjectives,  adverbs,  num- 
erals and  conjunctions  "so  that  one  not  acquainted  with  the  ancient 
languages  can,  with  the  use  of  this  book,  translate  Latin  diagnoses  and 
descriptions  without  great  difficulty" — that  is,  if  he  can  read  German. 
The  author  further  tells  us  in  his  preface:  "One  will  find  also  in  tlr's 
book  the  explanation  of  many  geographical  names  which,  since  they 
are  often  not  of  classical  origin,  are  sought  in  vain  even  in  the  larg.T 
classical  dictionaries.  I  need  only  hint  at  the  high  value  of  translation. 

xxxiii,  '22  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NK\VS  253 

for  retaining  scientific  names  in  one's  memory,  as  these  names  express, 
in  great  measure  certain  peculiarities  of  the  structure  or  habits." 

On  the  philological  side  Herr  Schenkling  has  had  the  assistance  of 
Prof.  Richard  Schmidt,  of  the  University  of  Minister  in  Westphalia. 

The  greater  part  of  the  hook  is  divided  into  two  sections,  generic  and 
s'.iligeneric  names  (pp.  1,5-116)  and  "Species  and  their  varieties;  ter- 
minology" (pp.  117-249),  the  names  in  both  sections  being  arranged 
alphabetically.  The  nature  of  the  information  given  is  well  illustrated 
by  examples  from  each  part : 

Carabus  L.  V.  Kapafios  (karabos),  Kafername  bei  den  Griechen, 
auch  Meerkrabbe.  Unmoglich  von  /cetvo)  (keino)  abschneiden.  wie 
Leunis  will. — Vgl.  Scarabaeus? 

nemoralis,  e,  in  Hainen  vorkommend. 

Bogemani  (nicht  Bogema'nni),  nach  dem  friihercn  schwedischen 
Hauptmann  J.  C.  Bogeman. 

\s  tbe  subtitle  of  this  Nomenclator  indicates,  the  names  included  are 
limited  to  those  of  the  beetle  fauna  of  Germany  and  of  the  neighboring 
countries.  With  the  increasing  diffusion  of  European  Coleoptera  to 
other  parts  of  the  world,  however,  this  work  will  be  useful  to  extra- 
European  entomologists — who  read  German. — P.  P.  CALVERT. 

March  15,  1922. — This  number  contains  reports  on  the  Scutelleroidea  [by 
Prof.  DAYTON  STONER]  and  the  Orthoptera  and  Dermaptera  [by  Mr. 
A.  X.  CAUDELL]  of  the  Barbados-Antigua  Expedition  of  the  University 
in  1918.  and  a  report  on  Scutelleroidea  of  the  Douglas  Lake  Region, 
Michigan,  also  by  Prof.  Stoner.  The  Barbados-Antigua  collection  of 
Scutelleroidea  consisted  of  about  800  pinned  specimens,  representing  17 
species  on  Antigua  (taken  between  June  19  and  July  19)  and  9  of  the 
17  also  on  Barbados  (taken  between  May  16  and  June  11).  "Of  the 
17  Antigua  species,  14  occur  also  in  the  United  States  and  3  are  strictly 
neotropical.  ...  As  a  whole  the  pentatomid  fauna  of  the  two 
inlands  seems  to  be  Central  American  and  Mexican  in  its  affinities  rather 
than  South  American." 

The  Orthoptera  and  Dermaptera  of  the  same  islands  consisted  of  334 
pecimens  comprising  31  species,  but  no  general  summary  accompanies 
Mr.  Caudell's  Report. 

The  Scuttelleroidea  of  the  Douglas  Lake  Region  were  collected  in 
July  and  AULMV,),  1919  and  1920.  within  15  miles  from  the  Lake,  and 
amount  to  23  species,  which  may  be  compared  with  the  West  Indian 
figures  given  above.  Xo  species  is  common  to  both  lists  but  three 
genera  (.1/nrwiV/r  </.  I'.uxfluxtus  and  l\</lixits)  are.  Prof.  Stoner  makes  a 
brief  comparison  of  the  peiitatomid  faunae  of  Doivl.i  Lai  e  and  oi  Lake 
(  ikohoji,  Iowa,  the  latter  of  2<)  species,  17  of  which  are  also  found  at 
Douglas  Lake. — P.  P.  ("AIVKRT. 

254  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Oct.,  '22 

FLETCHER.  Calcutta  Superintendent  Government  Printing,  India.  1921. 
(Reprinted  from  Scientific  Reports,  Agr.  Res.  Inst.  Pusa,  1920-21,  pp. 
41-59,  pis.  iii-viii). — The  principal  work  done  on  insect  pests  during  the 
year  mentioned  was  a  continuation  of  the  investigation  of  borers  in 
sugar  cane  and  other  gramineous  plants  and,  on  the  side  of  pathological 
entomology,  on  Tabanidae  in  connection  with  surra  disease  and  on 
Culicidae.  A  Chalcidid  of  the  genus  Phanarus?  heavily  infests  the  eggs 
of  several  Tabanids  but  it  lias  not  shown  polyembryony.  Twenty-one 
students  received  training  to  varying  extents  in  agricultural  and  sani- 
tary entomology,  lac-  and  sericulture.  The  collection  at  Pusa  is  now 
estimated  to  contain  rather  more  than  7,000  named  species  of  Indian 
insects.  Among  the  specialists  whose  aid  in  making  identification  is 
acknowledged  are  Messrs.  Rohwer  and  Morgan  Hebard,  Profs.  Cockerell 
and  Felt.  The  project  for  the  preparation  and  publication  of  a  cata- 
logue of  all  described  Indian  insects  has  been  approved  by  Government 
and  considerable  progress  made  during  the  year.  A  notice  of  the  first 
part  of  this  catalogue  (on  Acryclidae  or  Tettigidae)  appeared  in  the 
Nrws  for  March  last,  p.  95  of  this  volume.— P.  P.  CALVERT. 


WILLIAM  LUCAS  DISTANT,  known  especially  for  his  work 
on  Lepidoptera  and  Hemiptera,  died  at  Wanstead,  Essex,  Eng- 
land, February  4,  1922.  He  was  born  at  Rotherhithe,  November 
12,  1845,  son  of  Capt.  Alexander  Distant,  "who  in  old  South 
Sea  whaling-days,  sailed  round  and  round  the  world,  and  trans- 
mitted a  love  of  roaming  to<  his  sons,"  and  whom  the  son  ac- 
companied to  the  Malay  peninsula  in  1867.  In  his  earlier 
years  he  was  engaged  in  the  tanning  business  and  in  this  con- 
nection spent  a  year  in  the  Transvaal  in  1890-91,  and  made  a 
second  visit  thereto  in  1898.  From  April,  1899,  to  November, 
1920,  he  was  a  part-time  Assistant  in  the  British  Museum 
(Natural  History),  rearranging  the  national  collection  of 
Hemiptera  and  describing  many  new  species.  His  own  collec- 
tion of  about  50,000  specimens,  chiefly  in  this  order,  and  over 
2500  types  came  to  the  Museum  in  1911.  The  last  decade  of 
his  life  was  saddened  by  the  loss  of  his  wife  and  two  younger 
sons  and  by  incurable  and  protracted  disease. 

American  entomologists  are  especially  interested  in   Hemip- 
tera Heteroptera,  Vol.  I  (1880-1893)  and  Heteroptera  Homop- 

xxxiii.  '221  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  255 

tera,  Vol.  I  in  part  (1881-1905),  which  he  contributed  to  the 
Biologta  Centrali-Ainericana.  Among'  his  other  works  are 
Rhopalocera  Malayana  (1882-1886),  Monograph  of  the  Ori- 
aitol  Cicadiclac  (1889-1892),  A  Naturalist  in  the  Transvaal 
(1892),  hisccta  Transvaaliensia  (1900-1911),  Rhynchota,  7 
Vols.  (1902-1918),  in  the  Fauna  of  British  India,  A  Synonymic 
Catalogue  of  Homoptcra,  Part  I — Cicadidac  (1906),  as  well 
as  numerous  shorter  articles  in  the  English  journals  from  18/4 
to  1920.  He  was  editor  of  The  Zoologist  from  1897  to  1914, 
and  a  member  of  the  Entomological  Societies  of  London, 
France,  Stockholm  and  Belgium  and  a  corresponding  member 
of  the  Buffalo  Society  of  Natural  Sciences.  Appreciative  no- 
tices of  him  appeared  in  the  March  numbers  of  The  Entomol- 
ogist and  The  Entomologists'  Monthly  Magazine,  from  which 
the  above  account  is  drawn. 

GEORGE  ALEXANDER  JAMES  ROTHNEV,  born  in  1849,  died 
January  31,  1922,  formed  an  extensive  collection  of  Oriental 
Hymenoptera,  many  of  them  collected  by  himself  in  India  from 
1872  on.  This,  together  with  a  library  on  the  same  group,  he 
presented  during  his  life  time  to  the  Hope  Museum  at  Oxford, 
England.  (  Ent.  Mo.  Mag.,  May,  1922.) 

Another  martyr  to  research  on  the  nature  and  transmission 
of  typhus  has  fallen  in  the  person  of  ARTHUR  W.  BACOT,  who 
died  in  Cairo,  Egypt.  April  12,  1922.  At  the  invitation  of  the 
Egyptian  Government  he  had  undertaken  experiments  with 
lice  in  the  laboratories  of  the  Public  Health  Department  and 
it  is  supposed  that  he  became  infected  by  some  accident.  He 
was  previously  well  known  for  his  work  on  the  bionomics  of 
rat  fleas  (done  at  his  home  in  Essex,  England),  of  the  Yellow 
Fever  Mosquito  (which  he  studied  in  Sierra  Leone  in  1914-15). 
and  of  lice  in  connection  with  trench  fever  (1915-17).  In  1911 
he  was  appointed  Entomologist  to  the  Lister  Institute  of  Pre- 
ventive Medicine,  in  1916  Honorary  Entomological  Adviser  to 
the  War  Office,  in  1917  to  the  British  Trench  Fever  Committee 
of  the  War  Office,  and  in  1()20  he  went  to  Poland  with  the 
Typhus  Research  Commission  of  the  League  of  the  Red  Cross 

256  ENTOMOLOGICAL     NKWS  |<)ct..  '22 

Society.  His  earliest  entomological  work  was  with  the  British 
Lepidoptera,  elucidating  many  life  histories  and  furnishing 
many  data  for  genetics.  (The  Entom.,  June,  1922.) 

HENRY  ROWLAND-BROWN,  "one  of  the  best  known  and  most 
popular  of  British  entomologists,"  died  May  3,  1922,  at  Harrow 
Weald.  He  was  born  at  Woodridings,  Pinner,  May  19,  1865, 
educated  at  Rugby  and  Oxford,  was  athlete,  journalist  and 
poet,  active  and  efficient  secretary  of  the  Entomological  Society 
of  London,  and  made  the  diurnal  Lepidoptera  of  France  his 
special  study.  A  number  of  his  papers  are  included  in  M. 
Charles  Oberthiir's  publications.  Americans  in  attendance  at 
the  Second  International  Congress  of  Entomology,  al  Oxford, 
in  1912,  will  not  fail  to  remember  him  and  to  regret  his  decease 
at  a  comparatively  early  age.  He  bequeathed  his  books  to  the 
London  society  and  the  Hope  Museum,  Oxford,  his  collection 
to  the  latter.  An  obituary  notice  is  in  The  Entomologist  for 
June,  1922. 

The  same  number  reports  the  death  of  the  well-known  col- 
lector and  author  of  "a  very  large  proportion  of  the  Rhopalo- 
cera  section  of  Seitz's  Exotic  Macrolepidoptera,"  HANS  FRUH- 
STORFER,  at  Munich,  April  9,  1^22,  in  his  fifty-ninth  year. 

DR.  OTTO  TASCHENBERG.  Professor  of  Zoology  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Halle,  author  of  the  unfinished  Bibliotheca  Zoologica 
II,  died  March  20.  1922.  in  his  sixty-eighth  year.  (Wiener 
Ent.  Zeit.,  xxxix,  p.  112.) 

The  death  of  Louis  BEDEL,  Coleopterist,  was  announced, 
without  date,  at  the  meeting  of  the  Entomological  Society  of 
France,  held  February  8.  1922.  His  principal  works  were  a 
Monographic  dcs  Erotylicns  (1870),  Catalogue  Raisonnc  dc? 
Colcnptcrcs  dn  Nord  dc  I'Afriquc  and  Faunc  dcs  CoUoptcre;; 
(In  Has-sin  ilc  la  Seine,  the  latter  two  unfinished.  He  bequeathed 
the  first  set  of  his  collection  to  the  Entomological  Laboratory  of 
the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  (Paris),  the  dupli- 
cates, his  working  instruments  and  such  of  his  books  not 
already  in  the  Society's  library  to  the  Entomological  Society  of 
France.  (Bull.  Soc.  Ent.  France,  1922,  nos.  3,  4.) 


Fine  perfect  specimens  of  this  grand  rare  species  are  offered  ;  also  O. 
chimaera — Zelotypia  staceyi,  superb  rarity — many  others.  Largest  stock  of 
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From  Colombia,  South  America: 

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Papilio  columbus  Urania  boisduvali 

andraemon  Erinyis  guttalaris 

celadon  Protoparce  brontes,  etc. 

"        devilliersi 

From  Venezuela : 

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philoxenus  Brahmaea  wallachi 

And  Many  Other  Showy  Species 

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Armandia  lidderdalii  Parnassius  hardwieki 



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NOVEMBER,  1922 


Vol.  XXXIII  No.  9 


PHILIP  P.  CALVERT,   Ph.   D.,   Editor. 

E.  T.  CRESSON,  JR.,  Associate   Editor. 

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Plate  X. 








NOVEMBER,  1922 

No.  9 


Schmieder — The  Tracheation  of  the 
Wings  of  Early  Larval  Instars  of 
Odonata  Anisoptera,  with  Special 
Reference  to  the  Development  of 
the  Radius 257 

Allen — Ovipositional  Habit  of  Pyraus- 
tomyia  penitalis  Coq.  ( Diptera, 
Tacbinidae) 263 

Needham—  A  Peculiar  Damsel  fly 
Nvmph  of  the  Subfamily  Thorinae 
(Odon..  Agrionidae) 264 

Malloch— Keys  to  the  Syrphid  Genus 
Spheg'na  Meigen  (Dip. ) 266 

Van  Duzee— A  New  North  American 

Genus  of  Cydnidae  (Hem.) 270 

Martin— Studies  in  the  Genus  Hetae- 
rius  (Col.,  Histeridae) 272 

Benjamin — Early  Stages  of  Noropsis 
hieroglyph ica  Cram.  (Lepidoptera, 
Noctuidae ) 277 

Malloch— Temno^toma  bombylans 
Linne  Doubtfully  American  (Syr- 
phidae,  Diptera 278 

Editorial — Insect  Surveys 279 

Skinner — Protoparce  rustica  in  Florida 
(  Lep.,  :  Sphingidae)  and  Mr.  T.  L. 
Mead 280 

The  University  of  Michigan-William- 
son Expedition  to  Brazil 281 

Lindsey — The  Authorship  of  the  Lepi- 
doptera Described  in  the  Encyclo- 
pedic Method ique,  Vol.  IX 281 

Ferris — A  Note  on  Timema  californi- 
cum  Scudder  (Orthoptera  ;  Phas- 
midae) 282 

Insect  Photography 283 

Chrvsops  rostata  Sucking  Human 

Blood  in  Cuba  (Dip.  :  Tabanidae).  283 

Entomological  Literature 284 

Obituary  Note 288 

The  Tracheation  of  the  Wings  of  Early  Larval  Instars 

of  Odonata  Anisoptera,  with  Special  Reference 

to  the  Development  of  the  Radius. 

By  RUDOLF  G.  SCHMIEDER,  M.A.,  University  of  Pennsylvania, 


(Plates  X,  XI  ) 

Comstock  and  Needham  in  1898,  and  Needham  in  1(H)3 
published,  an  account  of  the  development  of  the  wing  venation 
of  the  Odonata.  In  the  account  of  Needham,  1903,  the  devel- 
opment of  the  wing  veins  is  traced  through  a  series  of  larval 
stages  in  order  to  show  that  the  vein  lying  posterior  to  .1/2,  the 
sul modal  sector  of  earlier  authors,  is  really  the  vein  AJ.v,  and 
that  it  has  come  to  lie  in  this  unusual  position  as  the  result  of 
a  series  of  evolutionary  changes  in  the  history  of  the  dragon 
rly  wing.  These  evolutionary  changes,  according  to  Needham, 
are  indicated  in  the  ontogeny  of  the  larval  tracheae.  Figs.  1 
and  _'  in  Xeedham's  paper  represent  drawings  of  three  stages 


258  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Nov.,  '22 

in  the  development  of  the  larval  wing.  These  drawings  are  to 
show:  in  fig.  1,  A,  the  primitive  condition  in  which  the  trachea 
R s  occupies  its  normal  position  anterior  to  ,1/1,  in  fig.  1,  B. 
the  second  stage,  in  which  Ks  has  come  to  lie  posterior  to  Ml 
but  is  still  anterior  to  M2,  and  finally,  in  fig.  2,  the  condition 
obtaining  in  the  full  grown  larva,  in  which  Rs  lies  posterior  to 
M2.  The  occurrence  of  these  stages  in  the  larval  wings  con- 
stitutes a  part  of  Needham's  evidence  that  the  vein  lying  be- 
tween A/2  and  A/3  is  the  radial  sector  and  is  not  a  true  branch 
of  the  media. 

The  work  of  Tilly ard  (1922)  has  again  thrown  doubt  upon 
the  identity  of  the  vein  Rs,  for  this  author  does  not  concur  in 
Needham's  interpretation  but  states  that  the  Rs  of  Needham  is 
really  a  branch  of  the  media,  although  receiving  its  tracheal 
supply  in  part  through  a  branch  of  R;  and  that  the  original  Rs 
has  been  cut  off  by,  and  become  attached  to,  the  media.  While 
admitting  that  if  the  ontogenetic  stages  described  by  Needham 
actually  occur  in  the  developing  wing  rudiments  of  the  larva, 
this  would  constitute  strong  evidence  in  favor  of  Needham's 
view,  Tillyard  doubts  that  such  stages  can  be  demonstrated. 

It  was  suggested  to  me  by  Dr.  Philip  P.  Calvert,  that  in  view 
of  the  doubts  which  had  thus  been  cast  upon  the  existence  of 
the  two  earlier  stages  described  by  Needham,  it  would  be 
desirable  to  go  over  the  work  of  that  author  and  examine  the 
tracheation  of  the  earliest  larval  instars,  since  an  accurate 
knowledge  concerning  the  condition  of  the  trachea  Rs  at  its 
first  appearance  and  of  how  it  comes  to  occupy  the  position  it 
is  said  to  assume  in  later  instars  might  be  of  value  in  solving 
the  difficult  problem  of  the  homology  of  the  imaghial  vein  Rs. 

The  larvae  examined  were  those  of  Anax  jnnlns  Drury, 
Gomphus  villosipcs  Selys  and  GompJuts  c.rilis  Selys.  The  wing 
rudiments  of  these  larvae  were  prepared  and  mounted  essen- 
tially after  the  manner  described  by  Needham.  In  the  case  of 
the  younger  ones  it  was  necessary,  because  of  the  small  si/e 
of  their  wings,  to  cut  out  the  thoracic  terga  and  the  first  seg- 
ment of  the  abdomen  in  one  piece  and,  without  removing  or 
disturbing  any  of  the  underlying  tissue,  to  mount  the  piece 
thus  removed  entire.  Treated  in  this  way,  the  wing  rudiments 

xxxiii,  '22  j  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  259 

and  the  delicate  tracheae  contained  in  them  are  suhjected  to  no 
strain  or  pressure  of  any  kind  and  there  is  practically  no  dan- 
ger of  the  tracheae  being  displaced  from  their  normal  courses. 
The  figures  are  all  from  drawings  made  with  the  aid  of  a 
camera  lucida,  for  it  was  found  that  the  earlier  stages,  such  ns 
those  in  which  the  wings  were  less  than  0.5  mm.  in  length, 

o  O 

could  not  be  photographed,  since  the  high  magnifications  neces- 
sary make  it  impossible  to  get  all  the  tracheae  in  focus  together. 
In  the  wing  measurements  given,  the  term  "length"  is  used  to 
indicate  the  distance  between  the  mid-point  on  the  line  of 
articulation  of  the  wing  with  the  thoracic  tergum  and  the 
extreme  tip  of  the  wing. 

In  A  mi. r,  the  smallest  larvae  posse-sing  wing  rudiments 
which  I  was  able  to  obtain  were  9  to  10  mm.  in  length.  The 
wings  of  these  larvae  were  0.2  to  0.22  mm.  long;  three  such 
wings,  from  different  larvae,  are  represented  in  figs.  1-3.  The 
shortness  of  these  wings  compared  with  their  width  at  base1  and 
the  less  definite  arrangement  of  their  tracheae  make  it  imme- 
diately apparent  that  we  have  to  do  with  a  much  earlier  stage 
in  the  development  of  the  wing  than  in  the  case  of  the  earliest 
stages  represented  by  Needham's  figures  or  by  Tillyard  in  his 
text  fig.  3. 

In  comparing  the  wings  in  figs.  1-3,  it  is  noted  that  there  is 
considerable  variation,  that  there  is  not  a  single  trachea  which 
is  exactly  alike  in  all  three  figures  but  that  each  may  vary  in 
the  number  of  its  branches  and  that  their  arrangement  gives 
but  little  hint  as  to  the  manner  of  their  disposition  in  the  adult. 
We  also  note  that  additional  tracheae  may  often  appear  between 
the  costa  and  the  subcosta ;  in  fig.  2  there  are  two  such  tracheae, 
in  fig.  1  there  is  one.  I  am  confident  in  assuming  that  in  all 
cases  the  extra  tracheae  are  between  C  and  Sc  and  that  .!/  is 
always  adjacent  to  R,  for  I  have  never  found,  at  any  stage  in 
.•  Ina.v,  any  indications  of  extra  tracheae  inserted  between  A'  and 
M.  Thus  I  have  found,  as  Needham  did,  that  in  the  earliest 
stage  in  the  development  of  the  wing  there  are  six  principal 
tracheae.  The  additional  tracheae  of  which  there  mav  he  one 
or  more  inserted  between  C  and  Sc,  may  persist  through  late- 
mstars  but  always  remain  small  and  are  of  no  importance. 

260  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NE\VS  [Nov.,  '22 

It  is  noted  too,  that  variability  in  the  number  of  branches 
also  characterizes  the  radius  and  media  in  this  primary  stage. 
In  figs.  2  and  3,  R  is  two-branched,  while  in  fig.  1  it  is  nn- 
branched.  The  media  is  five-branched  in  fig.  2,  while  in  figs.  1 
and  3  it  is  in  its  more  usual  four-branched  condition.  Finally 
it  may  be  noted  that  the  posterior  two  tracheae  are  three- 
branched  in  fig.  2,  and  that  in  figs.  1  and  3  they  are  two- 
branched.  In  regard  to  the  costa  it  might  be  mentioned  that, 
at  least  in  Anax,  this  trachea  almost  always  arises  not  from 
the  same  tracheal  trunk  as  do  the  other  wing  tracheae,  but  from 
a  branch  of  this  trunk,  the  accessory  costo-radial  trunk,  which 
passes  out  of  the  base  of  the  wing.  This  condition  is  seen  in 
figs.  2-8 ;  in  fig.  1  the  costa  arises  from  the  same  trunk  as  do 
the  other  tracheae.  In  Gomphus,  the  costa  arises  either  directly 
from  the  transverse  basal  as  do  the  other  wing  veins,  or  from 
the  accessory  costo-radial  trunk  as  it  does  in  Anav. 

Returning  to  the  radius  and  observing  the  course  of  its 
branches  in  the  earliest  stages,  we  note  that  there  is  no  crossing 
of  any  branch  of  this  trachea  over  any  part  of  the  media.  In 
fig.  1  the  radius  is  not  branched  at  all  and  is  entirely  remote 
from  the  media.  In  figs.  2  and  3  the  radius  has  two  branches, 
the  posterior  branch  being,  according  to  the  view  of  Needham. 
the  radial  sector.  This  posterior  branch,  which  for  the  present 
I  will  continue  to  refer  to  as  Rs,  is  in  this  stage  entirely  free, 
and  remote  from  the  media.  This  observation  apparently 
agrees  with  that  of  Needham,  who  illustrates  such  a  condition 
in  his  fig.  1,  A,  if  we  disregard  the  difference  in  the  sizes  of 
the  wings  in  the  two  cases.  We  must,  however,  remember  that 
the  wing  rudiments  represented  in  figs.  1-3,  are  in  a  much 
earlier  stage  of  development  than  that  figured  by  Needham 
which,  he  states,  was  1  mm.  long,  as  is  indicated  by  their 
smaller  absolute  size,  the  difference  in  the  proportions  of  length 
to  width  and  in  the  great  variability  in  the  arrangement  and  in 
the  number  of  branches  of  the  various  tracheae. 

Figs.  4-7  represent  the  tracheation  of  the  wing  rudiments 
taken  from  Ana.r  larvae  whose  body  length  was  13  to  13.5  mm. 
These  larvae  are  apparently  of  the  instar  following  upon  that 
of  the  larvae  just  discussed,  since  on  frequent  collecting  trips 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  261 

during"  August  and   September  no  larvae  of   an   intermediate 
body  length  were  found,  although  those  of  10  mm.  and  those  of 
13  mm.  were  quite  plentiful.     The  wings  of  this  instar  were 
0.4  to  0.45  mm.  long,  the  tracheation  in  them  was  much  less 
variable  than  in  those  of  the  preceding  instar.     The  additional 
tracheae,  often  so  prominent  in  the  previous  instar,  were  less 
frequently  observed  or  were  at  least  comparatively  smaller  and 
of  little  importance.     Other  tracheal  branches,  especially  those 
of  R  and  M,  heretofore  simple,  are  in  this  stage  composed  of 
two  or  more  fine  branches  which  tend  to  cling  together.     The 
radius  is,  in  all  cases,  at  least  twro-branched,  a  posterior  branch 
Rs  crosses  over  the  two  anterior  branches  of  M.    In  all  of  the 
twelve    individuals    of    this    instar   which    were   examined    the 
trachea  Rs  always  behaved  in  this  way.     A  single  exception  is 
shown  in  fig.  7.     This  wing  was  from  the  same  larva  as  the 
wing  in  fig.  6,  which  represents  the  conditions  found  in  all  of 
the  other  three  wings  of  this  larva.     The  wing  in  fig.  7  may 
therefore  be  considered  as  a  variation  having  no  special  sig- 
nificance and  not  by  any  means  as  representing  a  normal  occur- 
rence.    We  again  note  that   compared   with  the   wing  repre- 
sented by  Needham's  fig.  1,  B,  the  wings  of  Ana.v.  although  only 
0.4  mm.  in  length,  have  outstripped,  in  the  specialization   of 
tracheal  paths  as  regards  Rs,  wings  of  Goniplnts  which  were 
(tcstc  Needham)    3  mm.  in  length,  whilst  in  regard  to  many 
other  features  the  .-Ina.v  wings  are   far  behind   the   Gomphus 
wings  of  Needham.     Not  only  is  the  wing  in  Needham's  figure 
much  larger  and  more  elongated  ( its  length  being  greater  than 
its  width  at  base)  than  the  wings  in  my  figures,  but  the  tracheae 
themselves,  with  the  exception  of  Rs.  speak  of  a  more  advanced 
stage  of  development.     All  the  tracheae,  excepting  C,  are  com- 
paratively closer  together  at  their  origin  and  along  their  par- 
:i.'!t'l   courses;   Cu   and   .-1    have   taken   on   quite   decidedly  the 
characteristic  paths  which  they  assume  in  anticipation  of  the 
formation  of  the  triangle;  the  nodus  and  the  stigma  are  already 
indicated  ;   and    linally,   the  tracheal   trunk    supplying  the   win^ 
tracheae  describes  an  arc  of  a  comparatively  shorter  radius,  a 
condition  more  typical  of  later  instars. 

Fig.  8  represents  a  wing  rudiment  of  the  next  succeeding  in- 



[Nov., '22 

star,  the  larva  being  15  mm.  long-  and  the  wing-  0.65  mm.  in 
length.  Here  we  note  again  that  Rs  crosses  over  Ml  and  M2. 
The  branches  of  7?  and  M  are  composed  in  their  distal  portions 
of  bundles  of  fine  tracheae  lying  close  together  and  often  wind- 
ing about  each  other,  a  condition  already  noted  in  the  preceding 
instar  and  which  has  now  become  more  pronounced.  C  and  Sc 
have  also  developed  a  number  of  fine  branches  in  this  instar. 
This  wing  too,  has  many  features  in  addition  to  its  much 
smaller  size,  which  indicate  that  it  is  in  an  earlier  stage  of 
development  than  that  of  Needham's  fig.  1,  B,  which  shows  Rs 
as  lying  between  Ml  and  M2. 

Text  Fig.  A. — Wing  rudiment  from  larva  of  Anaxjunius  ;  length  of  larva  33  mm., 

length  of  wing  1.9  mm. 

Finally,  in  text  fig.  A.  there  is  represented  a  wing  1.9  mm. 
long,  taken  from  a  larva  33  mm.  long.  The  wing  in  this  stage 
is  considerably  elongated  and  the  fascicled  condition  of  the  ends 
of  the  branches  of  R  and  M  has  been  abandoned. 

(  To  he  continued. ) 


Figs.  1-8.  Wing  rudiments  from  larvae  of  Anax  junins. 
Figs.    1-3,    Length   of    larvae   9   to    10    mm.,   length   of    wings    0.2   to 
0.22  mm. 

Figs.  4-7,  Length  of  larvae  13  mm.,  length  of  wings  0.4  to  0.45  mm. 
Fig.  8,  Length  of  larva  15  mm.,  length  of  wing  0.65  mm. 

xxxiii,  '221  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  263 

Ovipositional  Habit  of  Pyraustomyia  penitalis 
Coq.  (Dip.,  Tachinidae). 

By  H.  W.  ALLEX,  Agricultural  College,  Mississippi. 

Pyraustomyia  (Panzcria)  penitalis  Coq.*  is  a  common 
Tachinid  parasite  of  the  smartweed  borer.  Pyrausta  am  si  id 
Hein.  Adults  of  this  parasite  were  abundant  at  Columbus, 
Ohio,  during  the  summer  of  1921  and  their  method  of  ovi- 
position  was  several  times  observed.  To  the  author  at  least, 
their  rather  unique  method  of  spanning  the  distance  from  adult 
fly  to  concealed  host  was  new,  and  differed  from  the  varied 
methods  of  oviposition  and  larviposition  previously  noted. 

The  smartweed  borer  infests  the  cane  of  one  of  the  more 
common  smartweeds,  (Polygonum  pennsylvanicum} ,  entering 
by  a  small  hole  at  the  node  and  developing  within  short  tunnels 
between  the  nodes,  in  its  earlier  instars  in  small  colonies  near 
the  tip,  later  as  solitary  larvae  in  the  older  succulent  joints. 

Females  of  Pyraustomyia  penitalis  in  the  act  of  ovipositing 
were  observed  to  approach  an  infested  node  and  quickly  fasten 
a  minute  maggot  enclosed  in  a  very  thin  sheath  of  chorion, 
upon  the  cane,  near  the  entrance  hole  of  the  borer.  The 
maggot  in  all  cases  emerged  from  the  sheath  at  once.  Some 
found  and  entered  the  tunnel  of  the  borer  within  a  few 
seconds,  while  other  instances  were  observed  where  the  young 
maggot  had  been  unable  to  find  the  entrance  of  the  tunnel  20 
minutes  after  oviposition.  Maggots  emerging  from  the 
sheath  moved  at  first  on  a  straight  line  represented  roughly  by 
a  prolongation  of  the  longitudinal  axis  of  the  sheath,  then 
failing  to  find  the  entrance  hole  of  the  borer  would  take  a 
wandering  course,  frequently  raising  the  anterior  end  and 
waving  the  head  in  the  air.  The  course  of  the  minute  maggot 
after  entering  the  tunnel  of  the  borer  until  it  appeared  within 
the  body  of  the  host  was  not  observed.  Young  maggots  were 
recovered  from  the  blood  of  borers  a  few  hours  after  ovi- 

*  Several  adults  were  sent  to  Mr.  John  Tothill  who  has  recently  been 
\vorkiiiL'  on  a  revision  of  this  group  of  Tachinidae.  He  places  Coquillett's 
Panccria  pcnitalis  in  the  genus  Pyraustomyia,  Can.  Ent.,  Vol.  LIT  I. 
p.  201. 

264  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NE\VS  [Nov.,  '22 

position,  indicating  that  soon  after  entering  the  tunnel,  maggots 
find  their  host  and  penetrate  its  body. 

This  manner  of  effecting  parasitism  seems  remarkable  in 
several  respects.  The  host,  though  a  borer  and  secure  during 
most  of  its  existence  from  the  direct  attack  of  a  Tachinicl 
parasite,  is  highly  vulnerable  to  this  specialized  method  of 
approach,  as  is  indicated  by  the  frequent  high  rate  of  para- 
sitism. When  the  borer  changes  from  the  gregarious  to 
solitary  life,  it  leaves  the  colony  tunnel  and  crawls  on  the  out- 
side of  the  cane  to  a  joint  lower  down,  cutting  a  new  entrance 
there,  and  at  this  period  of  its  existence  is  particularly  vul- 
nerable to  direct  parasite  attack.  But  so  far  as  observed,  this 
parasite  takes  no  interest  in  exposed  larvae.  Maggots,  as 
indicated  by  the  cast  sheaths,  are  habitually  deposited  at  dis- 
tances ranging  from  about  one-fourth  inch  to  over  an  inch 
from  the  borer  entrance.  Before  the  parasitic  life  of  the 
maggot  could  begin,  it  was  forced  to  perform  the  tortuous 
and  difficult  journey  from  the  point  of  oviposition  to  the  en- 
trance hole  and  then  up  the  tunnel  to  the  host  and  finally  to 
penetrate  the  body  of  the  host.  So  far  as  observed  maggots 
were  invariably  placed  near  infested  nodes.  Superparasitism 
was  common,  several  maggot  sheaths  being  commonly  found 
about  the  entrance  containing  but  one  borer.  Many  borers 
were  found  to  contain  two  and  three  maggots.  Females  were 
induced  to  oviposit  freely  in  small  cages  when  confined 
with  infested  canes. 

A  Peculiar  Damselfly  Nymph  of  the  Subfamily 
Thorinae  (Odon.,  Agrionidae). 

By  JAMES  G.  NEEDHAM,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  New  York. 

Among  the  aquatic  insects  collected  by  Dr.  J.  C.  Bradley 
on  the  Cornell  Entomological  Expedition  of  1919-20  to  South 
America,  there  was  one  damselfly  nymph  of  form  so  peculiar 
I  deem  it  worthy  of  special  notice.  When  I  first  saw  the  speci- 
men in  a  vial  of  alcohol  I  thought  that  a  bur  or  spiny  seed  of 
some  kind  was  stuck  to  its  tail,  but  when  I  got  at  the  specimen 
and  undertook  to  remove  the  supposed  bur  I  found  it  to  be 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NK\YS  265 

the  highly  modified  middle  gill  that  is  possessed  by  all  damsel- 
fly  larvae. 

The  curiously  twisted  ventral  abdominal  gills  attached  to 
segments  2  to  7  and  bent  beneath  the  abdomen  as  well  as  the 
form  of  labium  and  antennae  show  this  nymph  to  be  allied  to 
that  of  Cora  obtained  by  Dr.  Calvert  in  Costa  Rica  and  de- 
scribed by  him  in  Entomological  News,  volume  XXII,  page 
52.  I  place  it,  therefore,  among  the  Thorinae.  Nymphs  of 
three  genera  of  this  group  Tliorc,  l-.nthorc  and  Cl'.<i!coptcr\.\- 
remain  unknown.  The  wings  of  this  specimen  are  badly  pre- 
served so  that  there  is  no  venation  to  be  seen  in  them  that 
might  help  to  identify  the  genus.  The  wings,  however,  are 
long  and  the  nymph  though  small  is  apparently  grown,  and 
on  the  basis  of  size  alone  I  hazard  the  guess  that  it  belongs  to 
the  smallest  and  most  highly  specialized  genus  Chalcoptcrv.v. 
or  else  to  one  of  the  smallest  members  of  the  genus  Euihorc. 
Herewith  I  publish  figures  drawn  by  Dr.  Hazel  E.  Branch 
and  a  brief  description. 

Fig.  i.     Nymph  of  a  Thorine  damselfly  from  Peru.     To  the  right,  a  gill  of  same  detached. 

Length  17  mm.,  antennae  2  mm.,  and  modified  middle  gill  4l/2  mm. 
additional.  Length  of  hind  femora  4J4  mm.,  width  of  head  4^<  mm. 

Color  all  brown,  only  the  sutures  and  the  tarsi  paler.  On  the  top  of 
the  head  are  seven  oval  bare  scars  that  are  somewhat  yellowish,  three 
of  them  transversely  placed  and  conjoined  about  the  middle  ocellus  and 
two  pairs  more  laterally  placed,  one  at  the  same  level  and  almost  con- 
tiguous to  the  eye,  and  one  pair  farther  back  and  closer  together. 

Head  wider  than  thorax,  abruptly  narrowed  behind  the  eye  with  a 
broadly  rounded  occipital  notch  bordered  at  either  side  as  viewed  from 
above  by  a  rather  sharply  projecting  angle.  Antennae  7-jo.nted,  the 
7th  joint  pale  and  feebly  differentiated,  the  second  joint  longest,  as  long 
as  joints  3  to  7  taken  together,  and  one-half  longer  than  the  basal  joint 
and  twice  as  long  as  the  third  joint  alone.  There  is  a  line  of  flat  scale- 
like  hairs  bordering  the  inner  margin  of  this  long  second  joint,  and  a 
similar  patch  on  the  side  of  the  he-id  before  the  eye,  and  a  dense  fringe 
of  scurfy  hairs  around  the  front  edge  of  the  labrum.  The  hinge  of  the 

266  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Nov.,  '22 


labium  extends  rearward  only  to  the  middle  of  the  prothorax,  its  median 
lobe  is  broadly  rounded  and  cleft  only  to  the  level  of  the  base  of  the 
lateral  lobes.  Each  lateral  lobe  is  3-cleft  at  the  apex  into  two  outer, 

Fig.  2.     Mouth  parts  :  a,  mandible  ;   b,  end  of  labium  from  within  ;   c,  more  enlarged  tip 

of  lateral  lobe  of  labium. 

incurved  subacute  teeth,  and  one  inner  obliquely  truncate  and  scarcely 
falcate  tooth. 

At  each  side  of  the  pronotum  is  the  usual  pair  of  projecting  lateral 
angles,  the  rear  one  being  slightly  larger;  the  legs  are  brown  with 
yellowish  tarsi,  the  femora  bare,  strongly  longitudinally  carinate  and  the 
tibiae  similar,  very  weakly  carinate.  Wing  tips  extend  posteriorly  to 
abdominal  segment  6.  There  are  high,  erect  dorsal  hooks  on  segments 
2  to  9.  Gills  on  2  to  7  decurved  and  twisted  at  the  tip,  three-jointed,  the 
basal  joint  bearing  very  short  filaments  along  one  side.  There  are  no 
lateral  spines. 

The  lateral  gills  are  wanting.  The  mid-dorsal  gill  is  of  extraordinary 
form,  inflated,  heavily  chitinized,  pedicellate  at  base  and  compressed  at 
apex,  where  it  is  bifurcated  and  slightly  carinate  beneath,  where  it 
bears  a  strong  sharp  tooth  at  each  end  of  the  inflated  portion.  There  is 
also  a  pair  of  thorn-like  processes  projecting  laterally  from  the  middle 
of  this  portion. 

A  single  9  specimen  from  Enafias  del  Pichis,  Peru  (east 
slope  of  the  Andes),  July  4,  1920. 

Keys  to  the  Syrphid  Genus  Sphegina  Meigen  (Dip.). 

By  J.  R.  MALLOCH,  U.  S.  Biological  Survey,  Washington,  D.  C. 
The  genus  Sphegina  is  most  closely  related  to  Neoasciit 
Williston  and  is  separable  from  it  by  the  conspicuously  con- 
cave face,  the  sloping  instead  of  erect  outer  cross-vein,  lack 
of  distinct  hairs  on  upper  half  of  sternopleura  (except  in  one 
or  two  species,  and  in  these  they  are  very  inconspicuous),  much 
shorter  third  antennal  segment,  and  the  presence  of  a  more  or 

xxxiii,  '221  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  267 

less  complete  impressed  curved  line  extending-  from  humerus 
on  each  side  to  the  transverse  median  impression. 

The  species  vary  much  in  color  but  in  structure  they  are 
quite  constant.  No  use  has  previously  been  made  of  the 
armature  of  the  fifth  sternite  of  the  males  in  systematic  papers 
though  its  shape  has  been  mentioned,  and  previous  authors 
have  omitted  any  mention  of  the  curved  thoracic  depression. 

Nothing  is  known  of  the  larval  habits  of  the  genus ;  the 
adults  occur  on  various  flowers. 

Key   to  Males. 

1.  Hind  tibia  with  a  distinct  elevated  chitinized  beaklike  projection  at 
apex   on    ventral    surface   which   is    either   acutely   pointed   or   com- 
pressed   from   each   side ;    apical   abdominal   sternite    without    minute 
spinules,   only   fine  hairs   present 

—Hind  tibia  either  transverse  at  apex  on  ventral  side  or  with  a  short 
apically  rounded  scooplike  production 

2.  Small  species,  about  5  mm.  in  length ;  black  and  yellow  in  color,  the 
apical  process  on  hind  tibia  beaklike  and  slightly  curved  ;   hind  tro- 
chanters    without   minute    black   setulae..  .  . flavomaculata   Malloch. 

—Large   species,   8-9   mm.    in    length 

3.  Reddish  species ;   hind    femora   unicolorous   rufous ;   hind   tibia   with 
the   apical   process   rounded  at  tip   and  compressed   from  each  side  ; 
hind  trochanters  without  black  setulae, 

armatipes  Malloch  var.  rufa  Malloch. 

—Black  species  with  yellow  markings ;  hind  femora  largely  black ; 
hind  tibia  with  the  apical  process  beaklike,  slightly  curved,  not  com- 
pressed from  both  sides ;  hind  trochanters  with  some  black 
setulae armatipes  Malloch. 

4.  Scutellum  transverse  at  apex,  the  two  long  setulose  hairs  separated 
by  ftiore  than  half  the  basal  width  of   scutellum ;  hairs  at  apices  oi 
fourth    and    fifth    abdominal    sternites    strong,    but    no    short    stout 
spinules  present,  fifth  produced  lobuliform  at  posterior  angle  on  left 
side occidentalis   Malloch. 

—Scutellum  regularly  rounded  posteriorly,  the  setulose  marginal  hairs 
if  only  two  in  number  separated  by  much  less  than  half  the  basal 
width  of  scutellum 

5.  At    least    the    fifth    sternite    with    some    short    setulae    or    spinules 
apically    •  •'' 

—No  short  spinules  on  fifth  sternite.  only  fine  hairs  present 11 

6.  Both  fourth  and  fifth  sternites  with  some  short  spinules  apically..? 
—Only  the  fifth  sternite  with  short   spinules  apically 9 

7.  Fifth   abdominal    sternite    almost   transverse    at    :ipt  \,   not   noticeably 
produced  in  the  form  of  a  rounded  lobe  at   left   posterior  an»le  ;  the 

268  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [Nov.,  '22 

greater  part  of  center  of  disc  of  both  fifth  and  fourth  sternites  with 
short    stubby    spines ;     hind    tibia    produced    scooplike    at    apex    on 

ventral    side keeniana  Williston. 

—Fifth  abdominal  sternite  with  a  central  concavity  in  posterior  margin, 
the  left  posterior  angle  drawn  out  into  a  rounded  lobe;  hind  tibia 
transverse  at  apex  on  ventral  side 8 

8.  Black  spinules  of  fourth  sternite  conspicuous,  stubby,  extending  well 
on  to  disc;   fifth  tergite   with  a   large  rounded  lobe;    fourth  tergite 
without  long  hairs  on  posterior  lateral  angles lobata   Loew. 

—Black  spinules  on  fourth  sternite  very  sparse  and  fine,  confined  to 
extreme  margin  of  haired  part ;  fifth  tergite  with  a  small  rounded 
lobe ;  fourth  tergite  with  long  soft  hairs  on  each  posterior  lateral 
angle punctata  Cole. 

9.  Spinules  of  fifth  sternite  black  and  stubby,  many  fine  hairs  laterad  of 
them  on  the  two  rounded  slightly  elevated  areas,   .rufiventris  Loew. 

—Spinules  of  fifth  sternite  reddish,  elongated  on  the  two  rounded  ele- 
vations laterad  of  the  median  line 10 

10.  Fifth  sternite  with  a  very   large   rounded  lobe   on  left   side   at  pos- 
terior  angle   which   is   not  heavily  chitinized  and   is   separated   from 
remainder  of  segment  by  a  depression,  the  hairs  long  and  not  very 
strong ;  outer  crossvein  and  fourth  vein  beyond  bend  at  apex  inf us- 
cated petiolata   Coquillett. 

—Fifth  sternite  with  a  small  rounded  lobe  which  is  as  heavily 
chitinized  as  the  remainder  of  segment  and  not  separated  from  it  by 
a  depression,  the  hairs  shorter  and  stronger ;  veins  not  infus- 
cated campanulata  Robertson. 

11.  Hairs  on   frons  erect,  conspicuous,  the  longest  as  long  as  the  entire 
antenna  :    abdomen    inconspicuously    pedunculate ;    arista    very    little 
longer  than  antenna,  densely  pubescent infuscata  Loew. 

—Hairs  of  frons  decumbent,  short  and  inconspicuous,  the  longest  not 
longer  than  second  antennal  segment ;  abdomen  conspicuously  pe- 
dunculate   » 12 

12.  Fifth  abdominal  sternite  with  a  large  lobe  at  right  hind  angle  which 
is  over  half  as  long  as  the  sternite  at  middle;   only  the  apical  seg- 
ment of  tarsi  deep  black,  the  subapical  one  brownish  lobulifera  sp.  n. 

—Fifth  abdominal  sternite  not  distinctly  lobed  as  above 1,> 

1.1  Hind  tibia  with  a  slight  but  distinct  scooplike  production  of  the 
ventral  surface  apically ;  arista  gradually  tapered  from  base  an-1 
distinctly  pubescent ;  small  species,  5-6  mm.  in  length, 

flavimana  Malloch. 

—Hind  tibia  not  produced  as  above,  transverse  at  apex  ;  arista  swollen 
on  about  a  fourth  of  its  length  from  base  and  nearly  bare  ;  larger 
species,  8  mm.  in  length californica  Malloch. 

Key   to   Females. 

1.  Third    (fourth)    tergite  of  abdomen  distinctly  flared  apically,    fourth 
with  a  deep  notch  in  middle  of  posterior  margin  ;  the  curved   linear 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  269 

thoracic  depression  distinct  and  complete monticola   Malloch. 

-Third  tergite  not   flared  at  apex 2 

2.  The  curved  linear  depression  of  thorax  extending   from  humerus  to 
the  transverse  median  depressed  line  not  distinct  except  near  the  lat- 
ter ;  third  sternite  distinctly  longer  than  wide 3 

-The  curved  linear  depression  distinct  and  complete 5 

3.  Hind   femur  with  two  black  bands  one  just  beyond  middle  and  the 
other  at  apex  ;  humeri  pale  yellow  ;  disc  of  mesonotum  black,  entirely 
without  vittae ;  fore  and  mid  tarsi  yellow biannulata  Malloch. 

—Hind  femora  yellow,  without  black  annuli ;  thorax  black  or  yellow, 
with  three  or  more  or  less  distinct  vittae ;  apical  two  segments  of 
fore  and  mid  tarsi  black  or  brown 4 

4.  Third  antennal  segment  yellow campanulata    Robertson. 

-Third   antennal    segment   black   or    fuscous rufiventris    Loew. 

5.  Anterior   width  of    frons  about  one-third   of   the  head  width;   third 
sternite  distinctly  wider   at  apex  than   long  in  middle ;   inner  cross- 
vein   not  more   than   two-fifths   from  base   of   discal  cell;    scutellum 
usually  with  more  than  two   long   sctulose  marginal  hairs, 

infuscata  Loew. 

—Anterior  width  of  frons  much  less  than  one-third  of  the  head  width  ; 
scutellum  with  two  setulose  marginal  hairs 6 

6.  Scutellum  distinctly  transverse  apically,  the  two  long  setulose  hairs 
separated  by  more  than  half  the  width  of   scutellum  ;  third  sternite 
longer    than    wide 7 

—Scutellum  regularly  rounded  apically,  the  two  setulose  hairs  sepa- 
rated by  less  than  one-fourth  of  the  basal  width  of  scutellum. ..  .8 

7.  Hind  femur  conspicuously  compressed  on  lower  half  apically,  widest 
part  distinctly  beyond   middle ;   thorax  black,  abdomen   rufous 

occidentalis    Malloch. 

—Hind  femur  very  slightly  compressed  apically,  widest  part  close  to 
middle;  thorax  and  abdomen  yellow punctata  Cole. 

8.  Fifth    (fourth   visible)    tergite    with    a    shallow    transverse    rounded 
concavity  before  apex  which  causes  the  tip  of  the  segment  to  flare 
upwards  very  slightly,  the  hairs  on  this  segment  and  on  fifth  sternite 
long    and    soft ;    third    sternite    wider   than    long ;    a    robust    species, 
about   8  mm.   in   length armatipes   Malloch. 

—Fifth  tergite  normal  in  shape;  third  sternite  longer  than  wide; 
smaller  species,  not  over  6  mm.  in  length 9 

9.  Fore  and  mid  tarsi  with  the  apical  two  segments  deep  black, 

keeniana  Williston. 
—Fore  and  mid  tarsi  yellow,  the  apical  two  segments  hardly  darker, 

flavimana   Malloch. 
Sphegina  lobulifera  sp.  n. 

$. — Shining  black,   antennae,    lower   half   of    fact-  and  a  broad    fascia 
on  basal  half  of  third  tergite  of  abdomen  yellow.     Legs  yellow,  apical 

270  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NE\VS  [Nov.,  '22 

tarsal  segment  on  all  legs  deep  black,  subapical  one  brownish;  apical 
half  of  hind  femora,  a  mark  on  apical  half  of  hind  tibiae,  and  most  of 
basal  segment  of  hind  tarsi  black.  Cross-veins  and  tips  of  wings 
slightly  clouded. 

Head  as  in  calif ornica.  None  of  the  abdominal  sternites  with  setulae, 
the  peduncle  moderately  narrow,  as  in  lobata.  Hind  femora  much 
swollen  ;  hind  tibiae  transverse  at  apices.  Length,  7  mm. 

Type,  Plummers  Island,  Maryland,  April  30.  1922.  on 
flowers  of  Alliaria  officinalis  (H.  L.  Viereck).  Type  in  U.  S. 
National  Museum. 

This  species  has  the  cross-veins  more  erect  and  the  lower 
posterior  angle  of  the  first  posterior  cell  less  rounded  than  most 
species.  The  inner  cross-vein  is  but  little  in  front  of  middle 
of  discal  cell. 

A  New  North  American  Genus  of  Cydnidae  (Hem.). 

By  E.   P.  VAN   DUZEE,   San   Francisco,   California,*   Curator, 
Department  of  Entomology,  California  Academy  of  Sciences. 

PSECTROCEPHALUS   new   genus 

Allied  to  Pangacus  but  wanting  ocelli,  and  anterior  margin 
of  the  head  armed  with  comb-teeth.  Ovate,  subdepressed, 
sides  nearly  parallel.  Head  broadly  rounded  before ;  cheeks 
approaching  at  apex  of  tylus  but  scarcely  forming  a  notch 
there ;  edge  strongly  reflexed,  the  depressed  submargin  armed 
with  alternating  spines  and  bristles ;  eyes  small,  closely  set 
against  anterior  angles  of  pronotum.  Ocelli  wanting.  Anten- 
nae five-jointed;  segment  II  thinner  and  slightly  longer  than 
those  following.  Rostrum  reaching  intermediate  coxae ;  seg- 
ment I  attaining  base  of  head,  III  longest  and  thickest.  Pro- 
notum subquadrate;  anterior  margin  shallowly  excavated, 
flattened  and  punctate  but  immarginate,  armed  with  one 
bristle  behind  inner  angle  of  each  eye ;  sides  ciliate,  slenderly 
but  acutely  carinate ;  disk  without  transverse  depression. 
Scutellum  a  little  longer  than  wide,  apex  narrowly  rounded ; 
punctate,  with  base  nearly  smooth.  Corium  scarcely  exceeding 
scutellum,  quite  uniformly  and  coarsely  punctured,  its  apex 
broadly,  feebly  arcuate;  costa  ciliate  nearly  to  apex,  the 

*Contributions   from  the   California  Academy  of    Sciences,   No.    138. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NE\YS  271 

connexivum  ciliate  beyond  that  point.  Osteole  without  a 
sulcus,  opening  behind  a  tumid  elevation.  Feet  as  in  Pangacns. 

This  is  the  first  American  genus  of  Cydnidae  known  to  me 
in  which  the  ocelli  are  entirely  wanting.  This  character,  with 
the  spinose  margin  of  the  head  and  longer  second  antennal 
segment  will  serve  to  separate  it  from  Pangacns,  its  nearest 

Type:     Pscctroccphalus  coccus  n.  sp. 

Psectrocephalus  caecus  new  species. 

Black,  coarsely  punctate ;  antennae  testaceous ;  marginal  cilia  rufous. 
Length  5  mm. 

Vertex  and  tylus  nearly  smooth,  the  latter  transversely  wrinkled 
toward  apex ;  cheeks  rugosely  punctate ;  marginal  spines  as  long  as 
thickness  of  3d  antennal  segment ;  cilia  about  five  times  the  length  of 
the  spines  and  nearly  equal  to  median  width  of  cheeks ;  anterior  sub- 
margin  armed  with  a  long  bristle  either  side  at  base  of  bucculae ; 
anterior  disk  of  pronotum  continuously  smooth,  the  lunate  anterior 
margin  and  broad  sides  punctate,  as  is  the  posterior  lobe  ;  punctures  on 
scutellum  shallow,  becoming  closer  posteriorly,  the  base  nearly  smootli ; 
corium  closely,  deeply  punctate ;  membrane  attaining  apex  of  abdomen ; 
beneath  polished,  impunctate,  the  osteolar  area  opaque. 

Color  deep  Black  when  mature,  polished ;  rostrum  and  antennae  piceo- 
testaceous,  segments  II  and  III  of  antennae  darker;  tarsi  pale;  mar- 
ginal cilia  and  eyes  rufous;  membrane  white,  in  one  individual  shorter 
and  sooty  black. 

Described  from  two  male  and  three  female  examples  taken 
as  follows:  Pasadena,  California,  October  12,  1016.  one  pair 
taken  among  ants  under  a  stone  by  Mr.  J.  O.  Martin  ;  La 
Jolla,  California,  one  female  taken  by  me  under  a  stone,  on  the 
hill  back  of  Scripps'  Institution,  July  27,  1913;  Laguna  Beach. 
California,  one  male  taken  by  Prof.  E.  O.  Essig,  July  15.  1913. 
and  one  female  taken  by  Mr.  C.  T.  Dodds  at  same  place,  July 
7,  1921,  both  under  stones. 

Holrfypr,  male,  No.  926,  and  allotype,  female.  No.  927, 
Museum  California  .Academy  of  Sciences,  from  Pasadena. 
Paratypes  in  collections  of  the  Academy,  in  that  of  Mr.  Harold 
M.  Jeancon  and  in  lhat  of  the  author.  This  species  undoubted!  \ 
is  an  inhabitant  of  ants'  nests  and  may  be  common  in  such 

272  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Nov.,  '22 

Studies  in  the  Genus  Hetaerius  (Col.,  Histeridae). 

By  J.  O.  MARTIN,  Berkeley,  California. 

All  of  the  members  of  this  interesting  genus  of  the  Histeridae 
are.  so  far  as  at  present  known,  myrmecophilous  and  aside 
from  this,  little  exact  knowledge  exists  as  to  their  life  histories 
or  their  relations  to  their  hosts.  Although  they  live  at  the 
ants'  expense,  they  show  no  signs  of  the  degeneracy  so  often 
accompanying  parasitism  and  seem  to  be  as  efficient  as  any  of 
the  family  to  which  they  belong.  They  have  well  developed 
wings  and  can  use  them  and  their  legs,  while  apparently  awk- 
ward, get  them  over  the  ground  at  a  surprising  rate.  The 
compact  body  of  these  beetles  is  strongly  chitinized  and  with 
its  retractile  head  and  antennae,  its  broad  flat  legs,  serving  as 
additional  abdominal  protection,  offers  impregnable  defense  to 
attacks  of  the  ants.  It  is  quite  evident,  from  numerous  obser- 
vations, that  the  ants  tolerate  these  beetles  owing  to  secretions 
which  they  exude  and  of  which  the  ants  are  very  fond.  These 
secretions  are  believed  to  arise  at  the  basal  thoracic  angles  and 
there  are  specializations  at  these  points  which  seem  to  support 
this  idea.  Also  the  ants  are  known  to  favor  this  region,  even  to 
the  extent  of  gnawing  holes  through  the  thoracic  walls,  presum- 
ably while  the  chitin  is  soft  directly  after  emergence  from  the 

The  members  of  this  genus  are  all  of  small  size,  varying  in 
length  from  one  and  a  half  to  three  millimeters.  The  general 
form  of  the  body  is  quadrately  oval  with  variations  in  the  ratio 
of  length  to  breadth  as  well  as  to  convexity.  The  general  body 
color  does  not  vary  greatly  in  the  different  species,  being  a 
reddish  brown  similar  to  that  common  to  many  other  insects 
of  myrmecophilous  habits.  In  vestiture  there  is  a  variation 
from  almost  complete  nudity,  to  a  considerable  degree  of  hair- 
iness. The  hairs  themselves  vary  from  plain  bristles,  through 
different  degrees  of  plumosity  to  a  squamose  type  which  is 
generally  plumose  and  recumbent.  These  hairs  offer  useful 
taxonomic  characters,  but  should  be  used  with  caution  as  I  am 
convinced  that  the  ants  frequently  gnaw  some  of  them  off. 

The  form  of  the  prothorax  is  a  very  useful  means  of  specific 
determination  and  as  there  is  a  very  unusual  development  of 

xxxiii.  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  273 

this  sclerite,  it  seems  advisable  to  designate  the  various  feat- 
ures  in   order  to  make   clear  the  terms   used   in   descriptions. 
The  dorsal  surface  of  the  prothorax  is  divided  into  three  main 
regions  by  two  oblique,  converging  sulci,  extending  from  the 
basal  to  apical  margins  and  dividing  the  surface  into  a  central 
discal  area,  with  two  bordering  lateral  areas  of  which  the  discal 
a'-ea  is  the  largest.     The  sulci  which  produce  this  division  are 
called  the  oblique  sulci.     The  discal  area  is  convex  and  highest 
along   its   central   portion,   sloping  gradually  toward   the   apex 
and  also  toward  the  sulci  before  reaching  which  it  begins  to 
curve  upward  to  a  carinate  edge  forming  the  inner  border  of 
the  oblique  sulcus.     The  depression  which  parallels  this  sulcus 
and  is  a  part  of  the  discal  area,  is,  in  all  of  the  species  I  have 
examined,   smooth,   shining  and   impunctate,   while   the   raised 
portion   of   the   discal    area   may   be   variously   punctured   and 
hairy ;  I  shall  call  this  depressed  portion  of  the  discal  area  the 
oblique  depression.    The  lateral  areas  lying  between  the  oblique 
sulcus  and  the  lateral  margin,  are  various  in  shape  and  in  all 
cases  are  extended  further  cephalad  than  the  discal  area.     The 
inner  margin  of  these  lateral  areas  is  carinate  and  forms  the 
outer    border    of    the    oblique    sulcus.      Each    lateral    area    is 
divided  near  its  basal  third  by  a  transverse  sulcus  which  may 
vary  in  shape  and  depth  in  the  various  species.     The  portion 
of  the  lateral  area  cephalad  of  the  transverse  sulcus  is  gen- 
erally   punctate    with    varying    hairiness    and    is    inclined    to 
rugosity,  while  the  smaller  portion  caudad  of  the  sulcus  gen- 
erally has  its  inner  surface  at  least,  smooth  and  shining.     The 
surface  of  this  division  is,  as  a  rule,  convex  and  blister-like  in 
shape;  T  shall  therefore  speak  of  it  as  the  bulla.     It  is  about 
this  bulla  that  the  ants  seem  to  center  their  attentions  and  it 
seems  probable  that  here  is  the  chief  seat  of  glandular  secretion. 
The  divisions  <>f  the  prothorax  above  mentioned  are  to  be 
foind  in  all  of  our  species  at  present  described  but  in  Hetaeriiis 
ferrugmeus,   the  type   of   the   genus,    neither   the   oblique   nor 
transverse  sulci  are  present.     The  oblique  sulcus  is  indicate'! 
by  two  parallel  raised  lines  but  there  is  no  sulcus  between  them. 
Of  the  transverse  sulcus  there  is  not  the  slightest  indication, 
neither   is   there  any  development   of   the   bulla.      In   all   other 

274  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NE\VS  [Nov.,  '22 

respects,    however,    this    species    seems    to    agree    with    our 
American  species. 

In  the  pygidium  and  propygidium  I  can  find  no  other  specific- 
characters  than  the  variation  in  punctation  and  hairiness.   These 
variations,   however,   seem   to  be  constant  and   offer   a  ready 
means  of  separating  the  species.     I  have  carefully  examined  a 
series  of  eighteen  specimens  of  Hetaeriits  selus  Fall,  and  over 
twenty-five   of   Hetaerius   tristriatus   Horn,    for   sexual   char- 
acters, but  have  not  been  able  to  detect  any  here  or  elsewhere. 
Tn  the  prosternum  we  encounter  one  of  the  most  valuable 
series  of  variations  for  specific  separation  as  well  as  generic 
division.     There  are  two  types  of  prosternum,  separating  the 
genus  into  two  well  defined  groups,  one  I  shall  call  the  sub- 
cylindrical,  the  other  the  depressed  type.     In  the  first  or  sub- 
cylindrical  type,  a  ventral  view  of  the  prosternum'  shows  a  sort 
of  vase  form  with  its  base  between  the  coxae  and  its  bulbous 
tip   at   the   cephalic   extremity.      The   mesothoracic   contact    is 
emarginate    and    extended    into    two    rounded    angular    lobes 
around  the  ends  of  the  coxae.    Between  the  coxae  the  sides  are 
suddenly  convergent,   followed  by  a  gradual  divergence  to  a 
maximum  at  about  the   middle  of  the  prosternum,   at  which 
point  there  is  a  convergence  to  a  neck-like  constriction,  then 
an  expansion  to  a  bulbous  extremity  which  has  a  pit-like  de- 
pression on  its  end.     The  cephalic  portion  of  this  prosternal 
ridge   is   subcylindrical   in   bas-relief,   growing  less   so   at  the 
middle  and  becoming  flat  between  the  coxae.     The  second  or 
depressed  type  is  the  same  in  general  plan  as  the  above  except 
that  there  is  a  varying  slope  away   from  the  summit  of  the 
prosternal  ridge  instead  of  an  abrupt  drop  as  in  the  former. 
The  mesothoracic  contact  is  margined   in  both  types  and  the 
extension  of  the  bordering  carina  along  the  flattened   surface 
of  the  ridge  produces  the  margined  area. 

In  the  head  we  find  some  differences  both  in  shape  and 
punctuation,  but  owing  to  its  retraction,  the  front  is  the  part 
most  often  made  use  of.  The  antennae  also  are  difficult  to 
see  and  for  this  reason  have  probably  not  been  mentioned  in 

The  legs  differ  considerably  in  their  proportions  but  as  it 
requires  special  manipulation  to  measure  them,  I  have  tried 

xxxiii.  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  275 

to  avoid  the  use  of   this  character  except   where  it  is  easily 

As  a  result  of  the  present  study  I  have  recognized  eighteen 
species,  two  east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  the  remainder 
from  the  Pacific  side  of  the  divide.  I  am  confident  that  there 
are  still  others  awaiting  discovery,  especially  in  the  higher 
altitudes  of  the  Sierras.  Comparison  with  a  paratype  has 
convinced  me  that  my  species  nitidus  is  synonymous  with 
e.vigitHS  Mann,  also  that  the  description  of  the  latter  species 
was  rather  incomplete.  Since  Horn's  "Synopsis  of  the 
Histeridae,"  1873*  there  has  been  no  attempt  to  tabulate  the 
species  of  this  genus  and  as  there  were  then  but  three  known 
species,  I  offer  the  following  table  as  a  help  in  future  studies 
of  this  genus. 

Hetaerius  vandykei  n.  sp. 

Form  oblong  oval,  ratio  of  extreme  length  to  breadth  as  seven  to  five. 
Color  fulvo-ferruginous ;  punctate  and  hairy  on  all  parts  of  the  body 
except  the  prosternum ;  punctures  coarse,  uniform  and  fairly  close 
together;  hairs  except  where  elsewhere  noted  fine,  long,  suberect  and 

Head  at  vertex  nearly  flat,  coarsely,  evenly  punctate  and  hairy ; 
epistoma  and  labrum  smooth,  shining,  impunctate ;  front  very  shallowly 

Prothorax  less  than  twice  as  wide  as  long ;  sides  evenly  rounded 
from  apex  to  transverse  sulcus,  which  is  rounded  at  bottom  and  rather 
deeply  impressed.  Bulla  punctate  and  hairy  on  the  outer  two-thirds 
of  its  surface  with  stiff,  inward  curving,  plumose  hairs.  These  hairs 
are  coarser  than  the  hairs  of  the  discal  area.  Discal  area  coarsely, 
evenly,  punctured,  each  puncture  with  a  long,  suberect,  soft  yellow 
hair ;  punctures  and  hairs  of  this  area  extend  further  into  the  obliqu" 
depression  than  in  any  other  species  I  have  examined.  Lateral  area 
coarsely  punctured  and  hairy ;  hairs  along  the  margin  coarser  and 
castaneous  in  color. 

Elytra  evenly,  closely,  punctate  and  hairy ;  first  dorsal  stria  extends 
three-fourths  the  distance  to  apex,  second  not  quite  reaching  apex. 

Pygidium  and  propygidium  punctate  and  hairy,  each  puncture  marked 
by  a  slightly  curved,  fine,  depressed  line  in  the  chitin  ;  punctures  some- 
what less  closely  together  than  on  upper  surface,  hairs  depressed. 

Prosternum  of  the  depressed  type ;  carinae  of  the  margined  area 
broadly  convergent  between  the  coxae,  then  diverging  to  one-half  the 
length  of  the  prosternum,  then  suddenly  convergent,  becoming  parallel 
at  tips,  leaving  the  margined  area  open  at  its  cephalic  end.  Prosternum 

*Proc.  Am.  Phil.  Soc.  XIII.  1873,  p.  303. 

276  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NE\VS  [Nov.,  '22 

punctate,  shining  and  but  for  a  few  coarse  hairs  between  the  coxae, 
naked.  Meso-  and  metasternum  punctate  and  hairy,  hairs  depressed, 
where  the  legs  cover  these  sclerites  in  repose  there  are  no  hairs.  Legs 
hairy.  The  hairs  on  under  surface  of  body  and  legs  are  finely  plumose 
and  not  as  long  as  those  on  the  thorax  and  elytra.  Length  1.5  mm.; 
width  1  +  mm. 

Described  from  an  unique  in  the  collection  of  Dr.  E.  C.  Van 
Dyke,  who  collected  it  in  the  Yosemite  Valley,  California,  and 
in  whose  collection  the  type  remains. 

Hetaerius  pilosus  n.  sp. 

Form  broadly  quadrate  oval,  ratio  of  extreme  length  to  breadth,  three 
to  two.  Color  fulvo-ferruginous.  Shining  throughout. 

Head  at  vertex  very  slightly  concave  ;  finely,  closely  punctate,  minutely 
rugose  between  the  punctures  which  deadens  the  surface  lustre  on 
vertex  and  front,  punctures  with  long,  curved,  golden  yellow  hairs ; 
labrum  and  epistoma  shining  but  minutely  rugose. 

Thorax  twice  as  broad  as  long ;  disc  smooth,  shining,  moderately 
punctate  each  with  a  long,  very  fine,  curved,  yellow  hair.  Bulla  punc- 
tate and  hairy  on  outer  two-thirds,  inner  surface  smooth  and  shining. 
Transverse  sulcus  deep  and  broad  at  bottom.  Lateral  area  punctate 
and  hairy ;  these  hairs  and  those  on  bulla  coarser  than  those  on  the 
disc  ;  oblique  sulcus  carinate  on  both  sides  to  base  of  elytra. 

Elytra  smooth,  shining,  evenly,  moderately  punctured,  punctures  fine, 
each  one  bearing  a  long,  fine,  curved,  suberect  hair  which  tapers  to  a  very 
fine,  long  point.  First  dorsal  stria  extends  three-fourths  the  distance 
to  the  tip  of  elytra;  all  the  others  reach  apex;  striae  fine. 

Pygidium  smooth,  shining,  impunctate ;  propygidium  smooth,  shining, 
punctate,  punctures  more  widely  dispersed  than  on  upper  surface  of 
body,  each  with  a  long  pilose  hair. 

Prosternum  of  the  depressed  type;  carinae  of  the  margined  area  con- 
vergent between  the  coxae,  thence  gradually  divergent  to  one-half 
the  length  of  prosternum  at  which  point  they  converge  in  a  nearly 
straight  line  meeting  in  a  sharply  rounded  tip,  thus  closing  area  in 
front ;  surface  of  margined  area  minutely  acinose ;  remainder  of 
prosternal  surface  punctate  and  acinose,  punctures  without  hairs ; 
cephalic  apex  of  prosternum  slightly  emarginate  and  broadly  depressed 
at  tip  of  ridge.  Meso-  and  metasternum  and  abdominal  segments  smooth, 
shining,  impunctate.  Legs  smooth,  shining  and  rather  widely  punctured, 
punctures  with  short  hairs.  Length  2  mm.;  width  1.5  mm. 

A  single  example  taken  in  the  nest  of  a  small  dark  ant  at 
Cypress  Ridge,  Marin  County,  California.  Type  in  my  own 

This  species  is  close  to  helcnac  Mann  from  Mexico  but, 
according  to  Mr.  H.  C.  Fall,  who  kindly  compared  it  with  the 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  277 

type,  it  differs  from  that  species  in  being  more  densely  hairy 
with  no  trace  of  regularity  in  the  arrangement  of  the  elytral 
hairs,  which  in  hclcnac  are  in  definite  longitudinal  series.  In 
pilosns  the  margined  area  of  the  prosternum  is  closed  in  front 
while  in  helcnac  it  is  open  or  in  some  cases  nearly  closed.  In 
pilosus  the  propygiclium  is  hairy  all  over. 

(To  be  continued.) 

Early  Stages  of  Noropsis  hieroglyphica  Cram. 
(Lepidoptera,  Noctuidae). 

By  F.  H.  BENJAMIN,  Agricultural  College,  Mississippi. 

Larva. — Head,  bright,  shining,  greenish-brown,  clypeus  whitish,  man- 
dibles black,  antennae  white  at  base  with  last  two  segments  black.  Body 
and  thorax,  transversely  striped  with  three  or  four  distinct  black  stripes 
to  each  segment,  one  of  these  stripes  being  broadest  and  most  conspic- 
uous, and  this  stripe  broadening  out  on  dorsum  and  each  latex  to  form 
an  interrupted  dorsal  line,  and  a  dorso-lateral  line  on  each  side.  The 
transverse  stripes  do  not  go  around  the  entire  body,  but  end  in  a  ventro- 
lateral  longitudinal  black  stripe  below  the  spiracles.  This  stripe  is 
broken  to  surround  a  small  spot  of  ground  color  on  the  segment  before 
the  prolegs,  and  above  each  of  the  prolegs  except  the  anal  pair.  The 
spiracles  themselves  are  surrounded  by  black,  resembling  small  black 
dots.  A  black  dorsal  plate  on  the  first  abdominal  segment,  divided 
cephalo-caudad  by  a  medial  very  faint  line  of  ground  color,  and  some- 
t'mes  interrupted  by  a  more  conspicuous  transverse  band  of  ground  color. 
General  ground  color  bluish-slate  with  somewhat  of  a  greenish  cast 
above  the  ventro-lateral  line  ;  underneath,  lighter,  with  the  greenish  cast 
stronger  and  more  pronounced.  True  legs,  black.  Prolegs,  blackish 
with  yellowish-green  in  the  middle.  .-Inal  prolegs,  black.  All  prolegs 
very  strongly  chitinized,  giving  them  a  peculiar  shining  appearance. 
.-/»«/  plate,  yellowish  green  marked  by  black  cephalad,  with  a  tendency 
for  this  black  to  surround  the  yellowish  green  by  being  very  faintly 
present  on  the  lateral  and  caudal  borders  of  the  plate.  Length  of  larva 
45  mm.  Diameter  7  mm.  Head  4x4  mm. 

Pupa. — Reddish  at  first,  turning  darker  to  a  very  dark  reddish-brown 
almost  blackish;  the  ventral  part  of  the  abdominal  segments  lighter. 
Cremaster,  with  two  spine-like  processes  extending  at  about  45  degree 
angles  from  an  imaginary  mcsal  line,  with  no  ordinary  setae  visible. 
ProUwracic  l>'(/s,  reaching  cephalad  to  eye  pieces.  Mesothoracic  legs, 
not  reaching  as  far  cephalad.  Prothoracic  femora,  not  visible  except 
as  a  slight  widening  between  sutures.  Dorsum,  of  abdominal  segments 
pebbled  with  large  raised  granulations;  between  the  segments  are  fine 
L'ranulutions,  those  on  the  cephalic  end  coarser  than  those  on  the  caudal 
end,  giving  a  sandpaper-like  appearance.  Spiracles,  ovate,  slightly 


depressed  caudad ;  with  a  raised  flattened-crescent-shaped  ridge  near 
their  cephalic  margin.  Mcso  and  metathoracic  spiracles,  similar  to  and 
unmodified  except  in  the  same  manner  as  the  abdominal  ones.  Sutures, 
all  deeply  impressed.  Length  of  pupa  15-17  mm.  Breadth  5-5.5  mm. 

The  characters  used  in  this  description  are  the  same  as  those 
used  by  Miss  Edna  Mosher  in  Bull.  111.  Nat.  Hist.  Surv.  XII, 
108-112,  1916,  and  would  place  the  insect  in  her  version  of 
the  Hacleninae. 

Cocoon. — Several  spun  beside,  above  and  below  each  other,  in  crotches 
of  branches.  The  cocoon  is  made  out  of  thin,  coarse  silk  with  fragments 
of  leaves  and  bits  of  rubbish  of  various  sorts  covering  the  outside.  The 
whole  appears  to  have  been  cemented  together  by  a  fluid  which  hardens 
into  a  stiff  glassy  substance.  Shape  oval,  about  20  mm.  long  and  half 
as  broad  through  the  middfe. 

Temnostoma    bombylans    Linne    Doubtfully    American    (Syrphidae, 


For  some  time  I  have  had  grave  doubts  as  to  the  authenticity  of  the 
records  of  Temnostoma  bombylans  Linne  from  this  country  and  have 
taken  the  trouble  to  get  a  specimen  of  the  species  from  Europe,  kindly 
supplied  me  by  Dr.  M.  Bezzi,  for  comparison  with  our  specimens.  I  find 
that  there  are  differences  between  the  specimens  in  our  collections  that 
do  duty  for  that  species  and  the  European  specimen.  In  fact  I  consider 
that  there  are  two  valid  species,  both  described,  from  America,  neither 
of  which  is  bombylans.  I  have  seen  the  type  of  trifasciata  Robertson, 
sent  to  me  by  the  describer,  and  have  received  data  from  Mr.  Nathan 
Banks  on  the  type  of  obscura  Loew.  I  append  a  diagnosis  for  dis- 
tinguishing the  forms  involved. 

1.  Third  and  fourth  tergites  in  male  slightly  bluish,  and  with  short  decum- 
bent black  setulose  hairs  beyond  the  pale  fasciae,  fifth  tergite  in  fe- 
male similar  to  fourth;  narrowest  part  of  frons  distinctly  wider  than 
anterior  ocellus  ;  base  of  male  hypopygium  with  black  hairs  ;  tarsi  of 
mid  and  hind  legs  in  male  entirely  yellow trifasciata  Robertson. 

-  Third  and  fourth  tergites   in  both  sexes   with  yellowish  or  brownish 
hairs  beyond  the  pale  fasciae,  which  are  rather  fine ;  narrowest  part 
of   frons  not  wider  than  anterior  ocellus 2 

2.  Hairs   on    fourth   tergite   and   base   of   hypopygium    pale   yellow,   and 
rather  long  and  soft ;  tarsi  of  mid  and  hind  legs  entirely  yellow, 

ol'scnra  Loew. 

-  1  lairs  on  fourth  tergite  and  base  of  hypopygium  brown,  shorter  and 
stronger ;  apical  two  tarsal  segments  on  mid  and  hind  legs  black, 

l>i>»i!>\'litiis  Linne. 

The  male  hypopygia  appear  to  offer  very  good  characters  for  the 
separation  of  the  three  species. — J.  R.  MALLOCH,  Bureau  of  Biological 
Survey,  Washington,  L).  C. 



Insect    Surveys. 

In  1917,  after  the  United  States  had  entered  the  World 
War,  the  importance  of  increasing  crop  production  by  the 
control  of  injurious  insects  was  immediately  recognized  by 
entomologists,  and  Dr.  L.  O.  Howard,  as  Chief  of  the  Federal 
Bureau  of  Entomology,  issued  a  circular,  republished  on  the 
editorial  page  of  the  NEWS  for  May,  1917,  page  229,  inviting 
co-operation  in  the  reporting  of  insect  pests.  With  the  data, 
which  it  was  hoped,  would  be  sent  to  Washington, 

the  central  office  will  be  able  to  tabulate  and  map  the  occurrence  of  all 
injurious  pests  and  to  indicate  to  the  men  in  the  field  the  sections 
which  are  threatened  with  insect  damage  and  the  means  for  combatting 
same.  With  this  information  it  will  be  possible  to  conduct  a  vigorous 
campaign  against  threatening  pests. 

The  plan  thus  proposed  resulted  in  the  "Emergency  Ento- 
mological Service."  the  reports  of  which  appeared  in  mimeo- 
graphed form  and  extracts  from  them  are  to  be  found  in  the 
XF.WS  for  June.  1917  (page  283),  and  subsequent  numbers. 

It  is  evident  that  the  data  gathered  during  a  period  of  war 
are  also  useful  in  times  of  peace,  and  the  American  Asso- 
ciation of  Economic  Entomologists,  at  its  last  annual  meeting, 
recommended  that  a  National  Insect  Pest  Survey  be  organized 
under  the  direction  of  the  Bureau  of  Entomology.  Dr.  Howard 
arranged  for  such  a  survey  under  the  charge  of  Mr.  J.  A. 
Hyslop  and  Bulletin  No.  1103  of  the  United  States  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture,  dated  July.  1922,  gives  the  first  results 
of  the  Survey.  It  is  by  Mr.  Hyslop  and  is  entitled  Sn unitary 
of  Insect  Conditions  tJiroitylionf  thr  United  States  during 
1°21.  It  reads: 

The  object  of  the  insect-pest  survey  is  to  collect  accurate  and  detailed 
in  formation,  on  the  occurrence,  distribution,  ecology  and  relative  dcstruc- 
ti  veil  ess  of  insect  pests  throughout  the  United  States,  and  to  study  this 



[sic]  data  from  month  to  month  and  year  to  year  with  relation  to  the 
several'  factors  that  influence  insect  abundance.  The  results  to  be 
obtained  from  this  undertaking  over  a  series  of  years  are  manifold;  we 
should  be  able  to  throw  light  on  the  reasons  for  the  cyclic  appearance  of 
certain  insect  pests,  the  gradual  shift  of  regions  of  destructive  abund- 
ance, the  limiting  barriers  to  normal  dispersal,  the  directive  influences 
that  determine  the  paths  of  insect  diffusion,  and  the  relation  of  climatol- 
ogy, geography,  topography  and  geology,  as  well  as  biological  complexes, 
to  insect  distribution  and  abundance.  This  is  the  necessary  foundation 
for  the  next  advance  step  in  economic  entomology,  entomological  fore- 

The  degree  to  which  this  Bulletin  realizes  these  high  hopes 
must  be  decided  by  those  who  read  it.  The  object  is  one  well 
worthy  of  the  support  of  both  pure  and  applied  entomologists, 
since  it  lies  within  the  fields  of  both  classes  of  students.  It 
appeals  to  those  without  as  well  as  within  the  Bureau  as,  for 
example,  to  Mr.  John  J.  Davis,  who  has  argued  for  An  Indiana 
Insect  Survc\  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Indiana  Academy  of 
Science.  Mr.  Davis  would 

explore,  exploit,  record,  map,  collect  and  study  the  insect  fauna  of 
Indiana,  determine  the  occurrence  and  range  of  all  insects  of  the  state 
and  study  their  relation  to  plants,  animals,  human  welfare,  etc.  Such 
a  survey  would  include  a  study  of  the  relations  of  insects  to  changing 
conditions,  that  is,  swamp  areas  being  reclaimed  by  drainage,  peat  bogs, 
sand  areas  and  the  like,  being  put  under  cultivation  for  the  first  time, 
etc.  It  would  also  include  studies  of  the  small  lake  areas,  caves  and 
similar  places. 

May  all  these  surveys  be  carried  out  in  detail ! 

Notes  and. 



Protoparce  rustica  in  Florida  (Lep.:  Sphingidae)  and  Mr.  T.  L.  Mead 

Mr.  Theodore  L.  Mead  has  sent  us  a  moth,  Protoparce  rustica.  He 
says  the  caterpillar  feeds  on  Callicarpa  amcricana,  down  at  his  home, 
Oviedo,  Florida.  The  larva  of  this  species  appears  to  have  a  variety  of 
food  plants.  The  life  history  is  well  illustrated  in  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS, 
1900,  xi,  485.  Mr.  Mead  has  not  been  collecting  insects  for  forty  years 
but  still  takes  an  interest  in  them  and  gets  specimens  for  friends  in  this 
country  and  Europe.  He  was  a  famous  collector  and  writer  in  the  past 
and  his  work  is  known  to  most  Lepidopterists. — H.  SKINNER. 

xxxiii,  '221  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  281 

The  University  of  Michigan-Williamson  Expedition  to  Brazil. 

The    Expedition    made   collections    in    the    vicinity   of    Para    (see    the 
XFAVS   for  October,  page  244),  August   1-10.     On  August   13,   Mr.  John 
W.  Strohm  sailed  from  Para  for  New  York,  with  a  snake  chest,  another 
box  of    reptiles,   etc.,  one  trunk  solid   with  dragonflie*,   a    wooden   chest 
lull    of    unnecessary    supplies    and    other    impedimenta.      Mr.    Jesse    H. 
Williamson   remained   at   Para   until   the   morning   of    August   18,   when 
he  took  steamer   for   Rio  de  Janeiro.     There  was  much  cloudiness   and 
some  heavy  rain  during  their  stay  at  Para  and  on  August   17  Mr.  Wil- 
liamson  wrote:    "Weather   seems   to   be   getting   worse    here    instead   <>i' 
better;"   on   August    8:    "Here,    as    elsewhere   on    the   trip,    all    say   the 
season  is  unusual."     As  to  the  Odonate  fauna  of   Para  he  wrote   (Aug. 
1!  )  :  "M';st  tli.ngs  are  the  same  as,  or  so  similar  that  1  detect  no  difference 
from,   the   Rio   Madeira   specimens."      On    Aug.   8   the   Odonata    of    the 
Expedition  were  reckoned  at  9029  specimens  of   166  species. 

The  Authorship  of  the   Lepidoptera  Described  in  the   Encyclopedie 

Methodique,    Vol.    IX. 

A  recent  examination  of  the  descriptions  of  Hesperiidae  in  this  work 
led  me  to  the  interesting  discovery  that  the  authorship  of  all  the  Lepi- 
doptera should  be  attributed  to  Godart,  and  not  to  Latreille,  as  is  com- 
monly done.  This  was  first  disclosed  in  the  footnote  to  Ilcspcria 
yodari  on  page  722,  and  a  reference  to  Latreille's  introduction  added 
other  evidence  in  support  of  the  conclusion. 

The  title  page  of  the  volume  would  lead  one  to  expect  joint  author- 
ship, at   least,  since   it  mentions   Latreille  as  author   with  the  assistance 
of    Godart,   but   the   passages   by    Latreille    \vhich   are    mentioned   above 
disclaim  all  responsibility   for  the  descriptions   of   species  and  give    full 
credit   to   Godart*     The   pertinent  lines   of   the   introduction   read   thus : 
"A    1'exception   des   generalites   preliminaires,   que   je   m'etois   reservees, 
cet  article   Papillon  lui   f  Godart]   est  absolument  propre  ;  et  si  la  justice 
ne   me   commandoit   point    cet   aveu,    ie   ne   craindrois   point   d'y   met  t  re 
mon  nom."      (With  the  exception  of   the   preliminary  general  remarks, 
which  I  had  reserved  for  myself,  this  article  on  butterflies  is  absolutely 
his  own;  and  if  justice  did  not  command  this  acknowledgment   I  would 
not    fear    to    place   my   name   here).      Certainly   this    is    definite    enough 

*At  the  suggestion  of  the  editor,   Dr.  P.  P.  Calvert,   I  am  adding  t  he- 
wording   of    the   title    page    of    the    volume   under   discussion.      It    is   as 
follows  :      "Encyclopedie-Methodique— Histoire    Naturelle.— Entomol. 
ou  Histoire  Naturelle — des  Crustaces,  des  Arachnides  et  des   Insectes.- 
Par  M.  Latreille,— Membre  de  I'lnstitut,  Academic  Royale  des  Sciences, 
ctc.— Tome    Neuvieme—  Par    M.    Latreille,   de   1'  Academic    des    Science*, 
et    M.  Godart, — ancien    Proviseur    du    Lycee    de    P.onn.  etc. — a   Paris, 
Chez  Mme.  Veuve  a  Gasse,  Po         ns,   NTo.  0 

MDCCCXIX."— A.  Wr.   L. 

282  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Nov.,'22 

in  itself,  but  we  find  additional  confirmation  in  the  footnote  to  H.  godart. 
This  footnote  does  not  bear  Latreille's  name,  but  its  tenor  indicates  him 
as  writer  beyond  reasonable  doubt.  The  passage  reads,  in  part :  "Je 
n'ai  autre  part  a  son  travail  que  celle  de  lui  avoir  fourni  des  moyens 
d'execution  et  de  1'avoir  aide  de  mes  conseils"  (I  have  no  other  part 
in  his  work  than  that  of  having  furnished  him  the  means  of  its  execu- 
tion, and  of  having  aided  him  with  my  advice). 

One  rather  contradictory  point  is  the  appearance  in  this  work  of  the 
species  Hespcria  godart,  since  it  would  be  rather  poor  taste  in  an  author 
to  name  a  species  for  himself.  This  is  counterbalanced,  however,  by 
the  appearance  on  page  799  of  another  new  species  under  the  name  of 
Castnia  latrcille! 

The  case  certainly  favors  Godart's  authorship  of  these  species,  in 
spite  of  the  common  attachment  of  Latreille's  name  to  them,  and  it 
seems  to  the  writer  a  matter  or  sheer  justice  that  the  change  should 
be  made.  A  thought  is  suggested  by  this,  viz.,  that  it  is  all  too  easy  to 
be  careless  about  reading  introductory  matter,  perhaps  more  in  syste- 
matic treatises  than  in  others. — A.  W.  LINDSEY,  M.  S.,  PH.  D.,  Denison 
University,  Granville,  Ohio. 

A  Note  on  Timema  calif ornicum  Scudder  (Orthoptera;  Phasmidae). 

This  strange  little  Phasmid  has  attracted  the  attention  of  the  present 
writer  at  various  times  during  the  past  few  years,  with  the  result  that 
it  is  possible  to  add  a  few  field  notes  to  those  given  by  Hebard  in  the 
latest  discussion  of  the  species1. 

In  the  case  of  this  particular  species  the  only  food  plant  indicated 
by  Hebard  is  fir,  although  T.  chumash  Hebard,  the  only  other  member 
of  the  genus  is  recorded  as  having  been  swept  from  Ceanothus.  I  have 
at  various  times  taken  single  specimens  of  T.  calif  ornicum  purely  by 
accident,  finding  them  upon  clothing  or  insect  net  after  passing  through 
the  "chapparal"  (which  is  simply  the  western  word  for  brush)  with 
which  many  of  our  hills  are  covered.  As  the  "chamise,"  Adenostoma 
fasciculatum,  is  the  most  abundant  member  of  the  chapparal  association 
it  appeared  probable  that  this  was  the  normal  host.  However,  a  visit 
to  the  brush-covered  top  of  Loma  Prieta  Mountain  near  San  Jose, 
California  (altitude  3000  feet)  on  June  fourth,  1921,  produced  evidence 
that  the  normal  host  is  really  another  shrub,  the  "silk  tassel,"  Garrya 
rlliptica.  Of  twenty  specimens  secured,  eighteen  were  jarred  from 
one  or  two  shrubs  of  this  particular  plant,  one  was  found  on  the  ground 
and  one  was  taken  in  general  sweeping.  None  were  found  on  Ade- 
nostoma. The  species  is  evidently  abundant,  if  sought  for  in  the  right 
time  and  place,  for  scarcely  a  quarter  of  an  hour  was  necessary  to 
obtain  these. 

The   published   descriptions   of   the   species   have  evidently   been  based 

1  The  genus  Timema,  etc.,  Hebard,  Ent.  Neivs,  31:   126-132.     (1920). 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  283 

upon  dried  specimens.  The  only  color  notes  from  fresh  material  are 
those  given  by  Hebard  for  specimens  from  fir,  these  being  described  as 
green.  My  material  shows  that  the  species  presents  a  marked  color 
dimorphism.  Of  the  twenty  specimens,  eighteen  were  entirely  green 
except  that  the  antennae  were  dusky  in  both  sexes  while  in  the  males 
the  tarsi,  tibiae  and  apical  half  of  the  femora  were  pinkish  brown  or 
pink.  Two  specimens,  one  of  each  sex,  had  the  entire  dorsum  pink, 
the  venter  green,  and  the  tarsi,  tibiae  and  apical  half  of  the  femora  pink. 

The  measurements  given  by  Hebard  appear  also  to  have  been  made 
from  dried  specimens,  the  greatest  length  given  being  19.8  mm.  for  the 
female  and  14.5  for  the  male.  My  specimens,  which  were  killed  in 
Carnoy  fluid,  ranged  from  22-24  mm.  for  the  female  and  15-18  mm.  for 
the  males. 

With  a  knowledge  of  the  host  plant  it  is  hoped  that  further  notes  as 
to  the  life  history  may  be  obtainable. — G.  F.  FERRIS,  Stanford  Univer- 
sity, California. 

Insect  Photography. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Belgium,  Brussels, 
March  4.  1922,  M.  Bastin,  of  Antwerp,  showed  a  photostereosynthesis 
(Lumierc  system)  of  a  Dipter  which,  viewed  as  a  transparency,  gave 
the  impression  of  astonishing  reality.  It  had  been  obtained  by  the  exact 
superposition  of  six  photographs  on  glass,  taken  at  the  same  magnifica- 
tion with  the  aid  of  a  microscopic  objective,  at  regularly  increasing 
depths  of  the  preparation.  (Bull.  Soc.  Ent.  Belg.  iv,  p.  41). 

Chrysops  costata  Sucking  Human  Blood  in  Cuba  (Dip.:  Tabanidae). 

Under  the  title  Sobrc  la  mosca  Chrysops  costata  Fabr.  quc  clntpa  la 
sangre  del  hombrc,  obserToda  en  Cuba,  Dr.  W.  H.  Hoffman  has  a  note 
in  Sanidad  y  Bcncficcncia  (Boletin  Oficial,  Edicion  Mensual,  XXVI,  No. 
3,  p.  121,  Habana,  Setiembre,  1921)  describing  his  persanal  experiences 
in  being  bitten  on  the  head  about  twelve  times  by  flies  which  Dr.  Walter 
Horn,  of  Berlin-Dahlem,  identified  as  Chrysops  costata  Fabr.  The  flies 
bit  the  observer  at  various  hours,  both  by  day  and  by  night,  from 
October  to  February,  in  the  grounds  of  Las  Animas  Hospital  at  Havana. 
Generally  the  flies  had  a  little  blood  in  the  stomach  and  they  made  no 
attempt  to  escape  from  his  hands.  The  bite  was  followed  by  consid- 
erable inflammation  and  pain.  As  other  residents  of  the  locality  have 
not  been  bitten  by  this  fly  the  observer  suggests  that  his  keeping  his 
hair  short,  which  is  not  the.  prevailing  custom,  exposes  him  to  thi  si- 
attacks.  He  has  not  found  this  species  elsewhere  than  on  his  own 
person.  The  transmission  of  Filaria  by  C.  dhuiduita  in  West  Africa 
and  of  Bacterium  tularensc  by  C.  discalis  in  Utah  suggests  to  him  t Im- 
possibility that  this  Cuban  species  may  also  serve  as  a  vector  of  disease. 

284  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  [NoAr.,  '22 

Entomological    Literature 

COMPILED  BY  E.  T.   CRESSON.  JR.,   AND  J.   A.  G.   REHN. 

Under  the  above  head  it  is  intended  to  note  papers  received  at  the 
Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  of  Philadelphia,  pertaining  to  the  En- 
tomology of  the  Americas  (North  and  South),  including-  Arachnida  and 
Myriopoda.  Articles  irrelevant  to  American  entomology  will  not  be  noted; 
but  contributions  to  anatomy,  physiology  and  embryology  of  insects, 
however,  whether  relating  to  American  or  exotic  species,  will  be  recorded. 

The  numbers  in  Heavy -Faced  Type  refer  to  the  journals,  as  numbered 
in  the  following  list,  in  which  the  papers  are  published. 

All  continued  papers,  with  few  exceptions,  are  recorded  only  at  their 
first  installments. 

The  records  of  papers  containing  new  genera  or  species  occurring'  north 
of  Mexico  are  grouped  at  the  end  of  their  respective  Orders. 

For  records  of  Economic  Literature,  see  the  Experiment  Station  Record, 
Office  of  Experiment  Stations,  "Washington.  Also  Review  of  Applied  En- 
tomology, Series  A,  London.  For  records  of  papers  on  Medical  Einto- 
mology,  see  Review  of  Applied  Entomology,  Series  B, 

The  titles  occurring  in  the  Entomological   News  are  not   listed. 

2 — Transactions  of  the  American  Entomological  Society  of  Phila- 
delphia. 4 — Canadian  Entomologist,  Guelph,  Canada.  7 — Annals  of 
The  Entomological  Society  of  America,  Columbus,  Ohio.  8 — The 
Entomologist's  Monthly  Magazine,  London.  11 — Annals  and  Mag- 
azine of  Natural  History,  London.  12 — Journal  of  Economic  Ento- 
mology, Concord,  N.  H.  16 — The  Lepidopterist,  Salem,  Mass.  19— 
Bulletin  of  the  Brooklyn  Entomological  Society.  20 — Bulletin  de 
la  Societe  Entomologique  de  France,  Paris.  22 — Bulletin  of  Ento- 
mological Research,  London.  24 — Annales  de  la  Societe  Entomolo- 
gique de  France,  Paris.  33 — Annales  de  la  Societe  Entomologique 
de  Belgique,  Brussels.  34 — Bulletin  de  la  Societe  Entomologique 
de  Belgique,  Brussels.  36 — Transactions  of  the  Entomological  So- 
ciety of  London.  44 — Ectoparasites.  Edited  by  Jordan  &  Roth- 
schild, Tring,  England.  45 — Zeitschrift  fur  wissenschaftliche  In- 
sektenbiologie,  Berlin.  50 — Proceedings  of  the  United  States  Na- 
tional Museum.  52 — Zoologischer  Anzeiger,  Leipsic.  54 — Proceed- 
ings of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  D.  C.  62 — Bulletin 
of  the  American  Museum  of  Natural  History,  New  York.  67 — Le 
Naturaliste  Canadien,  Quebec.  68 — Science,  Garrison-on-the-Hud- 
son,  N.  Y.  69 — Comptes  Rendus,  des  Seances  de  1'Academie  des 
Sciences,  Paris.  70 — Journal  of  Morphology.  Philadelphia.  76— 
Nature,  London.  81 — The  Journal  of  Parasitology,  Urbana,  Illinois. 
96 — Physis.  Revista  de  la  Sociedad  Argentina  de  Ciencias  Natu- 
rales,  Buenos  Aires.  97 — Anales  del  Museo  Nacional  de  Historia 
Natural  de  Buenos  Aires.  100 — Biological  Bulletin  of  the  Marine 
Biological  Laboratory,  Woods  Hole,  Mass.  103 — Biologisches  Cen- 
tralblatt,  Leipzig.  104 — Zeitschrift  fur  wissenschaftliche  Zoologie, 
Leipzig.  106 — Anales  de  la  Sociedad  Cientifica  Argentina,  Buenos 
Aires.  Ill — Archiv  fur  Naturgeschichte,  Berlin.  114 — Entomolo- 
gische  Rundschau,  Stuttgart.  116 — Entomologische  Zeitschrift, 
Frankfurt  a.  M.  119 — Proceedings  of  the  National  Academy  of 
Sciences  of  the  U.  S.  A.,  Washington,  D.  C.  124 — Bulletin  de  la 

xxxiii,  '221  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  285 

Societe    Entomologique   d'Egypte,   Cairo.      129 — The    Bulletin   of   the 
Hill  Museum,  Witley,  Surrey,   England. 

GENERAL.  Downing,  E.  R.— A  naturalist  in  the  great  lakes 
region.  (Univ.  Chicago  Press,  1922,  328  pp.,  ill.)  Druce,  H.  H.— 
Obituary.  8,  1922,  211.  9,  1922,  215.  Fahringer,  J.— Die  feinde 
der  schlammfliege.  45,  xvii,  113-24.  Gibson,  A. — A  quoi  sert  1'ento- 
mologie?  Benefices  monetaires  resultant  des  recherches  entomolo- 
giques.  67,  xlix,  30.  Graef,  E.  L. — Obituary  notice.  19,  xvii,  43-5. 
Greene,  C.  T. — [Minutes  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Wash- 
ington. Discussions  on  the  number  of  insects.]  (Jour.  Wash.  Acad. 
Sc.,  xii,  335-40.)  Hayward,  K.  J. — Colour-preservation  in  dragon- 
flies.  9,  1922,  209-10.  Hyslop,  J.  A. — Summary  of  insect  conditions 
throughout  the  U.  S.  during  1921.  (U.  S.  D.  A.  Bull.  1103.)  Mast, 
S.  O. — Photic  orientation  in  insects.  119,  viii,  240-5.  Morris,  H.  M. 
—On  a  method  of  separating  insects  and  other  arthropods  from 
soil.  22,  xiii,  197-200.  Mueller,  R. — Ueber  vererbungslehre  und 
entomologie.  114,  xxxix,  29-30  (cont.).  Sherborn,  C.  D. — Index 

animalium 1801-1850.      Sectio    secunda.      Part    I.      Talbot,    G.— 

Nomenclature  and  illustrations.     129,  i,  366-7.     de  la  Torre  Bueno, 
J.    R. — Color    characters    vs.    structural    characters.      19,    xvii,    63-4. 

ANATOMY,  PHYSIOLOGY,  ETC.  Baker,  A.  C.— Feeding 
punctures  of  insects.  12,  xv,  312.  Bischoff,  W. — Ueber  die  kopf- 
bildung  der  dipterenlarven.  Ueber  die  deutung  der  mundhaken  der 
cyclorhaphalarven.  Ill,  1922,  A,  6,  1-50;  51-60.  Bishop,  G.  H.— 
Cell  metabolism  in  the  insect  fat  body.  70,  xxxvi,  567-94.  Blunck, 
H. — Zur  biologic  des  tauchkaefers  Cybister  lateralimarginalis,  nebst 
bemerkungen  uber  C.  japonicus.  .  .  .  52,  Iv,  45-66  (cont.).  Cramp- 
ton,  G.  C. — The  genitalia  of  the  males  of  certain  Hemiptera  and 
Homoptera.  19,  xvii,  46-55.  Cuenot  &  Mercier — La  perte  de  la 
faculte  du  vol  chez  les  dipteres  parasites.  69,  1922,  433-36.  Cuenot 
et  Poisson — Sur  le  developpement  de  quelques  coaptations  des  in- 
sectes.  69,  461-64.  Descy,  A. — Observations  sur  le  retour  au  nid 
des  hymnopteres  (cont.).  34,  iv,  93-9.  Dirks,  E. — Liefern  die  mal- 
phighischen  gefasse  verdauungssekrete?  (Fermenstudien  an  insek- 
ten.)  Ill,  1922,  A,  4,  161-220.-  Elmer,  O.  H. — Mosaic  cross-inocu- 
lation and  insect  transmission  studies.  68,  Ivi,  370-2.  Federley,  H. 
—Ueber  eincn  fall  von  criss-cross-vererbung  bei  einer  artkreuzung. 
(Hereditas,  iii,  126-46.)  Feuerborn,  H.  J. — Der  sexucllc  reizapparat 
der  Psychodiden  nach  biologischen  und  physialogischen  gesichts- 
punkten  untersucht.  Ill,  1922,  A,  4,  1-137.  Frers,  A.  G. — Mcta- 
morfosis  de  coleopteros  argentinos.  96,  v,  245-62.  Frost,  S.  W.— 
Ecdysis  in  Tmetocera  ocellana.  7,  xv,  164-8.  Garrett  &  Garrett — 
The  effect  of  a  lead  salt  on  lepidopterous  larvae.  76.  ex,  380. 
Graham,  S.  A. — A  studv  of  the  wing  venation  of  the  Coleoptera. 
7,  xv,  191-200.  Kopec,  S. — Studies  on  the  necessity  of  the  brain  for 
the  incention  of  insect  metamorphosis.  100,  xlii,  323-42.  Lamb, 
C.  G. — The  geometry  of  insect  pairing.  (  Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  Lond..  H., 
xciv,  1-11.)  Mallock,  A. — Metallic  coloration  of  chrysalids.  76, 
ex.  '.', -14.  Peacock,  A.  D.-  — Pairing  and  parthenogenesis  in  sa\v-llir>. 
76,  ex,  215.  Poisson,  R. — Armature  genitale  et  structure  chitineuse 
du  penis  dans  le  genre  Gerris.  20,  1922,  171-3.  Riley,  C.  F.— 
Droughts  and  cannibalistic  responses  of  the  water-strider,  Gerris 
marginatus.  19,  xvii,  79-87.  Roch,  F. — Beitrage  zur  physiologic  der 
flugmuskulatur  der  inscktcn.  103,  xlii,  359-64.  Schuze,  P.— Ueber 
nachlaufende  cntwicklung  (Hysterotelie)  einzclner  organe  bei 
schmetterlinge.  Ill,  1922,  A,  7.  109-13.  Speyer,  W. — Die  musku- 

286  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NE\VS  [Nov.,  '22 

latur  der  larve  von  Dytiscus  marginalis.  104,  cxix,  423-92.  Stick- 
ney,  F. — The  relation  of  the  nymphs  of  a  dragon-fly  to  acid  and 
temperature.  (Ecology,  iii,  250-4.)  Suffert,  F. — Zur  morphologic 
und  optik  der  schmetterlingsschuppen.  103;,  xlii,  382-88.  Williams, 
C.  B. — Co-ordinated  rhythm  in  insects;  with  a  record  of  sound  pro- 
duction in  an  aphid.  9,  1922,  173-6. 

ARACHNIDA  AND  MYRIOPODA.    Ewing,  H.  E.— Studies  on 

the  taxonomy  and  biology  of  the  tarsonemid  mites,  together  with  a 
note  on  the  transformation  of  Acarapis  woocli.  4,  liv,  104-13. 
Vitzthum,  G.  H. — Acarologische  beobachtungen.  Ill,  1922,  A,  5, 

THE  SMALLER  ORDERS.  Banks,  N. — Venational  variation 
in  Raphidia.  4,  liv,  114-16.  Campion,  H.— Notes  on  a  small  col- 
lection of  Odonata  from  Argentina.  11,  x,  290-5.  Klapalek,  F.— 
Plecopteres  nouveaux.  IV.  33,  Ixii,  89-95.  Lichtenstein  &  Grasse 
-Une  migration  d'Odonates.  20,  1922,  160-3.  Lloyd,  J.  T.— The 
biology  of  North  American  caddis  fly  larvae.  (Bui.  Lloyd  Libr., 
No.  21.)  Malloch,  J.  R. — Panorpa  rufescens  feeding  on  a  cicada. 
19,  xvii,  45.  Murphy,  H.  E.— Notes  on  the  biology  of  some  of  our 
North  American  species  of  may-flies.  (Bui.  Lloyd  Libr.,  No.  22.) 
Smith,  R.  C. — Hatching  in  three  species  of  Neuroptera.  7,  xv,  169-76. 

ORTHOPTERA.  Larrimer  &  Ford— The  daily  maximum  feed- 
ing period  of  Melanoplus  femur-rubrum.  4,  liv,  141-3.  Uvarov, 
B.  P.— A  new  case  of  transformative  deceptive  resemblance  in  long- 
horned  grasshoppers.  36,  1922,  269-74. 

Hebard,  M. — North  American  Acrididae.  Notes  on  a  few  inter- 
esting Blattidae  from  Guatemala,  with  the  description  of  a  n.  sp. 
2,  xlviii,  89-108;  129-32. 

HEMIPTERA.  Blanchard,  E.  E.— Aphid  notes.  96,  v,  184-214. 
Cockerell,  T.  D.  A. — The  mealy-bug  called  Pseudococcus  bromeliae, 
and  other  coccids.  68,  Ivi,  308-9.  Giacomelli,  E. — Mimetismo  ver- 
dadero  y  espurio.  96,  v,  224-9.  Griswold,  G.  H. — Are  there  two 
species  of  the  oyster-shell  scale?  7,  xv,  184-91.  Holland,  W.  J.— 
Tingitidae  or  Tingidae.  68,  Ivi,  334-5.  Knight,  H.  H.— The  genus 
Cyrtopeitis  in  North  America.  19,  xvii,  65-7.  Jordan,  K. — The 
American  Polyctenidae.  44,  i,  204-15.  Note  on  the  distribution  of 
the  organ  of  Berlese  in  Clinocoridae.  44^  i,  284-6.  Lehmann.  H.— 
Zweiter  beitrag  zur  systematik  der  Scutellerinae.  VI.  Heteropteren- 
aufsatz.  Ill,  1922,  A,  7,  54-61.  Lizer,  C. — Nota  critica  y  sinoni- 
mica  acerca  de  un  supuesto  nuevo  Psyllidae  cecidogeno  del  "Ilex 
paraguariensis."  96,  v,  325-7.  Pennington,  M.  S.— Notas  sobre 
coreidos  srgentinos.  .96,  v,  125-70. 

Ball  &  Hartzell— A  review  of  the  desert  leafhoppers  of  the  Ore- 
gerini.  7,  xv,  137-53.  Hungerford,  H.  B.— Saldoida  slossoni  var. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEV/S  287 

wilieyi  n.  var.,  taken  in  Texas.  19,  xvii,  64.  McAtee  &  Malloch — 
Changes  in  names  of  American  Rhynchota  chiefly  Emesinae.  54, 
xxxv,  95-6. 

LEPIDOPTERA.  Ainslie,  G.  G.— Contributions  to  a  knowledge 
of  the  Crambinae.  7,  xv,  125-36.  Angle,  J.  L. — Papilio  ajax  in 
New  York.  19,  xvii,  90.  Dukes,  W.  C. — Concerning  Papilio  ajax. 
19,  xvii,  97.  Fassl,  A.  H. —  Eryphanis  dondoni  species  nova.  116, 
xxxvi,  25.  Flint,  W.  P. — Studies  of  the  life  history  of  Nomophila 
noctuella.  7,  xv,  154-6.  Joicey  &  Talbot — New  forms  of  moths 
from  New  Guinea  and  South  America.  New  forms  of  Papilionidae 
from  New  Guinea,  Malaya,  and  S.  America.  New  forms  of  butter- 
flies from  S.  Am.  129,  i,  300-2;  320-24;  357-8.  Lindsey,  A.  W.— 
Some  Iowa  records  of  L.  (Proc.  Iowa  Ac.  Sc.,  xxvii,  319-35.) 
McDunnough,  J.  H. — Synonymic  notes  on  Catocala  species.  4,  liv, 
100-4.  Meyrick,  E. — Descriptions  of  South  American  Micro-lepi- 
doptera.  36,  1922,  65-116.  Skinner  &  Williams— On  the  male  geni- 
talia  of  the  larger  Hesperidae  of  North  America.  2,  xlviii,  109-127. 

Barnes  &  Lindsey — A  new  genus  and  species  of  No'Ctuidae.  19, 
xvii,  56-7.  New  Noctuidae.  19,  xvii,  71-6.  Cassino  &  Swett — • 
Some  new  Geometridae.  Two  new  Peros.  16,  iii,  175-9;  180-2. 
F?  Cassino,  S.  E.] — Some  new  Geometridae.  16,  iii,  167-74.  Mc- 
Dunnough, J. — Notes  on  the  L.  of  Alberta.  4,  liv,  134-41. 

DIPTERA.  Alexander,  C.  P.— New  or  little-known  exotic  1  iou- 
lidae.  36,  1922,  34-64.  Bezzi,  M. — On  the  South  American  species 
of  the  dipterous  genus  Chiromyza.  7,  xv,  117-24.  Brethes,  J. — 
Biologia  de  la  "Synthesiomyia  brasiliana."  96,  v,  292-3.  Bruch,  C. 
— Contribucion  al  conocimento  de  nuestras  de  Tipulas.  96,  v,  320-24. 
Enderlein,  G. — Neue  aussereuropaische  Simuliiden.  (Sitz.  Ges. 
Naturf.  Fr.  Berlin,  192L,  77-81.)  Jordan  &  Rothschild— New 
Siphonaptera.  44,  i,  266-83.  Larrimer,  W.  H. — An  extreme  case  of 
delayed  fall  emergence  of  hessian  fly.  7,  xv,  177-80.  Matheson  & 
Shannon — New  mosquito  records  and  notes  on  the  habits  of  cer- 
tain species  from  central  New  York.  7,  xv,  157-63.  Walker,  E.  M. 
—Some  cases  of  cutaneous  myiasis,  with  notes  on  the  larvae  of 
Wohlfahrtia  vigil.  81,  ix,  1-5. 

Alexander,  C.  P. — The  crane-flies  of  New  York:  First  supple- 
mentary list.  19,  xvii,  58-62.  Curran,  C.  H. — New  and  little  known 
Canadian  Syrphidae.  4,  liv,  117-19.  Enderlein,  G. — Klassifikation 
dcr  Alicropeziden.  Ill,  1922,  A,  5,  140-2:.'!).  MalJoch,  J.  R. — A 
synopsis  of  the  N.  American  species  of  the  dipterous  genus  Amau- 
rosoma,  with  description  of  n.  sp.  A  new  borborid  from  Maryland. 
19,  xvii,  77-8;  87.  Two  n.  sps.  of  the  genus  Helina.  19,  xvii,  95-6. 

COLEOPTERA.  Cockerell,  T.  D.  A.  —  IM -..t\  j.syl'.r.s  castoris,  in 
Colorado.  19,  xvii,  64.  Benderitter,  E. — Un  Rutelide  nouveau  du 
Venezuela.  20,  192:2,  147.  Bruch,  C. — Dos  nuevos  coleopteros  mir- 

288  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEV.'S  [Nov.,  '22 

mecofilos.  96,  v,  296-300.  Fleutiaux,  E.— Trois  Melasidae  nou- 
veaux.  20,  1922,  148-50.  Graham,  S.  A. — Ips  pini,  as  a  primary 
pest  of  jack  pine.  4,  liv,  99-100.  Hopping,  R. — Coniferous  hosts 
of  the  Ipidae  of  the  Pacific  coast  and  Rocky  mountain  regions.  4, 
liv,  128-34.  Knisch,  A. — Hydrophiliden-studien.  Ill,  1922,  A,  5, 
87-126.  Hugoscottia,  eine  neue  Helocharengattung.  (Hydrophili- 
dae.)  124,  ii,  89-91.  Leng  &  Mutchler — The  Lycidae,  Lampyridae 
and  Cantharidae  of  the  West  Indies.  62,  xlvi,  413-99.  Marshall, 
G.  A.  K. — On  new  genera  and  species  of  Neotropical  Curculionidae. 
36,  1922,  181-224.  Moreira,  C.— Coleopteres  Passalides  du  Brasil. 
24,  xc,  255-94.  Mutchler  &  Weiss — Wood-boring  beetles  of  the 
genus  Agrilus  known  to  occur  in  New  Jersey.  (N.  J.  Dep.  Agr., 
Circ.  48.)  Pic,  M. — Coleopteres  exotiques  nouveaux.  20,  1922, 
169-70.  Weise,  J. — Coleoptera  e  collections  Bruchiana.  106,  xciv, 

Fall,  H.  C. — New  species  of  N.  Am.  Acmaeoderae.  19,  xvii,  88-90. 
Voss,  E. — Monographische  bearbeitung  der  unterfamilie  Rhynchiti- 
nae.  Ill,  1922,  A,  58,  1-113.  Wolcott,  A.  B—  A  new  sp.  of  Helodes. 
19,  xvii,  94. 

HYMENOPTERA.  Beutenmuller,  W.— Note  on  Rhodites.  19, 
xvii,  45.  Bruch,  C. — Regimen  de  alimentacion  dc  algunas  hormigas 
cultivadoras  de  bongos.  96,  v,  307-11.  Brues,  C.  T. — Some  hymen- 
opterous  parasites  of  lignicolous  Itonididae.  (Proc.  Am.  Ac.  Arts 
&  Sc.,  Ivii,  263-88.)  Cockerell,  T.  D.  A. — Some  Canadian  bees.  4, 
liv,  143-4.  An  ancient  wasp.  76,  ex,  313.  Folsom,  J.  W. — Pollina- 
tion of  red  clover  by  Tetralonia  and  Melissodes.  7,  xv,  181-84. 
Prison,  T.  H. — Notes  on  the  life  history,  parasites  and  inquiline 
associates  of  Anthophora  abrupta,  with  some  comparisons  with  the 
habits  of  certain  other  Anthophorinae.  2,  xlviii,  137-56.  Gallardo, 
A. — Las  hormigas  de  la  Republica  Argentina.  Subfamilia  Poneri- 
nas  &  Dorilinas.  97,  xxx,  1-112;  281-410.  Una  nueva  Prodorilina, 
Acanthostichus  afflictusy''  Hormigas  del  Neuquen  y  Rio  Negro.  97, 
xxx,  237-242;  243-54.  Lichtenstein  et  Rabaud — Le  comportement 
des  "Polysphincta"  ichneumonides  parasites  des  araignees.  (Bui. 
Biol.  France  et  Belg.,  Iv,  267-87.)  Santschi,  F. — Camponotus  neo- 
tropiques.  33,  Ixii,  97-124.  Savin,  W.  M. — Wasps  that  hunt  spiders. 
Observations  on  Sceliphon  and  Chalybion.  (Nat.  Hist.,  New  York, 
xxii,  327-32.) 

Cockerell,  T.  D.  A. — Descriptions  and  records  of  bees.  11,  x, 
265-9.  Kinsey,  A.  C. — Studies  of  some  new  and  described  Cynipidae. 
Varieties  of  a  rose  gall  wasp  (with  K.  E.  Ayres).  (Indiana  Univ. 
Studies,  ix,  3-142;  142-62.)  Muesebeck,  C.  F.  W. — A  revision  of  the 
N.  A.  ichneumon-flies  belonging  to  the  subfamilies  Neoneurinae  and 
Microgasterinae.  50,  Ixi,  Art.  15. 


We  are  indebted,  in  the  first  instance,  to  Dr.  L.  O.  Howard, 
for  the  sad  news  of  the  death  of  DR.  D,\vm  SHARP,  which 
occurred  at  Brockenhurst  on  Au^usl  27.  .\  notice  of  his  life 
and  work  will  appear  in  a  later  number  of  the  NEWS. 


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exotic  Coleoptera,  rarities  and  unnamed  series.  Also  the  most  important 
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Rhopalocera  and  Heterocera  of  the  North  Argentine. 

Good  species  and  first-class  specimens,  write  to 

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References  by  Mr.  B.  Preston  Clark,  Boston,  Massachusetts,  Kilby  Street  55. 

Volume  XIV,  No.  1,  Entomological  News 

Wanted  to  complete  set.     Communicate  with  the  Librarian  cf 

Eastern  Parkway,  Brooklyn,  N.  V. 


From  Colombia,  South  America:  _ 

Morpho  cypris  Morpho  amathonte 

sulkowskyi  Caligo  spp. 

From  Cuba: 

Papilio  columbus  Urania  boisduvali 

andraemori  Erinyis  guttalaris 

celadon  Protoparce  brontes,  etc. 

^L      devilliersi 

From  Venezuela:  From  New  Guinea 

Over  5000  Lepidoptera  2000  Coleoptera 

200  Dynastes  hercules  200  Orthoptera 

From  Assam,  India: 

Papilio  arcturus  Kallima  inachis 

philoxenus  Brahmaea  wallachi 

And  Many  Other  Showy  Species 

From  Tibet  (Bhutan) : 
Arrnandia  lidderdalii  Parnassius  hardwicki 



If  interested  kindly  send  your  list 
of  desiderata  for  further  information  to 


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DECEMBER,  1922 



No.  10 


PHILIP  P.  CALVERT,   Ph.   D.,   Editor. 

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Plate  XI. 







VOL.  XXXIII  DECEMBER,  1922  No.  10 


Martin— Studies  in  the  Genus  Hetae- 
rius  (Col.,  Histeridae) 289 

Malloch — Notes  on  two  Acalyptrate 
Diptera 293 

Brimley — List  of  the  Robberflies  ( Asili- 
dae,  Diptera)  of  North  Carolina...  294 

Schmieder — The  Tracheation  of  the 
Wings  of  Early  Larval  Instars  of 
Odonata  Anisoptera,  with  Special 
Reference  to  the  Development  of 
the  Radius 299 

Champlain  and   Knull — A  New  Typo- 

Shoemaker  and  Davis — The  Moth  Na- 
cophora  quernaria  var.  atrescens 
(Lep.:  Geometridae) 310 

Editorial — "  He  Helped  Me  When  No 
Others  Volunteered  " 311 

The  University  of  Michigan-William- 
son Expedition  to  Brazil 312 

Entomological  Literature 312 

Review  of  Jordan  and  Rothchild's  Ec- 
parasites 316 

Di'ings  of  Societies — Ent  Sec.,  Acad. 
Nat.  Sci.  Phil.  (Col.,  Orth.,  Dipt., 

cerus  (Coleoptera,  Cerambycidae)  304    ;  Lepid.) 317 

Coolidge — The  Life  History  of  Lero- 
dea  eufala  Edwards  (  Lepidoptera, 
Hesperiidae) 305 

Davis — Old  Time  Economic  Entomo- 
logy on  Staten  Island,  New  York..  310 

Obituaries— Dr.  David  Sharp 318 

Hamilton  H.  C.  J.  Druce..  320 
Edward  Louis  Graef 320 

Studies  in  the  Genus  Hetaerius  (Col.,  Histeridae). 

By  J.  O.  MARTIN,  Berkeley,  California. 

(Continued  from  page  277) 

Hetaerius  setosus  n.  sp. 

Form  broadly  quadrate  oval.     Color  ferruginous.     Punctate  and  setose. 

Head  but  slightly  concave  at  vertex,  which  is  evenly,  moderately 
punctate,  each  puncture  bearing  a  long  bristle-like  seta ;  front  impunc- 
tate,  shining,  minutely  rugose ;  labruin  smooth  shining. 

Prothorax  twice  as  wide  as  long ;  minutely  rugose  except  in  the 
oblique  depression  which,  is  smooth  and  impunctate ;  disc  evenly,  mod- 
erately punctate  and  setose,  the  setae  long,  recurved  and  tapering  to  a 
sharp  point,  minutely  plumose  along  cephalic  margin.  Lateral  areas  more 
closely  punctured  and  setose,  these  setae  becoming  coarser,  longer  and 
more  evidently  plumose  at  the  outer  edge ;  sides  evenly  rounded  from 
transverse  sulcus  to  apex ;  inner  carina  of  the  oblique  sulcus  bends 
sharply  inward  opposite  the  transverse  sulcus,  by  this  separation  pro- 
ducing a  deep  triangular  depression  opposite  the  bulla  and  narrowing 
the  oblique  depression  at  this  point.  Bulla  smooth  shining  on  inner  half, 
outer  portion  punctate  and  bordered  by  coarser  and  longer  plumose 

Elytra   shining   and   minutely    rugose;    space   between   the   first   dorsal 


290  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  f  Dec.,  '22 

stria  and  the  elytral  suture  evenly,  moderately  punctate  with  setae  similar 
to  those  on  disc  of  thorax ;  punctures  without  regular  arrangement ; 
each  stria  has  along  its  raised  edge  a  row  of  setigerous  punctures 
slightly  closer  together  than  those  on  the  disc ;  parallel  to  this  is 
another  single  row  of  setigerous  punctures  more  widely  spaced.  First 
dorsal  stria  reaches  but  one-half  the  distance  to  apex  ;  remaining  striae 
extend  to  apex. 

Pygidium   and    propygidium   evenly,    moderately,   punctate   and    setose. 

Prosternum  finely  punctate  and  rugose  but  lacking  setae ;  bordered 
area  contracted  between  the  coxae,  thence  gradually  separating  to  one- 
half  the  length  of  the  prosternum  where  they  merge  into  the  prosternal 
surface,  leaving  the  cephalic  end  of  the  margined  area  open.  Cephalic 
end  of  prosternum  emarginate ;  immediately  caudad  of  the  emargination 
there  is  a  slight  indentation  in  the  raised  portion.  Meso-  and  mcta- 
sternum  punctate  and  hairy.  Legs  evenly  and  moderately  punctate  on 
the  outer  surface,  setae  shorter  than  those  on  upper  surface  of  body. 
Length  2  mm.;  width  1.5  mm. 

Described  from  a  series  of  nine  specimens  taken  at  North 
Fork,  California,  in  the  nests  of  Formica  plicicornisf  Type  in 
my  collection,  paratypes  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Henry  Dietrich 
who  collected  the  species. 

Hetaerius  nudus  n.  sp. 

Of  the  same  form  as  sctosus,  which  it  resembles  in  many  respects  ; 
it  has  more  yellow  in  the  body  color  and  is  noticeably  less  convex. 

Vertex  of  head  flat,  evenly,  moderately  punctate,  punctures  with 
short,  squamose,  recumbent  hairs ;  front  impressed,  finely  rugose,  im- 
punctate ;  labrum  finely  rugose,  shining. 

Prothoracic  disc  evenly,  moderately,  punctured  with  minute,  short 
recumbent  hairs  jn  each  puncture;  basal  end  of  oblique  depression  broad; 
lateral  areas  finely  rugose,  marked  with  a  series  of  slightly  raised  lines 
extending  from  transverse  sulcus  to  the  apex ;  between  these  lines  are 
single  rows  of  punctures  bearing  the  same  type  of  hairs  as  those  on  the 
disc ;  outer  margin  with  a  row  of  coarser,  curved  hairs  ;  inner  margin 
for  half  its  length,  beginning  at  transverse  sulcus,  with  a  single  row  of 
flattened,  recumbent  hairs ;  bulla  finely  rugose  on  outer  half,  which  is 
punctate  with  coarse,  squamose,  recumbent  hairs,  outer  margin  with 
hairs  like  those  on  margin  of  lateral  area,  inner  surface  finely  rugose, 
impunctate.  Carinae  of  the  oblique  sulcus  not  as  widely  separated  at 
base  as  in  sctosus.  Outer  margin  of  lateral  area  while  rounded  shows 
a  slight  tendency  to  angulation  at  one-third  the  distance  from  apex 
to  transverse  sulcus. 

Elytra  evenly,  moderately  punctured  and  with  the  same  minute, 
recumbent  hairs  as  those  on  the  prothoracic  disc ;  the  first  and  second 
dorsal  striae  of  same  length  and  not  quite  reaching  to  apical  margin. 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  291 

Prosternum  of  the  same  type  as  in  sctosus  but  with  the  margined 
area  narrower  and  the  general  surface  less  convex;  cephalic  margin 
more  deeply  emarginate  and  with  a  more  pronounced  prosternal  pit. 

Pygidium  and  propygidium  evenly,  moderately  punctured  and  with 
the  same  type  of  hairs  as  on  upper  side  of  body.  Legs  on  outer  surface 
and  remainder  of  under  surface  the  same.  Length  2  mm.;  width  1.5  mm. 

Described  from  five  specimens  taken  by  Mr.  Henry  Dietrich 
at  North  Fork,  California,  in  the  nests  of  Formica  plicicornis? 
Type  in  my  collection,  paratypes  in  that  of  Mr.  Henry  Dietrich. 

This  species  while  close  to  setosns  is  distinct  in  the  characters 
given  above.  The  hairs  are  so  minute  as  to  give  it  a  naked 
appearance  when  compared  with  that  species. 

Hetaerius  dietrichi  n.  sp. 

Form  quadrate  oval ;  ratio  of  extreme  length  to  width  as  seven  and 
a  half  to  five  plus;  color  ferruginous. 

Head  at  vertex  nearly  flat,  where  it  is  coarsely  punctate  and  rugose ; 
punctures  with  squamose,  suberect  hairs,  a  few  of  which  near  thorax 
are  twice  as  long  as  the  others,  all  being  plumose ;  front  and  labrum 
punctate  and  rugose,  shining. 

Thorax  less  than  twice  as  broad  as  long ;  discal  area  smooth,  shining, 
thickly  punctate  in  front,  but  becoming  less  so  at  base,  punctures  with 
short,  small,  yellow  hairs ;  lateral  area  more  coarsely  punctured,  hairs 
of  the  same  type  as  on  the  disc;  bulla  slightly  smaller  in  proportion 
to  lateral  area  than  usual ;  transverse  sulcus  broad  and  shallow,  be- 
coming more  narrow  toward  the  oblique  sulcus ;  outer  half  of  bulla 
coarsely  punctate  and  hairy. 

Elytra  smooth,  shining,  finely  punctured,  punctures  with  short  minute 
hairs  ;  first  and  second  dorsal  striae  reaching  three-fourths  the  distance 
to  apex. 

Pygidium  and  propygidium  shining,  minutely  rugose  and  very  finely 
punctate  with  minute  hairs  in  the  punctures. 

Prosternum  closely  punctate  and  rugose  with  short  minute  hairs  in 
the  punctures ;  margined  area  with  carinae  convergent  between  the 
coxae,  thence  divergent  to  less  than  half  the  length  of  prosternum,  where 
they  converge  toward  a  common  point,  in  some  cases  very  nearly  meet- 
ing but  in  the  majority  of  cases  well  separated,  leaving  margined  area 
open  in  front.  Meso-  and  metasternum  shining,  less  closely  punctured 
than  prosternum,  punctures  with  short,  minute  hairs.  Outside  of  legs 
sparsely  punctate,  the  accompanying  hairs  coarser  and  evidently  plumose. 
Length  1.5  mm.;  width  1.25  mm. 

Described  from  six  examples  taken  by  Mr.  Henry  Dietrich 
at  Dalton  Creek.  Fresno  County,  California.  .T  have  also  a 
single  example  which  I  am  unable  to  separate  from  the  above 

292  ENTOMOLOGICAL   NEWS  [Dec.,  '22 

which  was  found  by  Mr.  E.  R.  Leach  of  Piedmont,  California, 
floating  in  an  irrigation  ditch  in  Nevada  County,  California. 
Type  in  my  collection,  paratypes  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Henry 

This  small  species  varies  in  amount  of  vestiture,  one  speci- 
men being  almost  without  hairs,  the  type  being  a  fair  average. 
It  also  varies  in  the  distance  apart  of  the  cephalic  ends  of 
the  carinae  enclosing  the  margined  area  of  the  prosternum ; 
I  have  seen  no  case  where  they  actually  meet,  but  in  two 
instances  they  very  nearly  do. 

Table   to   the   Species   of  Heiacrlus.\ 
Prosternum   subcylindrical. 

Posterior  femora  over  three  times  as  long  as  wide. 

Pygidium  and  propygidium  with  the  punctures  separated  by  a 

space  equal  to  the  diameter  of  a  puncture....!,  morsus  Lee. 

Pygidium  and  propygidium   with   the  punctures  contiguous  and 

coarser   than   the   above 2.   strenuus    Fall 

Posterior  femora  about  two  and  one-half  times  as  long  as  wide. 
Pygidium  without  hairs,  propygidium   with  hairs. 
Centre  of  thoracic  discal  area  punctate  and  hairy, 

3.  tristriatus  Horn. 
Centre    of    thoracic    discal    area    finely    punctate    and    without 

hairs    .  _. 4.  hirsutus   Mart. 

Pygidium  and  propygidium  both  with  hairs. 

Outer  surface  of  legs  moderately  clothed  with  long,  pointed, 

plumose  hairs    5.  williamsi  Mart. 

Outer    surface    of    legs    moderately    punctate,    femora    without 

hairs,   tibia  with   small  pointed  hairs 6.   zelus   Fall 

Outer  surface  of  legs  moderately,  closely  punctate  with  minute 

blunt  hairs    7.  blanchardi   Lee. 

Pygidium  and   propygidium  both   hairless 8.   horni  Wickh. 

Prosternum  depressed. 

Prosternal  margined  area  closed  in  front  by  a  coalescence  of  the 
margining  carinae. 

Carinae   of  the   margined   area   converging   to   a    rounded   point, 
slightly  sinuate  before  meeting. 

Upper    surface     of     body     sparsely     punctate    with    suberect, 

squamose  hairs   9.  minimus  Fall 

Upper    surface    of   body    closely   punctate    with    long,    pilose 
hairs    10.   pilosus   Mart. 

fl  am  unable  to  find  any  record  of  the  capture  of  Hetaerius  hclcna,- 
Mann  in  the  United  States  and  see  no  reason  for  its  inclusion  in  Leng's 

xxxiii,  '22]  ENTOMOLOGICAL  NEWS  293 

Carinae   of  the   margined   area   closing   with   a   rounded   arch    in 
With  a  few  scattered  hairs  on  disc  of  thorax  and  elytra, 

11.  brunneipennis  Rand 
\Yith    numerous    long,    pointed    hairs    on    disc    of    thorax    and 

elytra    12.   californicus    Horn 

Without  hairs,  but  with  evident  punctures  on   disc  of  thorax, 

elytra  punctate  with  a  few  hairs 13.  exiguus  Mann 

Prosternal  margined  area  with  carinae  not  meeting  in  front. 

Carinae     beyond     intercoxal      convergence,     divergent      to      their 
cephalic  ends,  leaving  margined  area  widely  open  in  front. 
Pygidium   and   propygidium   sparsely  punctate   with   long, 

pointed  hairs   14.  setosus  n.  sp. 

Pygidium  and  propygidium  without  long  hairs. 

Pygidium   and    propygidium    with    minute,    squamose, 

recumbent   hairs    15.   nudus   n.   sp. 

Pygidium  and  propygidium  without  evident  hairs, 

16.   wheeleri    Mann 

Carinae    of    the    margined    area    converging    at    apex,    but    not 
Disc   of   thorax   with   short,   minute,   sparse   hairs, 

17.  dietrichi  n.  sp. 
Disc  of  thorax  with  long,  pilose  hairs 18.  vandykei  n.  sp. 

In  concluding  I  wish  to  extend  thanks  to  Mr.  H.  C.  Fall, 
who  examined  for  me  the  types  of  morsus  Lee.  and  hclcnae 
Mann;  also  to  Dr.  E.  C.  Van  Dyke,  who  kindly  loaned  me  all 
of  his  material  in  this  genus.  I  am  also  indebted  to  Mr. 
Henry  Dietrich  for  the  loan  of  his  material,  including  three 
new  forms.  Prof.  H.  F.  Wickham  also  sent  his  specimens 
which  included  a  number  that  I  had  not  seen. 

Notes  on  two  Acalyptrate  Diptera. 

In  1913  (Jour.  X.  Y.  Ent.  Soc.  vol.  21.  p.  204)  Dr.  A.  L.  Melander 
described  M  mnctopin  iiitcns,  distinguishing  it  from  tcniiinalis  Low,-  '>v 
its  partly  black  face  and  parts  of  the  head-  This  form  is  ineivly  the 
male  of  tcnninalis.  which  has  tin-  head  and  its  parts  yellow  or  whitish. 

In  the  same  paper  he  recorded  (Vnn^<>;//</  /r;;:r>n;/;'\  MeiLjen  from  the 
\vest,  an  error  which  I  avoided  in  my  paper  on  the  family  which  ap- 
peared at  the  same  time.  My  view  has  since  been  o  >n  firmed  by  Dr. 
Aldrich  in  print.  This  year  I  took  one  specimen  of  the  true  fitl-i'ipcs 
Meigen  (femoralis  Meigen)  at  Glen  Kcho,  Maryland,  so  that  the  species 
really  does  occur  in  America  though  not  present  in  Melander's  material 
from  the  west.  Mendel  lias  recently  followed  Melander  in  recording 
fcuionilis  from  this  country,  the  record  being  based  upon  the  dark  form 
known  in  Europe  as  ih'iitici>niis  var.  nigroscutellata  Strohl  which  is 
common  in  the  extreme  west.  J.  1\.  M  \Moni,  Bureau  of  Biological 
Survey,  Washington,  D.  C. 

294  ENTOMOLOGICAL    NEWS  [Dec.,  '22 

List  of  the  Robberflies  (Asilidae,  Diptera)  of 
North  Carolina. 

By  C.  S.  BRIMLEY,  Entomological  Division,  N.  C.  Department 
of  Agriculture,  Raleigh,  N.  C. 

The  following  list  of  the  robberflies  of  North  Carolina  is 
based  on  the  records  of  this  department  which  have  been  gath- 
ered by  Mr.  Franklin  Sherman,  Chief  in  Entomology  since 
1900,  and  by  his  various  assistants.  The  initials  following  the 
records  are  those  of  Mr.  Sherman,  Messrs.  G.  M.  Bentley, 
S.  C.  Clapp,  J.  E.  Eckert,  R.  W.  Collett,  S.  W.  Foster,  V.  R. 
Haber,  C.  O.  Houghton,  R.  W.  Leiby,  W.  B.  A'labee,  C.  L. 
Metcalf,  T.  B.  Mitchell,  M.  R.  Smith,  R.  S.  Woglum,  and  my- 
self, his  assistants  at  various  periods,  also  of  Mr.  A.  H.  Manee, 
of  Southern  Pines,  N.  C..  and  Mr.  C.  W.  Johnson,  oi"  Boston, 
Mass.  The  Raleigh  records  are  not  as  a  rule  initialled. 


LEPTOGASTER  BADIUS  Loew.    Raleigh,  May  16,  1909;  June  30,  1921. 

LEPTOGASTER  BREVICORNIS  Loew.  Raleigh,  early  June,  1909 ;  May  30, 

LEPTOGASTER  INCISURALIS  Loew.  Southern  Pines,  late  August,  1912,